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  • The creation of man as told by the Bible suggested that man’s leadership and management tasks have begun since the beginning of time.
  • The Philippine Nursing Law of 2002 still emphasize these concerns of Filipino nurses.
  • RA 442 “Labor Code of the Phils” provides workers the right to self organization and collective bargaining. This also further promote the rights and the welfare of the workers.
  • Transactional leadership - leader exerts influence during daily exchanges with employees without much emotion contingent reward - rewards in exchange for reaching mutually agreed upon goals active mgt. by exception - watch for deviations from rules and then take corrective actions passive mgt. by exception - intervene only if stds not met laissez faire - avoiding decisions Transformational leadership charisma - vision, sense of mission inspiration - high expectations intellectual stimulation - promotes intelligence individualized consideration - personal attention, coaches and advises
  • Leade111rship

    2. 2. Nursing Leadership and ManagementCourse Description:This course deals with the application of the concepts, principles, theoriesand methods of developing nursing leaders and managers in the hospitaland community-based settings. It also includes ethic moral/legalaspects of health care and nursing practice and the nurses’ responsibilitiesfor personal and professional growth.Course Objective:At the end of the course, given a group of clients with varied conditions, the studentshould be able to:1. Utilize the nursing process in the care of individuals, families, population group, in hospital and community settings.1.1 assesses with client/s his/her/their condition/health status through interview, physical examination and interpretation of laboratory findings1.2 identifies actual and at-risk nursing diagnosis1.3 plans appropriate nursing interventions with client/s and family for identified nursing diagnosis1.4 implements plan of care with client/s and family1.5 evaluates the progress of the client’s condition and outcomes of care;
    3. 3. 2. Ensure a well organized and accurate documentation and reporting system;3. Demonstrate leadership and competence in the performance of her responsibilities as a beginning nurse practitioner in the hospital or community setting4. Observes bioethical principles, core values, and standards of nursing care while practicing nursing5. Promote personal and professional growth for self and others
    4. 4. Leadership and Management: An OverviewGod created man in his own image and in doingso he was tasked to have dominion over all the things created before Him. It was the solemn divine decision that emphasized man ’s place at the climax of God ’s creative work (Genesis 1:26-27)
    5. 5. Leadership and Management: An Overview• Nursing management is based on theories where concepts are included together with methods, and principles. Relationship between principle could be observed and verify to certain degree if translated in to the art of practice of nursing management.• Concept are not fragmented thoughts, ideas and general beliefs in relation to nursing management but rather concepts that can serve as unifying ideas, thus, forming a foundation for action or discussion.• Principles are known to be those fundamentals truths, law or doctrines wherein other beliefs or notions are founded. Principles serve as guided to concept, thoughts or actions in a work situation.
    6. 6. Leadership and Management: An Overview Nurses realize that they have to keep up with the many changes in the health care system and its delivery of service to the people. The Nursing Act of 1991 focuses on three changes in the efforts to improve the people’s health.• From hospital or institutional care, emphasis shifted to community health delivery;• From emphasis on physical care, efforts are now directed towards holistic approach to the care of individuals, families and communities and
    7. 7. Leadership and Management: An OverviewDefinition of Nursing Management:• The management process is universal. For nurses, knowledge of this process assures them of the smooth functioning of the units to attain their goal of quality care through the judicious use of available human and material resources within specified periods.• Focus on planning, organizing, staffing, directing or leading and controlling or evaluating all activities of the nursing system.• Defined as a process of coordinating actions and allocating resources to achieve organization goals of the healthcare delivery system
    8. 8. Harbizon and Myerz offer a classic three fold concept to emphasize the broader scope of management. They observe that management is:• AN ECONOMIC RESOURCE management is one of the factors of production together with land, labor and capital. • SYSTEM OF AUTHORITY management first develops with top individuals determining the course of action for the rank and file. This is followed by constitutional management which emphasizes definite and consistent concern for policies and procedures in dealing with the working group. The trend toward a democratic and
    9. 9. • AN ELITE CLASS management is a class and status system. Managers have become an elite group of brains and educations. Entrance to this class is based on education and knowledge. The new managers continue to expand theirhorizon in an effort to attain the ultimate in life.
