Building a Scientific
JHESSIE L. ABELLA, RN,RM,MAN,CPSO,SMRIN
Research is a systematic inquiry using scientific methods in answering questions
or in solving problems. In the healthcare profession, it attempts to develop, refine
and expand body of knowledge about matters that are important to the profession
(practice, education, administration)
Defined as a formal, systematic, rigorous and intensive process used for solutions
to healthcare or to discover and interpret new facts and trends in clinical practice,
education or administration.
Studios inquiry or examination especially investigation or experimentation aimed
at the discovery and interpretation of facts the creation or revision of accepted
theories or laws in the light of new facts or practical application of such new
revised theories or laws.
Importance of Research
The ultimate goal is to: improve the practice of its members so that
the service provided to its clientele will be maximally effective
Strengthen social relevance of profession
Basis for sound decision making
SOURCES OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE
Tradition- certain truth are accepted as given on the basis of inherited custom and
Authority- refer to people with specialized expertise
Experience and Trial and Error- own experience represent a familiar and functional
sources of knowledge
Logical reasoning- combines, intellectual faculties and formal system of thought
DO you think Research is IMPORTANT?
• Identification naming an unknown phenomenon
• Description describe a phenomenon
• Exploration “what”
• Explanation “why”
• Prediction “projects a situation”
• Control “puts up a barrier”
• Neonatal Phototherapy and Infantile Cancer
• Phototherapy may slightly increase the risk of cancer in
infancy, although the absolute risk increase is small.
• Potatoes Increase Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
• Higher total potato consumption was significantly associated
with an elevated risk for developing T2DM.
• Rotating Night Shifts and Risk of Breast Cancer in
Women Participating in the Nurses' Health Study
• It has been observed a moderate increase in breast cancer risk
among the women who worked 1–14 years or 15–29 years on
rotating night shifts
• Cancer Incidence in the U.S. Radiologic Technologists
Health Study, 1983–1998
• Paradigm Shift: 'ABC' To 'CAB' For Cardiac Arrests
• Performance of Urinalysis Tests and their Ability In Predicting Results of Urine
Cultures: A Comparison Between Automated Test Strip Analyser and Flow
• The performance of urinalysis is excellent. Flow cytometry tests performed better
than automated test strip analyser in ruling out urine to be cultured
• Men Tend To Die Younger Than Women
• But the reason for this difference isn't explained by physiological differences.
Instead, new research suggests men may die earlier because they prioritize
appearing masculine over being honest with their physician about their health
• Altering the ‘Flavor’ of Humans Could Help Fight Malaria
• Suggests that a specialized area of the mosquito brain mixes tastes with smells to
create unique and preferred flavors.
• Link Between Zika Infection, Guillain-Barré Syndrome
• Researchers tested 42 patients with the rare but potentially paralyzing Guillain-
Barré syndrome for evidence of Zika virus infection. Thirty-five, or 83 percent,
tested positive for Zika, providing strong evidence that the two are linked.
Ethics in Research
Why Study Research Ethics?
Principle One: Minimizing the Risk of Harm
Principle Two: Obtaining Informed Consent
Principle Three: Protecting Anonymity and Confidentiality
Principle Four: Avoiding Deceptive Practice
Principle Five: Providing the Right to Withdraw
What is Plagiarism?
According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, to
to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own
to use (another's production) without crediting the source
to commit literary theft
to present as new and original an idea or product derived from
an existing source
What Are The Things Considered As Plagiarism?
Turning in someone else’s work as your own
Copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
Failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
Giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation
Changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source
without giving credit
Copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the
majority of your work, whether you give credit or not (see our section
on “fair use” rules)
Changing the words of an
original source is not sufficient
to prevent plagiarism.
Elements of Research
The IMRAD Format
• The IMRaD format is a way of structuring a scientific article.
It is often used in health care and the natural sciences.
• Thesis structured using the IMRaD format are usually short
and concise. The language will be as plain and as
unambiguous as possible. There is no place in this type of
writing for personal views and fanciful language.
• A good introduction is relatively short.
• It tells why the reader should find the paper interesting, explains
why the author carried out the research, and gives the
background the reader needs to understand and judge the paper.
• Introduction defines the nature and extent of the problems
studied, relates the research to previous work (usually by a brief
review of the literature clearly relevant to the problem), explains
the objectives of investigation, and defines any specialized terms
or abbreviations to be used in what follows.
Use the introduction to show that you are knowledgeable about
your field of study and existing research. Your introduction should
• A summary of existing research on the subject
• Your thesis statement, hypothesis or research question
• Theory (if relevant)
• An introduction to the field, the current situation or to prevailing
• Demonstrate its relevance to real life.
The introduction should explain what we know, and what we are
uncertain about. It should explain and summarize, but it should
also ask questions, clarify, compare etc. Everything you write here
must relate to your research question.
Significance of the Study
Statement of the Problem
The purpose of this section is to present in a simple and direct
manner what has been done, how, and when, and how the data
were analyzed and presented.
Statistical Treatment of Data