Diploma confrontation I benjamin barth


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Diploma confrontation I benjamin barth

  1. 1. THREE CHALLENGES FOR ARCHITECTURE: • climate change & sustainability • change in society & urban transformation • knowledge & innovation • Bærekraft- og klimautfordringen • Endrings- og transformasjonsutfordringen • Kunnskaps- og innovasjonsutfordringen
  2. 2. THREE MAIN CHALLENGES: THREE MAIN CHALLENGES: • > How to define&`sustainability´ • climate change ? • change in society & urban transformation • knowledge & & innovation • knowledge innovation INFOGRAPHIC WORKSHOP w/Deane Simpson «HOLDBARseminar 2010» BAS
  3. 3. THREE MAIN CHALLENGES: THREE MAIN CHALLENGES: • > How to define&`sustainability´ • climate change ? • change in society & urban transformation • knowledge & & innovation • knowledge innovation SUSTAINABILITY VALUE MAP MNAL Chris Butters
  4. 4. THREE MAIN CHALLENGES: THREE MAIN CHALLENGES: • > How to define&`sustainability´ • climate change ? • change in society & urban transformation • knowledge & & innovation • knowledge innovation «wholeness» «Sustainability is simply about preserving the future in heart and mind» ...but do we, as architects, maintain a holistic approach to the built environment?
  5. 5. SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY essay: «THE ART OF MAKING CITIES» - on the relation between sustainability and the city • What is a sustainable city? • What is a sustainable community? • How are we (as architects) to `build´ them?
  6. 6. SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY essay: I THE CITY PHYSIOLOGICALLY SPEAKING, a city is a geographical and administrative system inhabited by people. Plato defines the ideal city as a constellation of 5.000 inhabitants. Aristotle claims that the ideal city is not larger than its citizen can know each other by sight, but not smaller than it can defend itself. THE THEORY OF URBAN PLANNING was long characterized by rational and objective thinking, until sociologist Henri Lefebvre`s Marxist critique on the city in the 1970´s. Lefebvre was concerned with specific rights for those who live in cities - rights to education, work, culture, rest, health and housing. He advocates that urban theorists, architects and planners must «make an effort to reach out towards a new humanism, a new praxis, another man, that of urban society» (1996:76). THE MODERN CITY is often characterized by a lack of clear borders and a complex merging of spheres. What used to be primary areas for industrial production have turned into diffuse landscapes of consumption. A growing challenge for the urban resident is to live without clearly defined borders or cultural affiliation. URBAN ENVIRONMENTS CHANGE rapidly as effects of globalization and migration provoke economical, cultural and ethnical differentiation and segregation in modern cities. Consequently, urbanization leads to change in lifestyles and the contextual meaning of space.
  7. 7. SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY essay: II S PA C E & T H E S E N S E O F P L A C E THE PRESENT RENAISSANCE OF URBANITY has little connotation to historic terms. `Urbanity´ generally refer to social life in the city and reveal little meaning to the specific realms of the urban environment. In The Production of Space (1974) Lefebvre argues that space is a social product - a complex social construction based on values and the social production of meanings, which affects the practice and perceptions of space. In short, space is produced by social relations. THE SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES is, according to Norwegian sociologist Dag Østerberg, constituted by urban life and the emergence of urban identities. Urbanity is thus, in agreement with Lefebvre, a process of spatial production. The fragmentation of urban environments leads to complex spatial situations and segregation in the city. This is accompanied by globalization trends: The availability and presence of modern transport, new forms of communication and the mixing of cultures and ethnic minorities due to rapidly increased migration has come to dominate urban development today. `SPACE/TIME-COMPRESSION´ refer to new forms of spatial organization and differentiation in human interaction, which is inevitably present in all modern cities. Geographer Doreen Massey identifies one effect of globalization as increasing uncertainty on the meaning of space and how we relate to urban environments (Pløger 1997:19), leading to a greater need of genuine or `real´ spaces. Massey stresses that places are not enclosures with a clear inside and outside, that places do not have single identities but multiple ones and that places are not frozen in time, but processes. Following this logic, I would argue that a sense of place is created from the social production - a `spatial dialogue of action´.
  8. 8. SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY essay: II I «THE ART OF BUILDING CITIES» WHILE THE SOCIOLOGY OF SPACE is a central theme for sociologists, geographers and alike, architects and planners find themselves stuck in traditional practice. In the field of architecture, `urbanism´ simply means `the art of building cities´. In short, urbanism translates into «the development of city structures and a method for control of urban transformation» - either the practice of architecture or the practice of urban planning (Pløger 1997:19). A SHIFT IN FOCUS from sectorial issues to start prioritize the function and vitality of complete systems seems appropriate in order to approach a sustainable practice. Interdisciplinary knowledge (i.e. the linking of sociology, anthropology, architecture, and planning) is essential in reconstructing a new understanding of urban living environments and promoting participatory democracy. THE FIELD OF HUMAN ECOLOGY is an interdisciplinary sub-discipline of geography, anthropology, psychology, sociology and ecology, which take a particular interest in the complexity of urban life. It regards humans as one species out of many that inhabit a natural environment, just as any other ecological system. In this perspective, the issue of sustainability in urban environments becomes pertinent. But, what is a sustainable city? A SUSTAINABLE CITY is a healthy city. A healthy city is one that, besides providing stimulating physical environments, produces social space and creates arenas for interaction and individual experience for the participants of the urban environment. In order to create active, attractive and vital cities approach, people must come first on the priority list. An important tool to facilitate the creation and vitality of communities, is to provide a stimulating variety of democratic arenas for social interaction.