    10. 10. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF NURSING MANAGEMENT• Nursing management is PL ANNING• Nursing management is t he EFFECTIVE USE OF TIME• Nursing management is DECISION MAKING• MEETING PATIENT’S NURSING CARE NEEDS is business of t he nurse managers• Nursing management is t he FORMULATION and ACHIEVEMENT of SOCIAL GOALS• Nursing management is ORGANIZING• Nursing management denotes a FUNCTION, SOCIAL POSITION OR RANK, A DISCIPLINE AND A FIELD OF STUDY
    11. 11. •Nursing management denotes a FUNCTION, SOCIAL POSITION OR RANK, A DISCIPLINE AND A FIELD OF STUDY•Organizational cultures REFLECTS VALUES AND BELIEFS•Nursing management is DIRECTING OR LEADING•A well managed division of nursing MOTIVATES EMPLOYEES TO PERFORM SATISFACTORILY•Nursing management is EFFICIENT COMMUNICATION•Nursing management is CONTROLLING OR EVALUATION
    12. 12. Role of Manager
    13. 13. Developing Future ManagersManagerial development programs are very useful means of getting qualified managers. According to Katz, the necessary fundamental skills of a manager are: • Technical Skills • Human Skills •
    14. 14. LEVELS OF SKILLS MANAGEMENT IN NURSING• CONCEPTUAL – individual’s mental ability to coordinate a variety of interests and activities. Thinks critically and able to conceptualize how things could be. VISIONARY• INTERPERSONAL – individuals’ preferred ways of using language, the degrees to which they listens, and their ways on responding to others.• TECHNICAL- tools, procedures, and techniques that are unique to the nurse manager’s specialized situation. Master of the job-viewed as a source of help. AN EXPERT.
    15. 15. Top Tech- Management Conceptual Human nical Middle Conceptual Human TechnicalManagement First-Line Con-Management Human Technical ceptual Proportions of Management skills needed at Different levels of management
    16. 16. Concerned with broad-based, long- Top range decisions that affect the entireManagement organization; therefore, conceptual skill is most important at that level Focuses basically on her or his group, First-Line Therefore, the need for conceptual skill isManagement at a minimum The need to be able to understand and work with people is important at all levels,Human Skill but the first-line manager’s position places a premium on human skill requirements because of the great number of employee interactions required
    17. 17. A nurse manager performs these management functions to deliver health care to patients. Nurse managers or administrators work at all levels to put into practice the concepts, principles and theories of nursing management.They manage the organizational environment to provide a climate optimal to provision of nursing care by the clinical nurses.
    18. 18.  Technical Skills relates to the proficiency in performing an activity in the correct manner with the right technique.Human relationship skills pertain to dealing with people and how to “get along” with them.Conceptual skills deals with the ability to see individual matters as they relate to the total picture and to develop creative ways of identifying pertinent factors, responding to the big problems and discarding irrelevant facts.
    19. 19. Another approach in developing managers ispostulated by Summer in his early work whichemphasize knowledge, attitude and ability factors.K nowledge factors re fe r to id e a s , c o nc e p ts o r p rinc ip le s tha t c a n be e x p re s s e d a nd a re a c c e p te d be c a us e the y ha ve lo g ic a l p ro o fs .Attitude factors re la te to tho s e be lie fs , fe e ling s a nd va lue s tha t m a y be ba s e d o n e m o tio ns a nd m a y no t be s ubje c te d to c o ns c io us ve rba liz a tio n.Ability factors inc lud e s kills , a rt, jud g m e nt
    20. 20. Qualification of Nursing Service Administrators Be a registered nurse in the Philippines Have at least two (2) years of experience in general nursing service administrators Possess a degree of bachelor of Science in Nursing, with at least nine (9) units in managerial and administration course at the graduate level; and Be a member of good standing of the accredited professional organization of nurse It is provided, however, that a person occupying the position of Chief Nurse or Director of Nursing Service shall, in addition to the foregoing qualification, possess:
    21. 21. Qualif ication of Nursing Ser vice Administrators At least five (5) years of experience in a supervisory or managerial position in nursing; andA Master’s Degree Major in NursingAs per Memorandum Circular No. 2000-05,series of2000 of the PRC, BON.A new trend in hospital nursing is clinical specialization. Nurses train in aspecial field of nursing of their choice. Courses to prepare nurse desiringto perfect their clinical opportunities are offered in universities, usuallyat the master’s level. These nurses must have the experience requiredbefore applying for a position as an expert practitioner.
    22. 22. Qualification of the Chairperson and Members of the BoardThe Chairperson and Member of the Board shall, at the times of theappointment, posses the following requirements.o A natural born citizen and resident of the Philippineso A member of a good standing of the accredited professional organization of nurseso A registered nurse and holder of a Master’ Degree in Nursing, education or other allied medical profession conferred by a college or university duly recognize by the government. Provided , that the majority of the Member of the Board shall be holder of a master’s degree in nursing: Provided, further That the Chairperson shall be a holder of a master’s degree in nursing.o Must have at least ten (10) years of continuous practice of the profession prior to appointment. Provided, however. That the last five (5) years of which shall be in the Philippines.o Must not have been convicted of any offense involving moral turpitude.o Membership to the Board shall represent the three areas of nursing, namely, nursing education, nurisng service and community health.
