(Riboflavin) (lactoflavin)Vitamin B2 (lactoflavin)NNNHNMeMeOOCH2OH(HO-C-H)3CH2Ribose moietyVit B2 = RiboflavinIsoalloxazin...
VITAMIN B2 (Riboflavin)Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin, is an organic compound you can find inmany plant and animal p...
sources of vitamin B2Good sources of Riboflavininclude:dietary sources:Milk, cheese,oily fish,liver,kedney,heart,meat, fis...
• avocado• -banana• -dates• -grapes• -pomegranate• -artichoke• -asparagus• -broccoli• -peas• -sweet potatoesalmondsmilkpom...
chemistry:The structure of Riboflavin consists of6,7-dimethyl-isoalloxazine (heterocyclic threering system) to which a sug...
• Stable to heat, oxidation, and acid,riboflavin is somewhat soluble in water.• Light and alkali destroy it.• It should be...
• Physiological importance:• Riboflavin is the component of two flavin enzymes the flavinmononucleotide(FMN)and the flavin...
• Both the coenzymes function with a group of proteins known as theflavoproteins.• These flavoproteins due to their divers...
• Like the other B vitamins, it supports energy production by aiding in themetabolising of fats, carbohydrates, and protei...
SYNTHESIS OF RIBOFLAVINKuhn synthesis:
In alkaline solution of riboflavin,when irradiated yieldslumiflavin(6,7,9-trimethyl flavin).Reactions:when exposedto light...
Lumichrome(6,7- dimethyl alloxazine)isoalloxazineThe isoalloxazine is a tautomer of the alloxazine does not exist as suchb...
• VITAMIN B2 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS• Symptoms can include:• Cheilosis(fissues at the corners of the mouth and lips), swollen ...
• .• In animals riboflavin deficiencies cause alopecia, anemia, neuropathy, cornealvascularization (precataracts) and cong...
• function:• Riboflavin is involved with production of FMN and FAD, both of which are involvedin redox reactions.• Ribofla...
• Riboflavin is an integral component of the coenzymes that participate in manyenergy-yielding metabolic pathways.• ribofl...
• Along with iron, riboflavin is essential for producing the red blood cells that carryoxygen throughout the body.• In add...
• RDA recommends 1.7 mg for males and 1.3 mg for females• Vitamin B2 or riboflavin is important for body growth, reproduct...
Uses:It helps to convert food into energy.It is also needed to convert an amino acid called tryptophan into niacin.It work...
• .Riboflavin is believed to have an important function in the synthesis and transcription of DNA.Riboflavin participates ...
VITAMINB2[RIBOFLAVIN]  MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY,BY P.RAVISANKAR [SOURCES OF VITAMIN B2,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN B2,PHYSIOLOGICAL IM...
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VITAMINB2[RIBOFLAVIN] MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY,BY P.RAVISANKAR [SOURCES OF VITAMIN B2,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN B2,PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,SYNTHESIS OF RIBOFLAVIN,REACTIONS, VITAMIN B2 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS,FUNCTIONS,USES OF RIBOFLAVIN.

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VITAMINB2[RIBOFLAVIN] MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY,BY P.RAVISANKAR [SOURCES OF VITAMIN B2,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN B2,PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,SYNTHESIS OF RIBOFLAVIN,REACTIONS, VITAMIN B2 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS,FUNCTIONS,USES OF RIBOFLAVIN.
BY P.RAVISANKAR,VIGNAN PHARMACY COLLEGE, VADLAMUDI, GUNTUR, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA.

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine

VITAMINB2[RIBOFLAVIN] MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY,BY P.RAVISANKAR [SOURCES OF VITAMIN B2,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN B2,PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,SYNTHESIS OF RIBOFLAVIN,REACTIONS, VITAMIN B2 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS,FUNCTIONS,USES OF RIBOFLAVIN.

