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Volcano and Eruptions


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Volcano and Eruptions

  1. 1. The best ofThe best of Volcanic EruptionVolcanic Eruption Balraj ShuklaBalraj Shukla
  2. 2. Mount EtnaMount Etna One of the most impressive and active volcanoes, Mount Etna that dominates the landscape of the eastern coast of Sicily in Italy is breathtakingly beautiful. It explodes 10 to 20 times in a century. Each time it’s sides split open in glowing cracks out of which molten lava pours out. It has erupted 200 times and the worst was in 1669. A river of red hot bubbling lava swept over a nearby city and it is believed that over 1,00,000 people were killed in this catastrophe. Etna’s latest eruption was on May 13,2008.
  3. 3. Mount LakiMount Laki The massive eruption of Laki volcano occurred in June 1783, killing many thousands, and spreading a massive haze that covered most of Europe and parts of North America. This cloud was even reported to have extended into Asia and North Africa! This volcano even caused unprecedented weather patterns, violent thunderstorms, hailstorms, killing cattle in the fields and destroying crops. The weather was so harsh that the Icelanders finished all their stored food. The result was a wide spread famine that killed over 9500 people.
  4. 4. Tambora VolcanoTambora Volcano 1815, ‘The year without summer’ was called so because of the series of Volcanic Eruption of Tambora on April 10,1815 that lasted several days. The volcanic column , after flying 40 kms into the sky, returned to the ground, creating a huge flow of ash, pumice and debris. It killed more than 10000 people. The ash that fell from Tambora traveled as far as 1300kms away. Tsunamis as high as 5 meters were seen, resulting in floods, on many Indonesian islands. 200 million tons of gas called sulphur dioxide was shot up into the atmosphere. The temperature was lowered as much sunlight didn’t enter the earth’s surface and this led to killing of crops and creatures.
  5. 5. Krakatoa VolcanoKrakatoa Volcano Krakatoa is a volcano on the Indonesian island of Rakata in the Sunda strait. The worst eruption of this volcano was in August 1883. Due to severe blasts the sea water entered the cracks of this volcano . Due to superheated steam most of the island was destroyed. It’s explosion was heard as far as Australia 3500km away and on the island of Rodrigues in Mauritius 4800km away which is a record explosion. No one was killed in the explosion surprisingly but 36000 people were killed by the tsunamis created by the explosion! For many months spectacular sunsets were created due to that explosion.
  6. 6. Mount PeleeMount Pelee One of the most famous volcanoes on the earth, Mount Pelee, stands on the Martinque island of West Indies. It’s eruption in 1902 destroyed the whole city of St.Pierre, with a death toll of 40000 people. The time of eruption was on 8th May 1902 at 8:08am. Two big clouds were right above the volcano and as it erupted one was thrown in the atmosphere and the other towards St.Pierre which destroyed the whole village in just a few minutes. After the disastrous eruption, the volcano erupted a few times but that wasn’t disastrous as everything had destroyed already.
  7. 7. Mount St. HelensMount St. Helens On May18,1980 in Washington State, Mount St. Helen erupted like a hydrogen bomb and 396m of it’s top part was destroyed and sent the debris 19kms away covering three states Washington, Oregon and Idaho. The eruption caused total devastation to land, lakes and forests. 62 people were dead and there was a loss of a billion dollar. Mount St. Helens has now become a National Volcanic Eruption Monument, and the U.S. uses it as the site to educate people about the danger of volcanic eruption.
  8. 8. Nevado del Ruiz volcanoNevado del Ruiz volcano Nevado del Ruiz , is a volcano situated at Columbia and was known as ‘The Sleeping Lion’ as it had not erupted for 150 years. But in 1985 it erupted, shooting ash 8000m into the air. No one was affected by it, but the ash fell at a town called Armero 50km away. A torrent mud cascaded and it was flooded in the town. The eruption cost Columbia 7.7 billion dollars and 20000 of the 23000 inhabitants were killed. The next day it felt as if there was no city at that place.
  9. 9. Mount PinatuboMount Pinatubo Mount Pinatubo is a volcano in Philippines, which had not erupted for 500 years and so was called ‘The Sleeping Giant.’ But in June 1991 it woke with the second largest volcano of the 20th century and lasted for 9 hours. It created an earthquake and released 15 to 30 million tons of sulphur dioxide. The eruption plume was 34km high and over 400km wide! This was the second largest after the Krakatoa eruption in 1883 and 10 times larger than Mt. St. Helens in 1980. It ejected so much debris in the atmosphere that the global temperature dropped slightly for the next 15 months.
  10. 10. Mt. Etna Mt. Laki Tambora volcano Krakatoa volcano
  11. 11. Mt.Pelee Mt. St. Helens Nevado del Ruiz Mt. Pinatubo