    23. 23. Qualification of the Faculty and the Dean of the College of NursingA member of the faculty in a college of nursing teaching professional courses must : Be a registered Nurse in the Philippines Ha ve at least one (1) year of clinical nursing practice in a f ield of specialization Be a member of good standing in the accredited professional organization of nurses and Be a holder of a master’s deg ree in nursing, education, or other allied medical and health sciences conferred by a college or university duly recognized by the Government of the RP.
    24. 24. Qualification of the Faculty and the Dean of the College of NursingThe career ladder in nursing education starts with a Clinical Instructor’s position up to the Dean of a College of Nursing. A dean in a College of Nursing should possess; Master’s Deg ree in Nursing Must ha ve at least f ive (5) years of experience in teaching and super vision.Those teaching in Graduate Prog rams for nurses must possess post-Master’s Deg ree or Doctoral Deg ree in Nursing. Prior to promotion or holding of managerial positions, nurses who have the potential to become administrators are asked to participate in managerial staff development program. The organization then will have a ready pool of managers who are academically and locally trained to assume managerial roles.
    25. 25. Who Needs Nursing Management?
    26. 26. • All types of health-care organizations, including nursing homes, hospitals, home health-care agencies, ambulatory care centers, student infirmaries, and many others, need nursing management.• Even the nurse working with one client and family needs management knowledge and skills to help people work together to accomplish a common goal.• A primary nurse working with several clients prioritizes their care to assist time to improve health or, sometimes, peaceful death.
    27. 27. THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS CONTROLLING assessing/regulating performance DIRECTING actuating efforts to accomplish goals ORGANIZING establishing formal authority PLANNING thinking ahead, making projections to achieve desired results
    28. 28. Universality of Management Top P O D S CManagement Middle P O D S CManagement First-Line P O D S CManagement Amount of Emphasis on Management Function P - Planning S - Staffing O - Organizing C - Controlling D - Directing
    29. 29. Scenario:A nurse –manager spent part of the day working on the budget(Planning) , meet with the staff about changing the patient caremanagement delivery system from primary care to team nursing(Organizing), altered the staffing policy to include 12- hour shifts(staffing), held a meeting to resolve a conflict between nurses andphysicians (Directing), and gave an employee a job performanceevaluation (Controlling).Not only would the nurse-manager be performing all phases of the management process, but each function has a planning, implementing, and controlling phase.
    30. 30. Principles ofManagement
    31. 31. Henry Fayol A French mining engineer, developed 14 principles of management based on his management experience. He pioneer in the field of management education. He has been rightly called as “father of management process school. He was first person who laid emphasis on the process of management.
    32. 32. Fayol’s Principle of Management are presented as follows;  Division of Work- specialization makes employees more efficient which results to more and better outputs.  Authority- managers have the authority to give orders. Along with authority goes responsibility. Whenever authority is exercise responsibility arise.  Discipline- there is discipline when employees obey the rules that govern  Unity of Command-in this aspect of management it is imperative that each employee should receive orders from one supervisor.
    33. 33.  Unity of Direction- for each group of organizational activities having the same objective, direction comes from manager using one plan. Subordination of individual interest to general interest- an emlpoyee or group of employees’ interest should not precede over the interest of the whole organization. Remuneration- emlpoyee must be paid a fair wage for their service rendered to the organization.
    34. 34.  Centralization- the degree to which the subordinates are involved in decision making. The task is to determine the optimum degree of centralization from every situation. Scalar Chain- this represents the line of authority from top management to the lowest rank in the organization. Communication should follow this scalar chain. Order- there is order when people and materials are in the right place at the same time. Equity- it exist when managers observes kindness and fairness to their subordinates.