  1. 1. (Riboflavin) (lactoflavin)Vitamin B2 (lactoflavin)NNNHNMeMeOOCH2OH(HO-C-H)3CH2Ribose moietyVit B2 = RiboflavinIsoalloxazine moiety3Prof. RavisankarVignan Pharmacy collegeValdlamudiGuntur Dist.Andhra PradeshIndia.banuman35@gmail.com00919059994000
  2. 2. VITAMIN B2 (Riboflavin)Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin, is an organic compound you can find inmany plant and animal products.It is water soluble vitamin. It aids in the metabolism of your fats, carbohydrates,protein and ketone bodies.It is also important for your energy metabolismThe vitamin is water-soluble--your body cant store it--so you should be eatingfoods rich in vitamin B2 every day to maintain your bodys energy supply.VitaminB2 is destroyed by exposure to light, therefore foods with riboflavin shouldbe keep in dark or opaque containers.Vitamin B2 is closely related to the yellow water-soluble pigments known asflavines(isoalloxazines), and since it was first isolated from milk, vitamin B2 is alsoknown as lactoflavin.Riboflavin is a bright yellow powder,slight odour,bitter taste,slightly soluble inwater and alcohol but insoluble in acetone . It is heat stable with decompositionoccuring at 2800C.Riboflavin has a fluorescent property in aqueous solution which is yellow andshows and shows yellowish-green fluorescence has a λ-max 565nm.Thisproperty has been used as a means of determining riboflavin quantitatively.
  3. 3. sources of vitamin B2Good sources of Riboflavininclude:dietary sources:Milk, cheese,oily fish,liver,kedney,heart,meat, fish, eggs,cereal products,green leafy vegetables,whole grains, brewersyeast, wheat germ,almonds,sunflower seeds.dairy products,Red meats,bread,cashews,soybeans.millet,peppers,Sources of vitamin B2 (riboflavin)Sources of riboflavin include organ meats (liver, kidney, and heart)certain plants such as almonds, mushrooms, whole grain, soybeans.Flour and cereals are enriched with riboflavin.Riboflavin is stable when heated but will leach into cooking water.
  4. 4. • avocado• -banana• -dates• -grapes• -pomegranate• -artichoke• -asparagus• -broccoli• -peas• -sweet potatoesalmondsmilkpomegranatevegetables
  5. 5. chemistry:The structure of Riboflavin consists of6,7-dimethyl-isoalloxazine (heterocyclic threering system) to which a sugar alcohol group calledribitoyl group is attached at 9thposition.Ureaβ-ketocarboxylic acid
  6. 6. • Stable to heat, oxidation, and acid,riboflavin is somewhat soluble in water.• Light and alkali destroy it.• It should be noted that bottled milk(which has a relatively large amount ofvitamin B2), loses a significant amount ofvitamin B2 if it is left in the sunlight.
  7. 7. • Physiological importance:• Riboflavin is the component of two flavin enzymes the flavinmononucleotide(FMN)and the flavin adenine dinucleotide.Both these flavin enzymes take part in various oxidation-reduction reactions.The oxidized flavines are yellow in colour while upon reduction (one hydrogenatom at 1 and other at 10 positions acquisition occurs) and they becomecolourless.NNNN OHOH3CH3CNNNN OHOH3CH3CHHFAD (oxidized form) FADH2 (reduced form)hydrogen additionoccurs in 2 steps(FMN or FAD) (FMNH2 or FADH2)2H+-2H+This reaction can also proceed in the reverse direction.110
  8. 8. • Both the coenzymes function with a group of proteins known as theflavoproteins.• These flavoproteins due to their diverse nature can act asoxidases,dehydrogenases,hydroxylases,oxidative decorboxylases.-Riboflavin and its coenzymes are also involved in- Growth and tissue respiration- Light adaptation.-Conversion of pyridoxine to pyridoxal phosphate.-cellular metabolism.-Enzymatic oxidation of glucose,amino acids,fatty acids,purines etc.Riboflavin or vitamin B2 is an essential nutrient in human nutrition and plays akey role in the production of energy.• Vitamin B2 is needed to process amino acids and fats, activate vitamin B6 andfolic acid, and help convert carbohydrates into the fuel the body runs on.Under some conditions, vitamin B2 can act as an antioxidant.• Vitamin B2 is an intermediary the transfer of electrons in the cellularoxidation-reduction reactions which generate energy from protein,carbohydrate and fat.
