FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINSFAT SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN DVITAMIN D
bone developmentbone developmentSunshine vitamin (vitamin D)McCollum and his associates (1922) establishedThat the anti-ra...
► Vitamin D represents a group of fat- soluble vitamins areVitamin D represents a group of fat- soluble vitamins arestruct...
Chemical name Abbreviation Generic nameVitamin D2 D2 ergocalciferolVitamin D3 D3Cholecalciferol25-hydroxyvitaminD325(OH)D3...
German researcher Adolf Windaus first discovered 3 forms of vitaminD, which he called D1, D2, and D3.It was later learned ...
Chemistry of vitamin D:Chemistry of vitamin D:Vitamin D is a generic term and indicates a molecule of the general structur...
► Vitamin DVitamin D33 can be produced photochemically by the actioncan be produced photochemically by the actionof sunlig...
Infact Vitamin D1 is containing molecular compound of lumisterol and D2in 1:1 ratio.LumisterolVitamin D1= Lumisterol + Vit...
Important structures of vitamin DImportant structures of vitamin DErgocalciferolCholecalciferolVitamin D5C2H5Sitocalcifero...
Vitamin D - SourcesVitamin D - Sources► Not found naturally in many foodsNot found naturally in many foods► Synthesized in...
► Vitamin D is naturally produced by the human body whenVitamin D is naturally produced by the human body whenexposed to d...
Eggs are Rich in Vitamin DMushroomsSUNSUNMILKCereals
►** InfantsInfants andand childrenchildren:: 55 micrograms (200 IU)micrograms (200 IU)** TeenagersTeenagers:: 55 microgram...
► VITAMIN D deficiencyVITAMIN D deficiencyoccurs in ---occurs in ---Strict vegetarians.Strict vegetarians.Chronic alcoholi...
Vitamin D2Ergocalciferol
Mechanism of actionMechanism of action► The consumed or biosynthesized vitamin D is converted to its active formThe consum...
910CalcidiolCalcitriol (calcitrolenters theintestine)Mechanism:
How your body makes vitamin DActive vitaminVitamin DVitamin DPrecursorIn yoyr skinCholecalciferolCalcitriol(25 hydroxylase...
Formation of Vitamin DFormation of Vitamin D► Skin (UV light)Skin (UV light) 7-dehydro cholesterol7-dehydro cholesterol →...
Vitamin D - FunctionsVitamin D - Functions► FunctionsFunctions Bone developmentBone development► Calcium absorption (smal...
Vitamin D FunctionsVitamin D Functions
Groff & Gropper, 2000Vitamin D Affects AbsorptionVitamin D Affects Absorptionof Dietary Caof Dietary Ca► 1,25-(OH)1,25-(OH...
Vitamin D Affects Absorption ofVitamin D Affects Absorption ofDietary PhosphorusDietary Phosphorus►1,25-(OH)1,25-(OH)22 DD...
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)► Calcium-sensor protein in theCalcium-sensor protein in thethyroid glan...
Bone MetabolismBone Metabolism► OsteoOsteocclastslasts Break down boneBreak down bone► Calcium resorptionCalcium resorpti...
Vitamin D - DeficiencyVitamin D - Deficiency► Young animalsYoung animals RicketsRickets► Failure of bones to grow properl...
Vitamin D Deficiency - Rickets
►Nineteen-year-old Shao Ling strugglesNineteen-year-old Shao Ling struggleswith rickets, which has kept her heightwith ric...
Rickets in wrist - uncalcified lowerends of bones are porous, ragged,and saucer-shaped(A) Rickets in 3 month old infant(B)...
► Disruption in any part ofDisruption in any part ofthe vitamin Dthe vitamin Dphysiological pathway canphysiological pathw...
Typical stance of calf with rickets
Rachitic vs. normal chickRickets due to deficiency of vitamin D, Ca, or P
Rickets in chicken - note extremely soft beak
OsteomalaciaNormal pelvis
Physiological role /importance of vitamin DPhysiological role /importance of vitamin D► Vitamin D is well known as a hormo...
► ON BONES: The active form of vitaminD increases the doposition ofON BONES: The active form of vitaminD increases the dop...
Adverse /toxic effects of vitaminDAdverse /toxic effects of vitaminD► Vitamin D toxicity:Vitamin D toxicity: Excessive exp...
Uses of vitamin DUses of vitamin D► Vitamin D is more than just a vitamin: it is also a hormone. Research in theVitamin D ...
► Benefits Of Vitamin D Is That It Improves DigestionBenefits Of Vitamin D Is That It Improves DigestionExposure to UV pre...