    35. 35.  Stability of Tenure- when there is a high employee turnover, there is ineffective management. Management should see to it that an orderly personnel planning is provided and ensures that replacement are available to fill vacancies. Initiative- whenever employees are allowed to originate and carry out plans they are expected to exert high level of efforts. Esprit de Corps- promotion of team spirit build harmony and unity within the organization
    36. 36. The Story of the Donkey Stuck in a Well
    37. 37. One day a farmer’s donkey fell down into a well.The donkey cried piteously for hours as the farmer tried to figure out what to do.Finally, the farmer decided the animal was old, and the well needed to be covered up anyway; it just wasn’t worth it to retrieve the donkey. He invited all his neighbors to come over and help him. They all grabbed a shovel and began to shovel dirt into the well. At f irst, the donkey realized what was happening and cried even more loudly in panic and
    38. 38. A few shovel loads later, the farmer looked down the well. He was astonished at what he saw. With each shovel of dirt that hit his back, the donkey was doing something amazing. He would shake off the dirt and take a step up.As the farmer’s neighbors continued to shovel dirt on top of the donkey, he would shake it off and take another step up. Pretty soon, everyone was amazed as the donkey stepped up over the edge of the well and happily trotted off!
    39. 39. Life is going to shovel dirt on you, all kinds of dirt. The trick to getting out of the well is to shake it off and take a step up. Each of our troubles is a steppingstone. We can get out of the deepest wells just by not stopping, never giving up! Shake it off and take a step up. Remember the five simple rules to be happy: Free your heart from hatred – Forgive. Free your mind from worries – Most never happen. Live simply and appreciate what you have. Give more. Expect less 
    40. 40. The Mea ning of Leadership Is a social influence or a person’s ability to move other people to act Influence processes involving determination of the group’s or organization’s objectives Motivating task behavior in pursuit of these objectives, and Influencing group maintenance and cultureL – LEAD, LOVE, LEARNE – ENTHUSIASTIC, ENERGETICA – ASSERTIVE, ACHIEVERD – DEDICATED, DESIROUSE – EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVER – RESPONSIBLE, RESPECTFUL
    41. 41. • Is defined as a process of influence Leadership• Is not limited to people in traditional positions of authority.• A leader influence others to move in the direction of achieving goals.• Leadership occurs in different dynamics and settings• Leadership is commonly defined as a process of influence whereby the leader influences others toward goal achievement
    43. 43. VISION• Provides direction to the influence process.• For leadership to occur, leaders must communicate the vision the their followers in such a way that the followers adopt the vision as their own• It is essential for organizational effectiveness and success
    44. 44. INFLUENCE• Ability to obtain followers, compliance or request• It is a skill that can be developed , and is one of a major components of the power triangle
    45. 45. POWER  Ability to efficiently and effectively exercise authority and control through personal, organizational and social strength Ability to impose the will of one person or group to bring about certain behaviors in other groups or persons
    46. 46. AUTHORITY• Represents the right to expect or secure complia nce• Authority is backed by legitimacy
    47. 47. RESPONSIBILITY Corresponding obligation and accountability for all actions done Ability to do assigned task Responsibilities fall into 2 categories: individual and organizational
    48. 48. W are the characteristics hatof a LEADER to besuccessful?• There must be reciprocal relationship (C.I.R)• There must be positive interaction“A person in a position of authority is not automatically a LEADER” “Leadership and positions are not
    49. 49. Formal and Informal Leadership – Formal Leadership • is based on occupying a position in an organization, called assigned leadership – Informal Leadership • occurs when an individual demonstrates leadership outside the scope of a formal leadership role or as a member of a group, rather than as the head or leader of the group. The informal leader can be considered to emerge as a leader when accepted by others and perceived to have influence. 51
    50. 50. • A guiding VISION• CORE values of Leaders PASSION• Integrity• Curiosity• Flexibility• Intelligence• Ability to support Others• Self Confidence• Desire
    51. 51. Leaders VS Managers
    52. 52. Leaders VS Managers
    53. 53. Do you know them?
    54. 54. Do you know them?
    55. 55. Who are the nursingleaders that youknow??
    57. 57. LEADERS AND MANAGERS A manager is a title that can be given that signifies a position – a leader is a title that other people give you. Managers Demand Respect – Leaders Command Respect Managers Have Subordinates – Leaders Have Followers Managers administer - Leaders innovate Managers demand - Leaders command Managers maintain - Leaders develop Managers focus on systems – Leaders focus on people Managers strive for control – Leaders inspire trust Managers have short-term view – Leaders have a long-term goal Managers are focused on the  bottom line – Leaders are focused on potential Managers imitate - Leaders originate Managers do things right – Leaders do the right thing Managers state their position – Leaders earn their position
    58. 58. Leadership POWER An essential part of leadership or management is to influence the people you manage so that they do
    59. 59. Reward Pow er• This type of influence is created when the leader is able to offer a reward to his followers for completing tasks/behaving in a certain manner. Rewards in the workplace can take a variety of forms from chocolates, gift vouchers and holidays to promotions, commission and pay rises.• This type of power needs to be used carefully to prevent followers becoming accustomed to rewards and refusing to complete routine tasks without a reward. Generally rewards should not be offered, to follower
    60. 60. Coercive Power• This is the opposite of re ward pow er because this power is based on the leader having control over what happens if followers do not act as required. If followers do not undertake the action required, the leader will impose a penalty. Penalties tak e a varie ty of forms including withdr awal of privileges, job losses, verbal abuse, and delay ed or loss of promotion. In all cases the leader will need to choose the penalty carefully to prevent breaking the law or being the subject of an employment tribunal.• Coercive powers should be used carefully; overuse can lead to unhappy employ ee follow ers . Unhappy followers can be negative or unmotivated , they may resign or adopt a “work to rule” attitude. Work to rule is where employees refuse to undertake any duties (or adopt working practices) that are not stated in their contract.
