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  1. 1. linux <ul>bc command is used for command line calculator. It is similar to basic calculator. By using which we can do basic mathematical calculations. SYNTAX: <li>bc COMMAND:
  2. 2. The Syntax is
  3. 3. bc [options]
  4. 4. cal COMMAND:
  5. 5. cal command is used to display the calendar.
  6. 6. SYNTAX:
  7. 7. The Syntax is
  8. 8. cal [options] [month] [year] </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>cat COMMAND:
  10. 10. cat linux command concatenates files and print it on the standard output.
  11. 11. SYNTAX:
  12. 12. The Syntax is
  13. 13. cat [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
  14. 14. cd COMMAND:
  15. 15. cd command is used to change the directory.
  16. 16. SYNTAX:
  17. 17. The Syntax is
  18. 18. cd [directory | ~ | ./ | ../ | - ]
  19. 19. cp COMMAND:
  20. 20. cp command copy files from one location to another. If the destination is an existing file, then the file is overwritten; if the destination is an existing directory, the file is copied into the directory (the directory is not overwritten).
  21. 21. SYNTAX:
  22. 22. The Syntax is
  23. 23. cp [OPTIONS]... SOURCE DEST </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>date COMMAND: </li></ul>date command prints the date and time. SYNTAX: The Syntax is date [options] [+format] [date] <ul><li>echo COMMAND:
  25. 25. echo command prints the given input string to standard output.
  26. 26. SYNTAX:
  27. 27. The Syntax is
  28. 28. echo [options..] [string]
  29. 29. grep COMMAND:
  30. 30. grep command selects and prints the lines from a file which matches a given string or pattern.
  31. 31. SYNTAX:
  32. 32. The Syntax is </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>id COMMAND: </li></ul>id command prints the effective(current) and real userid(UID)s and groupid(GID)s. SYNTAX: The Syntax is id [options] <ul><li>last COMMAND:
  34. 34. last command is used to display the last logged in users list. Last logged in users informations are read from the file /var/log/wtmp.
  35. 35. SYNTAX:
  36. 36. The Syntax is
  37. 37. last [options]
  38. 38. lastlog COMMAND:
  39. 39. lastlog command is used to print the last login times for system accounts. Login information is read from the file /var/log/lastlog.
  40. 40. SYNTAX:
  41. 41. The Syntax is
  42. 42. lastlog [options] </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>ls COMMAND: </li></ul>ls command lists the files and directories under current working directory. SYNTAX: The Syntax is ls [OPTIONS]... [FILE] <ul><li>man COMMAND: </li></ul>man command which is short for manual, provides in depth information about the requested command (or) allows users to search for commands related to a particular keyword. SYNTAX: The Syntax is man commandname [options] <ul><li>mkdir COMMAND: </li></ul>mkdir command is used to create one or more directories. SYNTAX: The Syntax is mkdir [options] directories
  44. 44. <ul><li>mv COMMAND: </li></ul>mv command which is short for move. It is used to move/rename file from one directory to another. mv command is different from cp command as it completely removes the file from the source and moves to the directory specified, where cp command just copies the content from one file to another. SYNTAX: The Syntax is mv [-f] [-i] oldname newname <ul><li>pwd COMMAND: </li></ul>pwd - Print Working Directory. pwd command prints the full filename of the current working directory. SYNTAX: The Syntax is pwd [options] <ul><li>rm COMMAND:
  45. 45. rm linux command is used to remove/delete the file from the directory.
  46. 46. SYNTAX:
  47. 47. The Syntax is </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>rmdir COMMAND: </li></ul>rmdir command is used to delete/remove a directory and its subdirectories. SYNTAX: The Syntax is rmdir [options..] Directory <ul><li>sort COMMAND:
  49. 49. sort command is used to sort the lines in a text file.
  50. 50. SYNTAX:
  51. 51. The Syntax is
  52. 52. sort [options] filename
  53. 53. Shutdown COMMAND:
  54. 54. Shutdown - Turn off the computer immediately or at a specified time.
  55. 55. SYNTAX:
  56. 56. The Syntax is
  57. 57. /sbin/shutdown [-t sec] [-arkhncfFHP] time [warning-message] </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>who COMMAND: </li></ul>who command can list the names of users currently logged in, their terminal, the time they have been logged in, and the name of the host from which they have logged in. SYNTAX: The Syntax is who [options] [file] <ul><li>whois COMMAND: </li></ul>whois command lists the information about the domain owner of the given domain. SYNTAX: The Syntax is whois [option] query <ul><li>mkdir [OPTION] DIRECTORY </li></ul>Options mk
  59. 59. <ul><li>more - Allows file contents or piped output to be sent to the screen one page at a time
  60. 60. less - Opposite of the more command
  61. 61. clear - Clears the terminal screen.
  62. 62. cmp file1 file2 - Compares two files, reporting all discrepancies. Similar to the diff command, though the output format differs.
  63. 63. wc filename --- tells you how many lines, words, and characters there are in a file
  64. 64. whoami --- returns your username. Sounds useless, but isn't. You may need to find out who it is who forgot to log out somewhere, and make sure *you* have logged out. </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>cd ../samples </li></ul>The .. says to move up to the parent directory, in this case /users/jones , and then down to the sub-directory, samples . You can also use cd .. to back up from subdirectories level by level. <ul><ul><ul><li>The head Command </li></ul></ul></ul>To view the first ten lines in a file, use the head command. Syntax: head [ -count ] filename <ul><li>The tail Command </li></ul>To view the last ten lines in a file, use the tail command. Syntax: tail [-count] filename