““take vitamin D and achieve a greater state of health."take vitamin D and achieve a greater state of health."Bones, Bones...
VITAMIN D[ SUNSHINE VITAMIN] MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY BY P. RAVISANKAR, CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN D ,STRUCTURES OF VITAMIN D1,D2,D3,...
VITAMIN D[ SUNSHINE VITAMIN] MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY BY P. RAVISANKAR, CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN D ,STRUCTURES OF VITAMIN D1,D2,D3,...
VITAMIN D[ SUNSHINE VITAMIN] MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY BY P. RAVISANKAR, CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN D ,STRUCTURES OF VITAMIN D1,D2,D3,...
VITAMIN D[ SUNSHINE VITAMIN] MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY BY P. RAVISANKAR, CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN D ,STRUCTURES OF VITAMIN D1,D2,D3,...
VITAMIN D[ SUNSHINE VITAMIN] MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY BY P. RAVISANKAR, CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN D ,STRUCTURES OF VITAMIN D1,D2,D3,...
VITAMIN D[ SUNSHINE VITAMIN] MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY BY P. RAVISANKAR, CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN D ,STRUCTURES OF VITAMIN D1,D2,D3,...
VITAMIN D[ SUNSHINE VITAMIN] MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY BY P. RAVISANKAR, CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN D ,STRUCTURES OF VITAMIN D1,D2,D3,...
VITAMIN D[ SUNSHINE VITAMIN] MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY BY P. RAVISANKAR, CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN D ,STRUCTURES OF VITAMIN D1,D2,D3,...
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VITAMIN D[ SUNSHINE VITAMIN] MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY BY P. RAVISANKAR, CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN D ,STRUCTURES OF VITAMIN D1,D2,D3,D4,D5, VITMIN D SOURCES,RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE,VITAMIN D DEFICIANCY OCCURS IN ,MECHANISM OF ACTION,VITAMIN D FUNCTIONS,VITAMIN

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VITAMIN D[ SUNSHINE VITAMIN] MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY BY P. RAVISANKAR, CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN D ,STRUCTURES OF VITAMIN D1,D2,D3,D4,D5, VITMIN D SOURCES,RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE,VITAMIN D DEFICIANCY OCCURS IN ,MECHANISM OF ACTION,VITAMIN D FUNCTIONS,VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY(RICKETS),PHYSIOLOGICALROLE/IMPORTANCE,ADVERSE/TOXIC EFFECTS,USES OF VITAMIN D
BY P.RAVISANKAR, VIGNAN PHARMACY COLLEGE, VADLAMUDI, GUNTUR, A.P, INDIA.

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VITAMIN D[ SUNSHINE VITAMIN] MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY BY P. RAVISANKAR, CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN D ,STRUCTURES OF VITAMIN D1,D2,D3,D4,D5, VITMIN D SOURCES,RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE,VITAMIN D DEFICIANCY OCCURS IN ,MECHANISM OF ACTION,VITAMIN D FUNCTIONS,VITAMIN

  1. 1. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINSFAT SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN DVITAMIN D
  2. 2. bone developmentbone developmentSunshine vitamin (vitamin D)McCollum and his associates (1922) establishedThat the anti-rachitic principle of cod liver oil is differentFrom vitamin A and named it as Vitamin D.bonedevelopmentbonedevelopmentpreventsricketspreventsricketshelpsdevelopmentofteethhelpsdevelopmentofteeth►helpstomaintaintheequilibriumbetweenbonecalciumandbloodhelpstomaintaintheequilibriumbetweenbonecalciumandbloodcalciumcalcium..Calcium and phosphorous metabolismTreatment of auto immune diseasesTreatment of auto immune diseases►reduce colon, breast andovarian cancers by up to 50 percentreduce colon, breast andovarian cancers by up to 50 percent..SUNvitamin DA group of closely related steroids that have antirachitic properties .
