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Advances in pharmacy

This presentation gives a brief explanation about the few advances taken place in the field of pharmaceutical sciences

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Advances in pharmacy

  2. 2. ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY 1.Balloon Angioplasty 2.Nerve Regeneration 3.Cancer spit test
  3. 3. BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY  The new bio-absorbable stent , which can dissolve completely after some 18-odd months in the blood vessel , is set to revolutionize the treatment of cardiac problems in India  Angioplasty and stenting are usually done through a small puncture, or sometimes a small incision, in your skin, called the access site.  Your vascular surgeon inserts a long, thin tube called a catheter through this access site.  Using X-ray guidance, your physician then guides the catheter through your blood vessels to the blocked area  The tip of the catheter carries the angioplasty balloon or stent.
  4. 4.  Doctors at the National University Heart Centre, Singapore (NUHCS) started using the new stent from February 2011 as part of a global clinical trial that is still on  More than 600 patients have taken part in the trial, which aims to have 1,000 patients from up to 100 centres in Europe, the Asia-Pacific, Canada and Latin America.  It will cost Rs 2.85 to 3 lakh for each stent , and the entire hospitalization may cost a patient over Rs 4 lakh for a single stent
  5. 5. NERVE REGENERATION  New discovery gives hope that nerves could be repaired after spinal cord injury  Researchers from Imperial College London and the Hertie Institute, University of Tuebingen have identified a possible mechanism for re-growing damaged nerve fibres in the central nervous system (CNS).  The research highlights the role of a protein called P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), which appears to be essential for the series of chemical and genetic events that allow nerves to regenerate.
  6. 6.  A Nano gel developed at Northwestern University eliminates that impediment  Injected as a liquid, the Nano gel self-assembles into a scaffold of nanofibers.  Peptides expressed in the fibers instruct stem cells that would normally form scar tissue to produce cells that encourage nerve development.
  7. 7. CANCER SPIT TEST  Researchers at Johns Hopkins led a proof-of-principle study that successfully identified tumor DNA shed into the blood and saliva of 93 patients with head and neck cancer.  Detection of somatic mutations and HPV in the saliva and plasma of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.  Blood tests appeared to find more cancers in the larynx, hypopharynx, and oropharynx.
  8. 8.  Inborn genetic predispositions for most head and neck cancers are rare, but other mutations that don't generally occur in normal cells have long been considered good targets for screening tests  The scientists detected tumor DNA in the saliva of 71 of the 93 patients (76%) and in the blood of 41 of the 47 (87%).  saliva tests fared better than blood tests for oral cavity cancers.
  9. 9. ADVANCES IN PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY 1. Nano cosmeceuticals 2. Topical delivery system for phytochemicals
  10. 10.  Liposomes are used in a variety of cosmeceuticals because they are biocompatible, biodegradable, nontoxic, and flexible vesicles and can encapsulate active ingredients easily.  Silver nanoparticles are used in cosmeceuticals for their antimicrobial activity.  Cosmeceuticals infer products with more advance function through combination of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Cosmeceuticals can benefit greatly from nanotechnology NANOCOSMECEUTICALS
  11. 11.  when Nano-sized TiO2 administered subcutaneously to pregnant mice, they transferred to the offspring and result in brain damage and reduced sperm production in male offspring  Oro Gold Cosmetics, whose products cost as much as $1,398 for a face mask, includes gold nanoparticles in its formulas and claims that these nanoparticles have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, drive tissue regeneration, restore skin elasticity, and reduce signs of stress and aging
  12. 12. Top FIVE nanotechnology cosmetic products in the world Sunscreens  The most popular nanomaterials used in sunscreens are Nano particulate Zinc oxide (ZnO) and Titanium dioxide (TIO2).  Lancôme and Dior have leading sunscreen products that contain nanotechnology Skin moisturizers  The most widely used nanomaterials are Liposomes, Nano- emulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles.  Lancôme and Nano-Infinity Nanotech are two cosmetic companies which produce skin moisturizers
  13. 13. Anti-wrinkle products  The most popular brand in nanotechnology antiwrinkle products is L'Oréal, which markets an antiwrinkle cream named Ravtalift which contains nanosomes with Pro-retinol A; a modified version of vitamin A specially designed to deliver the nutrient to cells  Lancôme also markets a moisturizing antiwrinkle product by the name of Hydra Zen cream which contains nutrients encapsulated in a Nano sized particle.
  14. 14.  Especially Nano emulsions is emerging as a great method of delivering hair cosmetics to the inner structure of the hair fiber without damaging outer shell called cuticle due to their small size. Another very active area of nanotechnology hair care is sericin nanoparticles, primarily as a sealing agent for damaged hair to treat damaged cuticles. Hair care Skin cleansers  Nanoemulsions and antibacterial nanoparticles have been used to prepare nanotechnology based cosmeceuticals that can provide better cleansing effects
  15. 15. TOPICAL DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR PHYTOCHEMICALS  phytochemicals suffer from limited bioavailability and their full potentials as medicine remains hampered by their physicochemical properties  Capsaicinoids, acid amides of vanyllylamine and C9-C11 branched chain fatty acids, are alkaloids present in Capsicum fruit.  The two major capsaicinoids present in the most varieties of Capsicum fruit are capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, which make up more than 91% of the total capsaicinoids.
  16. 16.  Carbopol gels are prepared using liposome or ethosome suspensions which are used topically.  The incorporation of capsaicin into phospholipid vesicles is expected to increase its skin penetration, resulting in increased localized effect even at lower doses as compared with conventional creams and ointments.  Capsicum tincture was prepared according to Japanese Pharmacopoeia XIII  Liposomes were prepared by the modified film method and ethosomes are also prepared
  17. 17. ADVANCES IN PHARMACOLOGY 1. Anti-Parkinson Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Ficus religiosa (L.) Leaves
  18. 18.  Parkinson’s disease (PD) is caused by the gradual and selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta  Oxidative stress interferes with dopamine metabolism leading to Parkinson’s disease.  The current available drug treatments for PD possess various side effects.  herbal therapies should be considered as alternative/complementary medicines for therapeutic approach. Anti-Parkinson Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Ficus religiosa (L.) Leaves
  19. 19.  Fresh leaves of Ficus religiosa were collected from local area of Ahmedabad district, Gujarat, India, during July– September.  Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 180–220 g, and albino mice of either sex weighing 25–30 g were used and acclimatized to laboratory condition for one week.  Coarsely powdered plant material (1000 g) was weighed and extracted with 5 lit of solvents like petroleum ether (60– 80°C), ethyl acetate, and ethanol by successive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus for 72 h.
  20. 20.  Treatment with F. religiosa significantly reduced the catalepsy in haloperidol treated rats in dose dependent manner.  Haloperidol, an antipsychotic drug, blocks central dopamine receptor in striatum
  21. 21. References   s&biw=1366&bih=657&source=lnms&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj E8PuSy_zKAhUFEpQKHarEANEQ_AUIBSgA&dpr=1#q=recent +advances+in+pharmacognosy+in+india  text/JPDD/201/Topical-delivery-system-for-phytochemicals- capsaicin-and-capsicum-tincture.php  cosmetic-products-in-the-world/
  22. 22.   4040;year=2016;volume=7;issue=1;spage=1;epage=1;aulast =Nagaich  blood-tests-successfully-detect-tumor-dna-from-head-and- neck-cancers/81251434/  nalCordInjury.html  stents-hit-india-most-cant-afford-them/2012-12-17