  9. 9. • Like the other B vitamins, it supports energy production by aiding in themetabolising of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. Vitamin B2 is alsorequired for red blood cell formation and respiration, antibody production,and for regulating human growth and reproduction. It is essential for healthyskin, nails, hair growth and general good health, including regulating thyroidactivity.• The riboflavin coenzymes are also important for the transformation ofvitamin B6 and folic acid into their respective active forms, and for theconversion of tryptophan into niacin.• Riboflavin is involved in energy production as part of the electron transportchain that produces cellular energy.• Adverse effects:Riboflavin does not cause any adverse effects.Infact excess of riboflavin therapy increases the urine colour to bright yellow(flavinuria)which is harmless.
  10. 10. SYNTHESIS OF RIBOFLAVINKuhn synthesis:
  11. 11. In alkaline solution of riboflavin,when irradiated yieldslumiflavin(6,7,9-trimethyl flavin).Reactions:when exposedto light.in NaOH solutionforms...Exposure of neutral solutionof lactoflavin to light to producelumichrome.The lumichrome is lumilactoflavin with ahydrogen atom imstead of a methyl group at position9.
  12. 12. Lumichrome(6,7- dimethyl alloxazine)isoalloxazineThe isoalloxazine is a tautomer of the alloxazine does not exist as suchbut this structure is fixed when there is a substitution at position 9.Alloxazine.
  13. 13. • VITAMIN B2 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS• Symptoms can include:• Cheilosis(fissues at the corners of the mouth and lips), swollen tongueor gums.Seborrhoeic dermatitis (secretion of sebum),glossitis(inflammation oftongue)lacrimation, patients suffering from pellagra and beriberi also suffringfrom ariboflavinosis.(it is a vitamin B2 deficiency characterized by agroup of symptoms and almost symptoms of other vitamin B-complexvitamins.Inflammationmouth,pharynx,throat,keratitis,anaemia,neuropathy,photophobia,general weakness and growth reduction.Cracked skin especially around the mouth, Scaly red skin on the sidesof the nose, Sensitivity to bright lights, Insomnia, Conjunctivitis,Bloodshot/sore eyes (itchy eyes)Chronic fatigue.
  14. 14. • .• In animals riboflavin deficiencies cause alopecia, anemia, neuropathy, cornealvascularization (precataracts) and congenital malformations.Some of the symptoms of deficiency of riboflavin are, cracked lips,cracked corners of mouth, sores in the mouth, general debility, fatigue,sore tongue and sore throat, eye fatigue, light sensitivity, inflamedmucous membrane, dry and scaly skin and iron-deficiency anaemia..Cracked corners of the mouth.(Cheilosis)
  15. 15. • function:• Riboflavin is involved with production of FMN and FAD, both of which are involvedin redox reactions.• Riboflavin causes the activation of vitamin B6.• Riboflavin is involved in the conversion of tryptophan to niacin.• Riboflavin is involved in the conversion of folate to its coenzymes.• Riboflavin aids in Beta oxidation in fat metabolism.• Riboflavin is involved as a coenzyme component of the dehydrogenases in the firststep in glucose metabolism.• Riboflavin is needed for the production of corticosteroids; erythropoiesis;gluconeogenesis; and thyroid enzyme regulation.• The functions of the B2 Vitamin are to aid in the metabolism of fats, proteins andcarbs, healthy skin, nails, and hair growth, convert your carbs into energy and tissuerespiration. These are all essential for a healthy body.• There are also many benefits of this vitamin as well. It actually neutralizes the freeradicals in your body and can help prevent heart disease and cancer. It also helps tokeep the mucous membranes in your body healthy including those in your mouth.And, believe it or not, it also aids in the prevention of headaches, vision problemsand even cataracts• In the prevention and treatment of ariboflavinosis.(this deficiency can be treated withan oral daily dose of 3-10mg.A recent investigation has found that it is effective in treating migraine..