  3. 3. ► Vitamin D represents a group of fat- soluble vitamins areVitamin D represents a group of fat- soluble vitamins arestructurally related sterolsstructurally related sterols. These compounds which possess. These compounds which possessproperty of preventing ofproperty of preventing of curing ricketscuring rickets..► Rickets is derived from an old English wordRickets is derived from an old English word wrickken meaningwrickken meaningtwist.twist.► Biologically vitamin D is termed asBiologically vitamin D is termed as calciferol.calciferol. Vitamin D is also known as “Vitamin D is also known as “Sunshine VitaminSunshine Vitamin” because the” because thesterols which are present in the skin can be converted tosterols which are present in the skin can be converted tovitamin D with the help of UV light rays emitted form thevitamin D with the help of UV light rays emitted form thesun.sun. Mc CollumMc Collum was the scientist who first used the term Vitamin D for itswas the scientist who first used the term Vitamin D for itsantirachitic activityantirachitic activity in the year 1925.in the year 1925. TheThe deficiency of vitamin Ddeficiency of vitamin D22 causescauses ricketsrickets which is a disease mainlywhich is a disease mainlyoccurring in children, and this disease is characterisedoccurring in children, and this disease is characterised osteomalacia inosteomalacia inadults.adults. by aby a softening and bending of bonessoftening and bending of bones. But thise conditions respond. But thise conditions respondrapidly to vitaminDrapidly to vitaminD22..
  4. 4. Chemical name Abbreviation Generic nameVitamin D2 D2 ergocalciferolVitamin D3 D3Cholecalciferol25-hydroxyvitaminD325(OH)D3 Calciferol1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D31,25-(OH)3 Calcitriol24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D324,25(OH)2D3 Secalcifediol7 types of vitaminD were found among which little information is known aboutD5,D6,D7.Infact Vitamin D1 is containing molecular compound of lumisterol and D2 in 1:1 ratio.Vitamin D4 is 22-dihydroergocalciferol.vitaminD5 is sitocalciferol.Among the different types of vitamin D2 and D3 are important.All the types can be prepared from irradiation of the specific sterols called provitamins.EX:Vitamin D2 from ergosterol, vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol.vitamin D4 from 22-23 dihydroergosterol. Vitamin D5 from 7-dehydrositosterol.
  5. 5. German researcher Adolf Windaus first discovered 3 forms of vitaminD, which he called D1, D2, and D3.It was later learned that the vitamin D1 was a mixture of compoundsrather than a pure vitamin D product, so the term D1 is no longerused.The term "Vitamin D" now refers to several different forms.The two forms important in humans are : ergocalciferol (vitamin D2)and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3).Vitamin D2 is a synthetic form (man made) and Vitamin D3 is theinternal form that we make.
  6. 6. Chemistry of vitamin D:Chemistry of vitamin D:Vitamin D is a generic term and indicates a molecule of the general structure shown forrings A, B, C, and D with differing side chain structures.The A, B, C, and D ring structure is derived from the cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrenering structure for steroids.Technically vitamin D is classified as a seco-steroid.Seco-steroids are those in which one of the rings has been broken; in vitamin D, the 9,10carbon-carbon bond of ring B is broken, and it is indicated by the inclusion of "9,10-seco"in the official nomenclature.Vitamin D (calciferol) is named according to the revised rules of the International Union ofPure and Applied Chemists (IUPAC).Because vitamin D is derived from a steroid, the structure retains its numbering from theparent compound cholesterol. Asymmetric centers are designated by using the R,Snotation; the configuration of the double bonds are notated E for "entgegen" or trans, andZ for "zuzammen" or cis.Thus the official name of vitamin D3 is (5Z,7E)-(3S)-9,10-seco-Cholesta-5,7,10(19)-trien-3-ol., and the official name of vitamin D2 is (3β,5Z,7E,22E)-9,10-secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraen-3-ol.
  7. 7. ► Vitamin DVitamin D33 can be produced photochemically by the actioncan be produced photochemically by the actionof sunlight or ultraviolet light from the precursor sterol 7-of sunlight or ultraviolet light from the precursor sterol 7-dehydrocholesterol which is present in the epidermis ordehydrocholesterol which is present in the epidermis orskin of most higher animals.skin of most higher animals.► The chief structural prerequisite of a provitamin D is that itThe chief structural prerequisite of a provitamin D is that itbe a sterol with a Dbe a sterol with a D55,7 diene double bond system in ring B.,7 diene double bond system in ring B.The conjugated double bond system in this specificThe conjugated double bond system in this specificlocation of the molecule allows the absorption of lightlocation of the molecule allows the absorption of lightquanta at certain wavelengths in the UV range; this canquanta at certain wavelengths in the UV range; this canreadily be provided in most geographical locations byreadily be provided in most geographical locations bynatural sunlight (or UV-B).natural sunlight (or UV-B).► This initiates a complex series of transformations (thatThis initiates a complex series of transformations (thatultimately results in the appearance of vitamin Dultimately results in the appearance of vitamin D33. Thus, it. Thus, itis important to appreciate that vitamin Dis important to appreciate that vitamin D33 can becan beendogenously produced and that as long as the animal (orendogenously produced and that as long as the animal (orhuman) has access on a regular basis to sunlight there ishuman) has access on a regular basis to sunlight there isno dietary requirement for this vitamin.no dietary requirement for this vitamin.
