Visual Principles

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Visual Principles

  1. 1. Visual Principles     <br />Robert Heinich<br />
  2. 2. Goals of Visual Design<br />1. Ensure legibility<br /> <br />2. Reduce effort (cognitive load)<br /> <br />3. Increase active engagement<br /> <br />4. Focus attention<br /> <br />Example:  http://www.kidsknowit.com/<br /> <br />Example:  http://pbskids.org/<br />
  3. 3. Role of Visual Design<br /> <br /> <br /><ul><li>Reference</li></ul>        Iconic symbol                <br /> <br /><ul><li>Motivate</li></ul>        Attention<br />        Elicit emotion<br /> <br /><ul><li>Simplify</li></ul>        Storage/Retrieval<br />        Organize<br />        Illustrate relationships <br /> <br /><ul><li>Increase comprehension </li></li></ul><li>Audience Considerations<br /><ul><li>Visual Literacy level
  4. 4. Age/Development (section vs. whole)
  5. 5. Culture
  6. 6. Socioeconomic background
  7. 7. Preference     Effectiveness </li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Practice time</li></ul>        Decode:<br />            View                                            <br />            Critique<br />            Analyze<br />        <br />        Encode:<br />            Create<br />            Produce<br />            Sequence<br />
  8. 8. Visual Design Processes <br />Procedures<br /> <br /><ul><li>Elements</li></ul>        What visual and verbal components will enhance the display?<br /> <br /><ul><li>Patterns</li></ul>        What underlying pattern(s) will you choose for the elements?<br /> <br /><ul><li>Arrangement</li></ul>        How will you arrange the elements within the pattern?<br />        <br /> <br />
  9. 9. Visual Elements<br /><ul><li>Analogic </li></ul> <br />                                               Writing a Narrative Essay<br /> <br /> <br /><ul><li>Realistic</li></ul> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /><ul><li>Organizational</li></ul> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  10. 10. Verbal Elements<br /><ul><li>Lettering Style </li></ul>         Serif (&quot;feet&quot;) - printed text<br />         San Serif (no &quot;feet&quot;) - online text<br />         Limit 4 (bold, italic, fonts, etc.)<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /><ul><li> Size</li></ul>        Lowercase - 1/2&quot; = every 10 feet of    <br />        viewing distance<br /> <br /><ul><li>Spacing</li></ul>           O P T I C A L    S P A C I N G  <br /> <br /><ul><li>Color</li></ul>         Contrast <br />         Audience needs<br />
  11. 11. Visual Appeal<br /><ul><li>Surprise!</li></ul> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /><ul><li> Texture</li></ul> <br /> <br /><ul><li> Interaction</li></ul> <br />
  12. 12. Have you ever read a document where the author has<br />decided to center a long-ish block of text (kind of<br />like I am doing here?)  Isn&apos;t it a little harder to read this<br />text when it&apos;s centered than it would be if it were left-justified?<br />We might argue that it is just a matter of convention, that<br />we are just used to reading text that is left justified. But<br />the principle of alignment suggest that creating a<br />strong implied line connecting objects on the page<br />creates cohesion.<br /> <br />
  13. 13.  <br />Pattern <br /> <br />Establish an underlying pattern to decide how the viewer&apos;s eye will flow across your display.<br /> <br />Major factors that affect the overall look:<br /> <br /><ul><li>alignment of elements
  14. 14. shape
  15. 15. balance
  16. 16. style
  17. 17. color scheme and appeal</li></li></ul><li>Alignment  <br /> <br />Placing elements within a display so they have clear visual relationship to one another.<br />Right hand alignment<br />
  18. 18.  <br />Grids keep complex alignments all lined up.<br />
  19. 19.  <br />It&apos;s okay to break alignment when it serves a specific purpose such as to intentionally create tension or draw attention to a specific element of the page. (Also an example of asymmetical balance.)<br />
  20. 20. Rule of Thirds, Shape and Balance<br /> <br /> <br />&quot;Rule of Thirds&quot; - elements arranged along any of the one-third dividing lines take on importance and liveliness.<br /> <br />Shape - use a pattern that attracts and focuses attention.<br /> <br />Balance - balance is achieved when the &quot;weight&quot; of the elements in a display is equally distributed.<br />
  21. 21.  <br />all over balance <br /> <br />rule of thirds and asymmetrical balance<br />
  22. 22.  <br /> <br />use of shape<br />
  23. 23. Color Scheme<br /> <br />Complementary colors lie opposite each other on a color wheel.<br /> <br />Analogous colors lie next to each other on the color wheel.<br />Warm colors excite<br />Cool colors calm<br />
  24. 24.  <br />Color Appeal<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Cheerios uses complementary colors to appeals to consumers.  The main colors are warm, exciting colors. Johnson&apos;s uses analogous cool colors to appeal to consumers.<br />
  25. 25. Arrangement<br />Proximity - put related elements close together.<br /> <br />Directionals - are used to direct the viewers to &quot;read&quot; the display in a particular sequence.<br /> <br />Contrast - Dark figures show up best on light grounds and light figures show up best on dark grounds.<br /> <br />Consistency - Be consistent in use of elements on computer screens, overhead slides, or handouts.<br /> <br />Examples <br /> http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/designprin1/start.htm<br />
  26. 26. Using directionals<br /> <br />Proximity<br />
  27. 27. Visual Planning Tools<br /><ul><li>Storyboard</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Lettering, Size, Spacing</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Drawing, Sketching, Cartooning</li></ul> <br /> <br />
  28. 28.      Visual Design Checklist<br /> <br />
  29. 29. Visual Application Challenge  <br /> <br />With your group, create a visual to utilize in your final class project using the principles discussed.<br />
  30. 30. References<br />Heinich, R, Molenda, M, Russell, J.D., & Smaldino, S.E. (Ed.).<br />     (2002). Instructional media and technologies for learning: <br />     visual principles. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill Prentice Hall. <br />

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