  16. 16. • Riboflavin is an integral component of the coenzymes that participate in manyenergy-yielding metabolic pathways.• riboflavin plays a crucial role in certain metabolic reactions, particularly theconversion of carbohydrates into sugar, which is "burned" to produce energy.They promote the first steps in the metabolism (breakdown and production) ofglucose and of fatty acids.• The metabolism of some vitamins and minerals also require riboflavin.• Riboflavin is essential for tissue respiration and the generation of energy fromthe carbohydrates, acids and fats.• It is important for body growth and red blood cell production and helps inreleasing energy from carbohydrates.• Vitamin B2 helps prevent and is used to treat migraine headaches, cataracts,rheumatoid arthritis, and a number of skin disorders such as acne (acnerosacea), dermatitis, and eczema.• In the treatment of anemia, adding Vitamin B2 to iron supplements has shownto increase its effectiveness.• Vital to maintaining a proper metabolism, riboflavin also helps to shore up theimmune system by reinforcing antibody reserves, the bodys first line ofdefense against infection.•
  17. 17. • Along with iron, riboflavin is essential for producing the red blood cells that carryoxygen throughout the body.• In addition, the body uses extra riboflavin to keep tissue in good repair and speedhealing of wounds, burns and other injuries.• Along with such B vitamins as vitamin B6 and niacin (which it helps the body convertinto active forms), riboflavin protects the nervous system.• It may therefore have a role to play in treating nervous system conditions suchas numbness and tingling, Alzheimers disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis,and even anxiety, stress, and fatigue. Carpal tunnel syndrome may benefit from atreatment program including this vitamin when combined with vitamin B6.• The body needs vitamin B2 for reproduction and it also enhances the immunesystems ability to fight disease.• .Riboflavin is vital for normal reproduction, growth, repair and development ofbody tissues including the skin, hair, nails, connective tissue and immunesystem.• Riboflavin (vitamin B2) works with the other B vitamins. Dietary and supplementalvitamin B2, along with other nutrients is important for normal vision and preventionof cataracts.• Riboflavins ability to improve the skins secretion of mucus may aid in clearing upskin pustules associated with rosacea.riboflavin facilitates absorption of iron from foods, mobilization of iron throughout thebody, and retention and utilization of iron within the body.
  18. 18. • RDA recommends 1.7 mg for males and 1.3 mg for females• Vitamin B2 or riboflavin is important for body growth, reproduction and redcell production.It also helps in releasing energy from carbohydrates. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)Vitamin B2 helps turn fats, sugars and protein into energy.• Vitamin B2 is needed to repair and maintain healthy skin, inside and out, ithelps to regulate body acidity and is important for optimun health of hair nailsand eyes.• Vitamin B2 is a water-soluble Vitamin needed to process amino acids and fats,activate Vitamin B6 and folic acid, and help convert carbohydrates into the fuelthat the body runs on—adenosine triphosphate (ATP).USESOF RIBOFLAVIN
  19. 19. Uses:It helps to convert food into energy.It is also needed to convert an amino acid called tryptophan into niacin.It works closely with other B vitamins.It helps make red blood cells and it keeps body tissues healthy, especially the skinand eyes.It is key to healthy growth and development.It helps the body make and control certain hormones.Acne rosacea, anemia (rare), athletic performance, cataracts, depression, migraineheadaches.Acts as a coenzyme in converting, proteins, fats and carbohydrates into energy,Helps to counteract free radical damage, Aids vision and prevents cataractformation, Maintains the integrity of mucous membrane, Promotes skin, hair andnail health, Activates vitamin B6, protects against anaemia, Helps in theprevention of migraine headaches.It helps the normal functioning of the digestive system
  20. 20. • .Riboflavin is believed to have an important function in the synthesis and transcription of DNA.Riboflavin participates in redox (oxidation-reduction) reactions to metabolise fats, proteins andcarbohydrates to produce energy.Riboflavin is one of the coenzymes responsible for the energy release in mitochondria fromthe fatty acids and glucose.Riboflavin also helps in the metabolism of toxins and drugs and protects the body from theirharmful effects.In various ways vitamin B2 functions as an antioxidant neutralising the free radicals andprotects the body from their ill-effects.Riboflavin helps in the growth and maintenance of red blood cells. It also supports the healthof white blood cells, which are responsible for immunity and protection from antigens.Many biochemical processes are brought about by the vitamin B2.Pantothenic acid and folate are converted into neurotransmitters by riboflavin for cognizanceand memory.High serum levels of riboflavin are found to connect to excellent performances in memory tests.Riboflavin is found to alleviate the conditions responsible for migraine.Vitamin B2 is found to be important for the healthy eyes and also may help in prevention ofcataracts.Riboflavin keeps the mucous membrane healthy and its role in the health of hair, nails andskin is well-known.

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