  8. 8. Infact Vitamin D1 is containing molecular compound of lumisterol and D2in 1:1 ratio.LumisterolVitamin D1= Lumisterol + Vitamin D2 (calciferol)( 1 : 1 ) Ratio.Vitamin D1
  9. 9. Important structures of vitamin DImportant structures of vitamin DErgocalciferolCholecalciferolVitamin D5C2H5SitocalciferolCisergocalciferol
  10. 10. Vitamin D - SourcesVitamin D - Sources► Not found naturally in many foodsNot found naturally in many foods► Synthesized in body.Synthesized in body.► Natural sources including codliver oil,Natural sources including codliver oil,► Fatty fish species like eel, catfish, salmon, tuna.Fatty fish species like eel, catfish, salmon, tuna.► Mushrooms are also gives greater amounts ofMushrooms are also gives greater amounts ofvitamin D when exposed to sunlight immediatelyvitamin D when exposed to sunlight immediatelyafter harvesting fungi and yeast which possessafter harvesting fungi and yeast which possessvitamin D precursor ergosterol.vitamin D precursor ergosterol.► Vegetable oil, milk and plant foods are not goodVegetable oil, milk and plant foods are not goodsources of vitamin D.sources of vitamin D.► Vitamin D is also available from fortified foodVitamin D is also available from fortified foodwhich supplemented with required nutrients suchwhich supplemented with required nutrients suchas bread, cereal, margarine, oil spreads, milk,as bread, cereal, margarine, oil spreads, milk,pastries, yogurt..pastries, yogurt..
  11. 11. ► Vitamin D is naturally produced by the human body whenVitamin D is naturally produced by the human body whenexposed to direct sunlight. You can also get it via foods andexposed to direct sunlight. You can also get it via foods andsupplements.supplements.►Best food sourcesBest food sources* Fish liver oils, such as cod liver oil, 1 Tbs. (15 mL) provides* Fish liver oils, such as cod liver oil, 1 Tbs. (15 mL) provides1,360 IU (one IU equals 25 ng)1,360 IU (one IU equals 25 ng)       Fatty fish species, such as:Fatty fish species, such as:          Herring, 85 g (3 ounces (oz)) provides 1383 IU          Herring, 85 g (3 ounces (oz)) provides 1383 IU          Catfish, 85 g (3 oz) provides 425 IU          Catfish, 85 g (3 oz) provides 425 IU         Salmon, cooked, 100 g (3.5 oz) provides 360 IU.         Salmon, cooked, 100 g (3.5 oz) provides 360 IU.          Mackerel, cooked, 100 g (3.5 oz) 345 IU.          Mackerel, cooked, 100 g (3.5 oz) 345 IU.          Sardines, canned in oil, drained, 50 g (1.75 oz) 250 IU.          Sardines, canned in oil, drained, 50 g (1.75 oz) 250 IU.► Tuna, canned in oil, 85 g (3 oz) 200 IU.Tuna, canned in oil, 85 g (3 oz) 200 IU.► Eel, cooked, 100 g (3.5 oz), 200 IUEel, cooked, 100 g (3.5 oz), 200 IU    * One whole hen’s egg, provides 20 IU    * One whole hen’s egg, provides 20 IU    * Beef liver, cooked, 100 g (3.5 oz), provides 15 IU    * Beef liver, cooked, 100 g (3.5 oz), provides 15 IU
  12. 12. Eggs are Rich in Vitamin DMushroomsSUNSUNMILKCereals
  13. 13. ►** InfantsInfants andand childrenchildren:: 55 micrograms (200 IU)micrograms (200 IU)** TeenagersTeenagers:: 55 micrograms (200 IU)micrograms (200 IU) * * AdultsAdults up toup to 5050 years :years : 55 micrograms (200IU)micrograms (200IU)► * Adults* Adults 51-7051-70 years :years :1010 micrograms (400 IU)micrograms (400 IU)* Adults above* Adults above 7070 years:years: 1515 micrograms (600 IU)micrograms (600 IU)► ** PregnantPregnant andandlactating womenlactating women:: 55 micrograms(200micrograms(200IU)IU)Recommended dietary allowance(RDA)
  14. 14. ► VITAMIN D deficiencyVITAMIN D deficiencyoccurs in ---occurs in ---Strict vegetarians.Strict vegetarians.Chronic alcoholics.Chronic alcoholics.In some people who cover the entire bodyIn some people who cover the entire body(prdah) for religious customs.(prdah) for religious customs.Genetic defects in the vitamin D receptorGenetic defects in the vitamin D receptor ..Individuals with Severe liver or kidneyIndividuals with Severe liver or kidneydiseasediseases.s.Insufficient exposure to sunlight.Insufficient exposure to sunlight.
