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Adapt OWL as a Modular Ontology Language

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Adapt OWL as a Modular Ontology Language

  1. 1. Adapt OWL as a Modular Ontology Language (A Position Paper) Jie Bao and Vasant Honavar Artificial Intelligence Research Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1040, USA. {baojie, honavar}@cs.iastate.edu
  2. 2. <ul><li>Why OWL has weak modularity ? </li></ul>
  3. 3. (Global) Semantics <ul><li>owl:imports allows only global semantics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For any OWL ontology O and an abstract OWL interpretation I of O , “ I satisfies each ontology mentioned in an owl:imports annotation directive of O &quot; (OWL Semantics and Abstract Syntax: Section 3. Direct Model-Theoretic Semantics) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No semantic modularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of support for localized semantics (loss of contexts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of support for partial reuse of ontology (all or nothing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>owl:imports = copy + paste </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. (Spaghetti) Syntax <ul><li>< owl:Class rdf:ID =&quot; Cat &quot;> </li></ul><ul><li>< rdfs:subClassOf > </li></ul><ul><li>< owl:Restriction > </li></ul><ul><li>< owl:onProperty > </li></ul><ul><li>< owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID =&quot; loves &quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li></ owl:onProperty > </li></ul><ul><li>< owl:someValuesFrom > </li></ul><ul><li>< owl:Class rdf:ID =&quot; Fish &quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li></ owl:someValuesFrom > </li></ul><ul><li></ owl:Restriction > </li></ul><ul><li></ rdfs:subClassOf > </li></ul><ul><li></ owl:Class > </li></ul><ul><li>< owl:Class rdf:ID =&quot; CatFish &quot;> </li></ul><ul><li>< rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource =&quot; #Fish &quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li></ owl:Class > </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Adapt OWL with strong modularity </li></ul>Old Bottle (Syntax, Disciplined) New Wine (Semantics, Localized)
  6. 6. Semantic Modularity <ul><li>Give owl:imports a new modular semantics </li></ul>x C I O 1 owl:imports 1:C 1:C O 2 Δ 1 Δ 2 <ul><li>Best backward tool compatibility: Jena Parser, Protégé... </li></ul><ul><li>Axioms are localized for free – “damage” from combination controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed reasoning supported [Bao etal, WI 2006] </li></ul>
  7. 7. Syntactical Modularity <ul><li><owl:Class rdf:ID=&quot; Cat &quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><rdfs:subClassOf> </li></ul><ul><li><owl:Restriction> </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li><owl:someValuesFrom> </li></ul><ul><li><owl:Class rdf:resource=&quot; #Fish &quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li></owl:someValuesFrom> </li></ul><ul><li></owl:Restriction> </li></ul><ul><li></rdfs:subClassOf> </li></ul><ul><li></owl:Class> </li></ul><ul><li>< owl:Class rdf:ID =&quot; Fish &quot;> </li></ul><ul><li>< owl:Class rdf:ID =&quot; CatFish &quot;> </li></ul><ul><li>< rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource =&quot; #Fish &quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li></ owl:Class > </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit declaration of names required </li></ul><ul><li>No nested declaration (unless for anonymous classes) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Related Work </li></ul>
  9. 9. Related Solutions – Semantic Aspect <ul><li>New Semantics: localized semantics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each ontology module has local interpretation domain . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DDL [Borgida and Serafini, CoopIS2002] , E-connections [Grau, Dissertation 2005] , P-DL [Bao et al, ISWC 2006], Semantic Importing [Pan et al, WoMo 2006] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep Old Semantics: localized axioms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axioms in ontologies only has local effects [Grau et al, KR2006, DL2006, IJCAI 2007] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the notion of conservative extension : ontologies can be combined without “damaging” each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global semantics (thus some owl:imports problems) remains </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Related Solutions – Syntactical Aspect <ul><li>New Syntax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C-OWL [Bouquet et al, ISWC 2003] E-Connections [Grau et al ISWC 2004] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology tools need updating: editors, parsers, reasoners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be modeled using (the redefined) owl:imports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep Old Syntax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locality and conservative extension [Grau and Kutz, Swecka 2007] </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
  12. 12. References <ul><li>Localized semantics school </li></ul><ul><li>A. Borgida and L. Serafini. Distributed description logics: Directed domain correspondences in federated information sources. InCoopIS/DOA/ODBASE, pages 36-53, 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Grau, B.C. Combination and Integration of Ontologies on the Semantic Web . PhD thesis, Dpto. de Informatica, Universitat de Valencia, Spain, 2005.Bao, J.; Caragea, D.; and Honavar, V. (2006) On the semantics of linking and importing in modular ontologies. In I. Cruz et al. (Eds.): ISWC 2006, LNCS 4273 . 72–86. </li></ul><ul><li>Bao, J.; Caragea, D.; and Honavar, V. (2006) On the semantics of linking and importing in modular ontologies. In I. Cruz et al. (Eds.): ISWC 2006, LNCS 4273 . 72–86. </li></ul><ul><li>Localized axioms school </li></ul><ul><li>Grau, B.C., Horrocks, I., Kazakov, Y., Sattler, U.: A logical framework for modular integration of ontologies. In: IJCAI. (2007) To Appear </li></ul><ul><li>Grau, B.C., Horrocks, I., Kutz, O., Sattler, U.: Will my ontologies fit together? In: Proc. of the 2006 Description Logic Workshop (DL 2006). Volume 189., </li></ul>

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