  9. 9. SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY essay: BUILDING COMMUNITIES. Following Lefebvre´s idea of «reaching out for a new humanism», one must embrace and facilitate the social life of the city. The first step to achieving this is, according to Lefebvre, to enable disadvantaged groups to voice their views and facilitate their contributions to the social production of space. Following from this, «the art of building cities» translates into a process of involving local people in urban redevelopment to stimulate the creation of social relations and address issues related to identity and belonging. IN ORDER TO ENABLE local communities and facilitate the social production of space, one can employ the principles of participatory practice. Participatory action research (PAR) has been adopted by community workers - those engaged in services to e.g. youth and elderly, urban regeneration, public health, and nursing - to strengthen and support the ability of communities to grow and change. PAR is a process of education. The interdisciplinary field of participatory action research is a flexible tool that helps identify and meet the particular needs of the individuals or groups in a community, and will thus improve the chances of making well-functioning systems. In action learning, the participants begin to rethink their priorities and how they relate specifically to their living conditions. It also enhances the participants’ competence in seeing factors of power and domination in social space. Action planning is a methodology for building consensus for action and ties into a project approach, which leads to participants taking ownerships of the process.
  10. 10. The small town of Kongsberg characteristics • a `typical´ small-sized inland town in Eastern Norway • population: 24 000 • history of silver mining provide strong local identity • highest education level in the country • main attractions: ski resort & international jazzfestival • voted `best place to live´
  11. 11. Houston The small town of Kongsberg scale Aberdeen INCREASE IN EMPLOYEES, % Kongsberg 5,0 24 000 3,8 18 000 2,5 12 000 CORPORATE 1,3 • dense conglomeration of world leading high-tech industries (automotive-/aero-/space- & sub sea technologies) 6 000 0 • approx. 5500 employees in a local industrial park RESIDENTIAL GROWTH, % POPULATION • 4500 persons commute regionally to Kbg. every day, (2500 out) -1,3 0 • competes globally with Aberdeen, Houston etc. to attract staff 1951 1955 1959 1963 1967 1971 1975 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 • face grand challenges in keeping itself attractive to residents
  12. 12. The small town of Kongsberg political vision OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY: • to increase population to a `critical mass´ of 40 000 inhabitants (in 15-20 yrs) • attract families to settle in urban typologies in stead of traditional houses • develop an active city centre • expand city centre towards the north
  13. 13. The small town of Kongsberg social mapping SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS: 1. What makes Kongsberg a nice place to live? 2. What´s going on in Kongsberg? 1.  Chris Butters, øko-arkitekt, Oslo 2. Bård Isdahl + Marianne Beck, BY-LAB/Norsk Form, Oslo 3. What is the greatest resource in Kbg? 3. Torkil Bjørnson, prosjektleder NCE systems engeneering, Kongsberg 4. Rolf Qvenlid, tidl. direktør Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk, nå lærer Høyskolen i Buskerud 5. Ingar Vaskinn, planlegger Kongsberg Kommune - and the main drawback? 6. Rune Håndløkken, kulturkonsulent for Kbg. Kommune, Bø 7. Ingebjørg Trandum, ansvarlig for sentrumsplanen i Kbg. kommune 4. Do you have any visions for Kongsberg? 8. Per Ole Bryn, lokalpatriot & utvikler av Sølvbyen, Bondens Torg, Vestsida-dagene, etc. 9. Vebjørn Ruud, lokalpatriot & arkitekt, Asplan Viak 5.What does Kbg. look like in 2030? 10. Per Tore Brunes, kartansvarlig v/geodata, Kbg Kommune
  14. 14. The small town of Kongsberg communication TENSIONS • spenningsfeltet mellom næringslivets utviklingsambisjoner og lokale bygdetradisjoner (store visjoner vs. lav endringsvillighet) • en ambisiøs kommunal vekstpolitikk (uten verdiforankring) i et lite endringsvillig samfunn • spenningsområdet mellom Nymoen - det nylig etablerte handelssentrum på østsiden av Lågendalselva - og Vestsida/gamlebyen (det historiske sentrum) • gapet mellom lokale handelsinteresser vs. industrielle regionale/nasjonale/ globale interesser • transformasjonsutfordringer mht. areal- og transportbruk (stadig ekspanderende bilbaserte byggefelt) • forestående endringer i sentrumsaktivitet (re- og evt. samlokaliserikng av store funksjonseiere - i sentrum?)  • motsetningsforhold mellom uttalt boligpolitikk og eksisterende boligidealer (`alle´ vil ha et aktivt sentrum, tross generell motvillighet mot å bo i sentrumsleiligheter med barn)
  15. 15. DIPLOMA INTENTION meeting place ( interlace ) • identify synergy effects for development • identify local communication challenges • create meeting places to stimulate social interaction • make an urban development strategy for Kongsberg