  15. 15. Vitamin D2Ergocalciferol
  16. 16. Mechanism of actionMechanism of action► The consumed or biosynthesized vitamin D is converted to its active formThe consumed or biosynthesized vitamin D is converted to its active formin the liver an kidneys.in the liver an kidneys.The active form of the vitamin D gets transported to target organs byThe active form of the vitamin D gets transported to target organs bybinding to a carrier protein(vitamin D binding protein) present in thebinding to a carrier protein(vitamin D binding protein) present in theplasma.plasma.The transported vitamin binds to vitamin D receptor to form calcitriol-The transported vitamin binds to vitamin D receptor to form calcitriol-receptor complex which later on reacts with DNA to produce calciumreceptor complex which later on reacts with DNA to produce calciumbinding proteins and enhances the absorption of calcium ions.binding proteins and enhances the absorption of calcium ions.Vitamin D receptors are also involved in activities like proliferation of cellsVitamin D receptors are also involved in activities like proliferation of cellsand differentiation.and differentiation.CalcitriolCalcitriolBinds with cytosolic receptor(in the intestine)Calcitriol-receptor complexReacts withDNA(synthesizes Calcium binding protein Increased calciumIons absorption.
  17. 17. 910CalcidiolCalcitriol (calcitrolenters theintestine)Mechanism:
  18. 18. How your body makes vitamin DActive vitaminVitamin DVitamin DPrecursorIn yoyr skinCholecalciferolCalcitriol(25 hydroxylase)(inactive form)25hydroxy vit-D(calcidiol)
  19. 19. Formation of Vitamin DFormation of Vitamin D► Skin (UV light)Skin (UV light) 7-dehydro cholesterol7-dehydro cholesterol →→ vitamin Dvitamin D33 ErgosterolErgosterol →→ vitamin Dvitamin D22► LiverLiver OH-group addedOH-group added►25-hydroxy vitamin D25-hydroxy vitamin D33►Storage form of vitamin (3 months storage in liver)Storage form of vitamin (3 months storage in liver)► KidneyKidney OH-group added by 1-hydroxylaseOH-group added by 1-hydroxylase►1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D33►ActiveActive form of vitaminform of vitamin D, a “steroid hormone”D, a “steroid hormone” OH-group added by 24-hydroxylaseOH-group added by 24-hydroxylase►24,25-dihydroxy vitamin D24,25-dihydroxy vitamin D33►Inactive form of vitamin D, ready for excretionInactive form of vitamin D, ready for excretion
  20. 20. Vitamin D - FunctionsVitamin D - Functions► FunctionsFunctions Bone developmentBone development► Calcium absorption (small intestine)Calcium absorption (small intestine)► Calcium resorption (bone and kidney)Calcium resorption (bone and kidney)► Maintain blood calcium levelsMaintain blood calcium levels► Phosphorus absorption (small intestine)Phosphorus absorption (small intestine) HormoneHormone► Regulation of gene expressionRegulation of gene expression► Cell growthCell growth
  21. 21. Vitamin D FunctionsVitamin D Functions
  22. 22. Groff & Gropper, 2000Vitamin D Affects AbsorptionVitamin D Affects Absorptionof Dietary Caof Dietary Ca► 1,25-(OH)1,25-(OH)22 D bindsD bindsto vitamin D receptorto vitamin D receptor(VDR) in nucleus(VDR) in nucleus► Increase in calbindinIncrease in calbindin(Ca-binding protein)(Ca-binding protein)
  23. 23. Vitamin D Affects Absorption ofVitamin D Affects Absorption ofDietary PhosphorusDietary Phosphorus►1,25-(OH)1,25-(OH)22 DD33 increases activity ofincreases activity ofalkaline phosphatasealkaline phosphatase Hydrolyses phosphate ester bondsHydrolyses phosphate ester bonds►Releases phosphorusReleases phosphorus►Increase in phosphate carriersIncrease in phosphate carriers
