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Research

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Nursing Research

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Research

  1. 1. RESEARCH WORKSHOP: Building a Scientific Foundation JHESSIE L. ABELLA, RN,RM,MAN,CPSO,SMRIN
  2. 2. RESEARCH  Research is a systematic inquiry using scientific methods in answering questions or in solving problems. In the healthcare profession, it attempts to develop, refine and expand body of knowledge about matters that are important to the profession (practice, education, administration)  Defined as a formal, systematic, rigorous and intensive process used for solutions to healthcare or to discover and interpret new facts and trends in clinical practice, education or administration.  Studios inquiry or examination especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts the creation or revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts or practical application of such new revised theories or laws.
  3. 3. Importance of Research  The ultimate goal is to: improve the practice of its members so that the service provided to its clientele will be maximally effective  Enhance professionalism  Increase accountability  Strengthen social relevance of profession  Basis for sound decision making SOURCES OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE  Tradition- certain truth are accepted as given on the basis of inherited custom and traditions  Authority- refer to people with specialized expertise  Experience and Trial and Error- own experience represent a familiar and functional sources of knowledge  Logical reasoning- combines, intellectual faculties and formal system of thought
  4. 4. RESEARCH DO you think Research is IMPORTANT? • Identification naming an unknown phenomenon • Description describe a phenomenon • Exploration “what” • Explanation “why” • Prediction “projects a situation” • Control “puts up a barrier”
  5. 5. • Neonatal Phototherapy and Infantile Cancer • Phototherapy may slightly increase the risk of cancer in infancy, although the absolute risk increase is small. • Potatoes Increase Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus • Higher total potato consumption was significantly associated with an elevated risk for developing T2DM. • Rotating Night Shifts and Risk of Breast Cancer in Women Participating in the Nurses' Health Study • It has been observed a moderate increase in breast cancer risk among the women who worked 1–14 years or 15–29 years on rotating night shifts • Cancer Incidence in the U.S. Radiologic Technologists Health Study, 1983–1998 • Paradigm Shift: 'ABC' To 'CAB' For Cardiac Arrests
  6. 6. • Performance of Urinalysis Tests and their Ability In Predicting Results of Urine Cultures: A Comparison Between Automated Test Strip Analyser and Flow Cytometry • The performance of urinalysis is excellent. Flow cytometry tests performed better than automated test strip analyser in ruling out urine to be cultured • Men Tend To Die Younger Than Women • But the reason for this difference isn't explained by physiological differences. Instead, new research suggests men may die earlier because they prioritize appearing masculine over being honest with their physician about their health • Altering the ‘Flavor’ of Humans Could Help Fight Malaria • Suggests that a specialized area of the mosquito brain mixes tastes with smells to create unique and preferred flavors. • Link Between Zika Infection, Guillain-Barré Syndrome • Researchers tested 42 patients with the rare but potentially paralyzing Guillain- Barré syndrome for evidence of Zika virus infection. Thirty-five, or 83 percent, tested positive for Zika, providing strong evidence that the two are linked.
  7. 7. Ethics in Research Why Study Research Ethics? Principle One: Minimizing the Risk of Harm Principle Two: Obtaining Informed Consent Principle Three: Protecting Anonymity and Confidentiality Principle Four: Avoiding Deceptive Practice Principle Five: Providing the Right to Withdraw
  8. 8. What is Plagiarism? According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, to “plagiarize” means  to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own  to use (another's production) without crediting the source  to commit literary theft  to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source
  9. 9. What Are The Things Considered As Plagiarism?  Turning in someone else’s work as your own  Copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit  Failing to put a quotation in quotation marks  Giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation  Changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit  Copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not (see our section on “fair use” rules)
  10. 10. Changing the words of an original source is not sufficient to prevent plagiarism.
  11. 11. Tips to Avoid Plagiarism
  12. 12. Elements of Research Introduction Methods Results Discussion
  13. 13. The IMRAD Format • The IMRaD format is a way of structuring a scientific article. It is often used in health care and the natural sciences. • Thesis structured using the IMRaD format are usually short and concise. The language will be as plain and as unambiguous as possible. There is no place in this type of writing for personal views and fanciful language.
  14. 14. Introduction • A good introduction is relatively short. • It tells why the reader should find the paper interesting, explains why the author carried out the research, and gives the background the reader needs to understand and judge the paper. • Introduction defines the nature and extent of the problems studied, relates the research to previous work (usually by a brief review of the literature clearly relevant to the problem), explains the objectives of investigation, and defines any specialized terms or abbreviations to be used in what follows.
  15. 15. Introduction Use the introduction to show that you are knowledgeable about your field of study and existing research. Your introduction should contain: • A summary of existing research on the subject • Your thesis statement, hypothesis or research question • Theory (if relevant) • An introduction to the field, the current situation or to prevailing practice • Demonstrate its relevance to real life. The introduction should explain what we know, and what we are uncertain about. It should explain and summarize, but it should also ask questions, clarify, compare etc. Everything you write here must relate to your research question.
  16. 16. Significance of the Study Literature Review Statement of the Problem Hypothesis
  17. 17. Methods The purpose of this section is to present in a simple and direct manner what has been done, how, and when, and how the data were analyzed and presented.  Research Design  Respondents  Instruments  Data Collection  Ethical Consideration  Statistical Treatment of Data

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