  24. 24. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)► Calcium-sensor protein in theCalcium-sensor protein in thethyroid glandthyroid gland Detects low plasma calcium concentrationsDetects low plasma calcium concentrations► Effects of parathyroid hormoneEffects of parathyroid hormone Urine / kidneysUrine / kidneys► Increases calcium reabsorptionIncreases calcium reabsorption► Increases phosphorus excretionIncreases phosphorus excretion Stimulates 1-hydroxylase activity in the kidneysStimulates 1-hydroxylase activity in the kidneys► 25-OH D25-OH D →→ 1,25-(OH)1,25-(OH)22 DD► PTH required for resorption of Ca from bonePTH required for resorption of Ca from bone Activates a calcium pump on the osteocytic membraneActivates a calcium pump on the osteocytic membrane Activates osteoclastsActivates osteoclasts
  25. 25. Bone MetabolismBone Metabolism► OsteoOsteocclastslasts Break down boneBreak down bone► Calcium resorptionCalcium resorption Derived from stem cellsDerived from stem cells► Differentiate after stimulation by vitamin DDifferentiate after stimulation by vitamin D► OsteoOsteobblastslasts Bone-forming cellsBone-forming cells Secrete collagen, which calcifiesSecrete collagen, which calcifies► Bone contains 60–66% Ca by weightBone contains 60–66% Ca by weight Hydroxyapatite, CaHydroxyapatite, Ca1010(PO(PO44))66(OH)(OH)22
  26. 26. Vitamin D - DeficiencyVitamin D - Deficiency► Young animalsYoung animals RicketsRickets► Failure of bones to grow properlyFailure of bones to grow properly► Results in “bowed” legs or knock-knees, outward bowed chestResults in “bowed” legs or knock-knees, outward bowed chestand knobs on ribsand knobs on ribs► Older animalsOlder animals Osteomalacia: Adult form of ricketsOsteomalacia: Adult form of rickets► Softening of bones, bending of spine, and bowing of legsSoftening of bones, bending of spine, and bowing of legs Osteoporosis (porous bones):Osteoporosis (porous bones):► Vitamin D plays a major role along with calciumVitamin D plays a major role along with calcium► Loss of vitamin D activity with advancing ageLoss of vitamin D activity with advancing age► Associated with fracturesAssociated with fractures  very serious for geriatricsvery serious for geriatrics PoultryPoultry Decreased egg production & hatchabilityDecreased egg production & hatchability Thin-shelled eggsThin-shelled eggs
  27. 27. Vitamin D Deficiency - Rickets
  28. 28. ►Nineteen-year-old Shao Ling strugglesNineteen-year-old Shao Ling struggleswith rickets, which has kept her heightwith rickets, which has kept her heightat about two feet (06.m). She suffersat about two feet (06.m). She suffersfrom congenital rickets, but thefrom congenital rickets, but thedevelopmental disease can also be thedevelopmental disease can also be theresult of a vitamin D deficiencyresult of a vitamin D deficiency
  29. 29. Rickets in wrist - uncalcified lowerends of bones are porous, ragged,and saucer-shaped(A) Rickets in 3 month old infant(B) Healing after 28days of treatment(C) After 41 daysof treatmentAB C
  30. 30. ► Disruption in any part ofDisruption in any part ofthe vitamin Dthe vitamin Dphysiological pathway canphysiological pathway canresult in vitamin Dresult in vitamin Ddeficiency, which maydeficiency, which maylead to bone pain, musclelead to bone pain, muscleweakness, falls, low boneweakness, falls, low bonemass, and fractures,mass, and fractures,Osteoporosis is aOsteoporosis is acommon disease that iscommon disease that isassociated with a high riskassociated with a high riskof fractures,this occursof fractures,this occurslack of vitaminD.lack of vitaminD.
  31. 31. Typical stance of calf with rickets
  32. 32. Rachitic vs. normal chickRickets due to deficiency of vitamin D, Ca, or P
  33. 33. Rickets in chicken - note extremely soft beak
  34. 34. OsteomalaciaNormal pelvis
  35. 35. Physiological role /importance of vitamin DPhysiological role /importance of vitamin D► Vitamin D is well known as a hormone involved in mineral metabolism and boneVitamin D is well known as a hormone involved in mineral metabolism and bonegrowth.growth.► Its most dramatic effect is to facilitate intestinal absorption of calcium, although it alsoIts most dramatic effect is to facilitate intestinal absorption of calcium, although it alsostimulates absorption of phosphate and magnesium ions.stimulates absorption of phosphate and magnesium ions.► In the absence of vitamin D, dietary calcium is not absorbed at all efficiently. VitaminIn the absence of vitamin D, dietary calcium is not absorbed at all efficiently. VitaminD stimulates the expression of a number of proteins involved in transporting calciumD stimulates the expression of a number of proteins involved in transporting calciumfrom the lumen of the intestine, across the epithelial cells and into blood.from the lumen of the intestine, across the epithelial cells and into blood.► The best-studied of these calcium transporters isThe best-studied of these calcium transporters is calbindincalbindin, an intracellular protein, an intracellular proteinthat ferries calcium across the intestinal epithelial cell.that ferries calcium across the intestinal epithelial cell.► Vitamin D possesses hormone like activity as it is produced at one area and itsVitamin D possesses hormone like activity as it is produced at one area and itsactivity involves the diffusion process to the target area.activity involves the diffusion process to the target area.► Vitamin D2 and D3 are biologically inactive whereas the metabolites 1,25-Vitamin D2 and D3 are biologically inactive whereas the metabolites 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol is the active form and it is termed calcitriol.dihydroxycholecalciferol is the active form and it is termed calcitriol.► The crutial effect of vitamin D on bone is to provide the proper balance of calciumThe crutial effect of vitamin D on bone is to provide the proper balance of calciumand phosphorus to support mineralization.and phosphorus to support mineralization.► ON GIT:ON GIT:The abosorption of calcium and phosphorous is enhanced by calcitriol in the intestineThe abosorption of calcium and phosphorous is enhanced by calcitriol in the intestineCalcitriol receptor complex is formed by the combination of calcitriol and cytosolicCalcitriol receptor complex is formed by the combination of calcitriol and cytosolicreceptor. This complex leads to the synthesis of calcium binding proteins.receptor. This complex leads to the synthesis of calcium binding proteins.
  36. 36. ► ON BONES: The active form of vitaminD increases the doposition ofON BONES: The active form of vitaminD increases the doposition ofcaacium phosphate which is required for boneformation.The plasma levelscaacium phosphate which is required for boneformation.The plasma levelsof calcium also gets elevated by calcitriol because it enhances the mobilityof calcium also gets elevated by calcitriol because it enhances the mobilityof calcium and phosphorous homeostasis.of calcium and phosphorous homeostasis.► On kidneys: The vitamin D enhances the reabsorption of calcium ions andOn kidneys: The vitamin D enhances the reabsorption of calcium ions anddecreases their excretion. Thus vitamin D is able to maintain the calciumdecreases their excretion. Thus vitamin D is able to maintain the calciumand phosphorous homeostasis.and phosphorous homeostasis.► vitamin D has physiologic effects much broader that a role in mineralvitamin D has physiologic effects much broader that a role in mineralhomeostasis and bone functionhomeostasis and bone function..
  37. 37. Adverse /toxic effects of vitaminDAdverse /toxic effects of vitaminD► Vitamin D toxicity:Vitamin D toxicity: Excessive exposure toExcessive exposure tosunlight does not lead to overproduction ofsunlight does not lead to overproduction ofvitamin D. Vitamin D toxicity is inevitably thevitamin D. Vitamin D toxicity is inevitably theresult ofresult of overdosingoverdosing on vitamin Don vitamin Dsupplements.supplements.► Certainly, vitamin D supplements are aCertainly, vitamin D supplements are avaluable treatment for individuals withvaluable treatment for individuals withdeficiencies. However, ingestion of excessivedeficiencies. However, ingestion of excessive(milligram) quantities of vitamin D over periods(milligram) quantities of vitamin D over periodsof weeks of months can be severely toxic toof weeks of months can be severely toxic tohumans and animals.humans and animals.► Excessive formation of vitamin D metabolitesExcessive formation of vitamin D metabolitesenhances the calcification of various tissuesenhances the calcification of various tissuesalong with bones.along with bones.► Arterosclerosis or hardening of arteriesArterosclerosis or hardening of arteriesoccures due to calcification of blood vessels.occures due to calcification of blood vessels.► Anorexia,muscularweakness,nausea,vimiting,Anorexia,muscularweakness,nausea,vimiting,depression of CNS.depression of CNS.► Nephrocalcinosis(Deposition of Ca inNephrocalcinosis(Deposition of Ca inkidneys.)kidneys.)► Nephrolithiasis(Deposition of Ca in renalNephrolithiasis(Deposition of Ca in renaltubles.tubles.► Permanent renal damage, growth retardation,Permanent renal damage, growth retardation,Toxic adult dose is: 1.25 mg(50,000 I.U) per day.
  38. 38. Uses of vitamin DUses of vitamin D► Vitamin D is more than just a vitamin: it is also a hormone. Research in theVitamin D is more than just a vitamin: it is also a hormone. Research in thelast few years suggests that Vitamin D – traditionally considered a “bonelast few years suggests that Vitamin D – traditionally considered a “bonevitamin.vitamin.► Vitamin D is sufficient enough in the treatment of hopoparathyroidism and inVitamin D is sufficient enough in the treatment of hopoparathyroidism and invitamin D deficiency diseases like reckets, osteomalacia.vitamin D deficiency diseases like reckets, osteomalacia.► It has a role in preventing infections like.It has a role in preventing infections like.► heart diseases andheart diseases and► diabetes mellitus.diabetes mellitus.► The sunshine vitamin vitamin D is used in the treatment of breast and colonThe sunshine vitamin vitamin D is used in the treatment of breast and coloncancers.cancers.► Treatment of psoriasis (chronic skin disease where scaly patches can beTreatment of psoriasis (chronic skin disease where scaly patches can beseen on elbows, knees, scalp, etc.,seen on elbows, knees, scalp, etc.,► and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis,insulin dependentand autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis,insulin dependentdiabetes mellitus are decreased by vitamin D intake.diabetes mellitus are decreased by vitamin D intake.► and rheumatoid arthritis.and rheumatoid arthritis.► In parallel with this explosion of research, there is a change in theIn parallel with this explosion of research, there is a change in therecommendations for optimum intake of this vitamin-hormone.recommendations for optimum intake of this vitamin-hormone.►
  39. 39. ► Benefits Of Vitamin D Is That It Improves DigestionBenefits Of Vitamin D Is That It Improves DigestionExposure to UV present in sunshine natural way to produce vitamin D, accounting for 90Exposure to UV present in sunshine natural way to produce vitamin D, accounting for 90percent of vitamin D production. Dietary “supplements” are just 10% to produce vitamin D.percent of vitamin D production. Dietary “supplements” are just 10% to produce vitamin D.►   ► Vitamin D deficiency most likely plays a role in the development of muscular sclerosis.Vitamin D deficiency most likely plays a role in the development of muscular sclerosis.► •• Vitamin D deficiency is also believed to be linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer andVitamin D deficiency is also believed to be linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer andeven heart disease.even heart disease.► A 2006 systematic review of 63 studies on vitamin D status in relation to cancer risk has shownA 2006 systematic review of 63 studies on vitamin D status in relation to cancer risk has shownthat vitamin D sufficiency may reduce one’s risk of colon, breast and ovarian cancers by up tothat vitamin D sufficiency may reduce one’s risk of colon, breast and ovarian cancers by up to50 percent.50 percent.► •• Additionally, vitamin D deficiency is a leading cause of osteoporosis, a disease affecting 25Additionally, vitamin D deficiency is a leading cause of osteoporosis, a disease affecting 25million Americans which leads to 1 million hip and bone fractures every year. to this problem, asmillion Americans which leads to 1 million hip and bone fractures every year. to this problem, asvitamin D is necessary for the body to properly process calcium.vitamin D is necessary for the body to properly process calcium.► Current research indicates vitamin D deficiency plays a role in causing 17 varieties of cancer,Current research indicates vitamin D deficiency plays a role in causing 17 varieties of cancer,heart disease, stroke, hypertension, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, depression, chronic pain,heart disease, stroke, hypertension, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, depression, chronic pain,osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, muscle wasting, birth defects and periodontalosteoarthritis, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, muscle wasting, birth defects and periodontaldisease.disease.► Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers andSunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers andcardiovascular diseasecardiovascular disease► . Vitamin D is essential for bone development and helps to maintain the equilibrium between. Vitamin D is essential for bone development and helps to maintain the equilibrium betweenbone calcium and blood calcium.bone calcium and blood calcium.► It also helps in the normal development of teeth.It also helps in the normal development of teeth.
  40. 40. ““take vitamin D and achieve a greater state of health."take vitamin D and achieve a greater state of health."Bones, Bones, Bones Are Mojor Benefits Of Vitamin Dif your bones are strong, it means that you will have to worryless about developing bone disease when you grow oldera brighter smileBenefits Of Vitamin D Is That It Improves Digestionan invaluable benefit.concerned with their teeth –Immune System Is Invaluable Benefits Of Vitamin Dvitamin D is that improvesReally, vitamins are the fuel of the body. If you receive enough vitamin D, you canbe sure that your body will work in tip-top condition and that you will have to worryless and less about illness.

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