    61. 61. Legi t i m e P er at owThi s i s t he pow er t hat a l eader has w hen t he f ol l owers bel i eve t hat t he l eader has “a ri ght ” t o i ns t ruc t t hem and t hat t hey have an obl i gat i on t o f ol l ow i ns t ruc t i ons . Som i m l egi t i m y pow et es ac er i s c reat ed by t he l eader’ s j ob t i t l e ( s uc h as c apt ai n, doc t or, or area m anager) , c om ned w t h t he f ol l ow bi i er’ s bel i ef t hat t he j ob t i t l e gi ves t he l eader t he ri ght t o gi ve t hem orders .R erent P er ef owThi s i s cr eat ed when t he f ol l ower s bel i eve t hat t he l eader possess qual i t i es t hat t hey adm r e and woul d l i ke t o possess. The i f ol l ower s i dent i f y wi t h t hei r l eader and at t empt t o copy t hei r l eader . As r ef er ent power i s dependant on how t he f ol l ower vi ews t he per sonal i t y of t hei r l eader , a l eader wi l l not have r ef er ent power over ever y f ol l ower t hey l ead. Som l eader s wi l l have e r ef er ent power over j ust a f ew, whi l st ot her s such as Ghandi have l ead m l l i ons t hr ough t hei r per sonal i t y and char i sm i a.Expert P er ow As t he t i t l e suggest s a l eader has exper t power when t he f ol l ower s bel i eve t hat t he l eader has “ exper t ” knowl edge or ski l l s t hat ar e r el evant t o t he j ob or t asks t hey have t o com et e. Of t en an pl exper i enced m ber of t he t eam or st af f i n an or gani sat i on, can em have exper t power even t hough t hey ar e not a super vi sor or m anager .
    62. 62. • Reward power needs follower to believe leader will reward them.• Coercive power needs follower to believe leader will punish them.• Legitimate power needs follower to believe leader has right to instruct them.• Referent power need follower to
    63. 63. Archives for LifeLessons No.2A priest offered a Nun a lift.She got in and crossed her legs, forcing her gown to reveal a leg.The priest nearly had an accident.After controlling the car, he stealthily slid his hand up her leg…The nun said, ‘Father, remember Psalm 129?’The priest removed his hand. But, changing gears, he let his hand slide up her leg again.  The nun once again said, ‘Father, remember Psalm 129?’
    64. 64. The priest apologized ‘Sorry sister but the flesh is weak.’Arriving at the convent, the nun sighed heavily and went on her way.On his arrival at the church, the priest rushed to look up Psalm 129. It said, ‘Go forth and seek, further up,
    65. 65. EMPOWEREMENT The process by which we facilitate the participation of others in decision making and take action within an environment where there is equitable distribution of power
    66. 66. AUTHORITARIAN (AUTOCRATIC) I want both of y ou to. . .
    67. 67. AUTHORITARIAN(AUTOCRATIC) This style is used when leaders tell their em ployees what they want done and how they want it accom plished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it is when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated. Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power. This is not the authoritarian style, rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style called bossing people around. It has no place in a leaders repertoire. The authoritarian style should norm ally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style.
    68. 68. Autocratic or Authoritarian Leadership Style Leader Characteristics:Style:  Concerns with TASK Decision is made ACCOMPLISHMENT rather than W ITHOUT ANY relationships FORM OF  Uses DIRECTIVE behavior CONSULTAION  Exercises POW with COERSION ER Rely on threats and  Makes decisions ALONE punishment to  Expects RESPECT & OBEDIENCE of staff influence employees Do NOT TRUST subordinates NO SUBORDINATE input
    69. 69. Autocratic or Authoritarian LeadershipINEFFECTIVE when subordinates: Style EFFECTIVE when:become tense, fearful, or resentful  Employees do not respond to any other leadership styleexpect to have their  There is high-volume production opinions heard  There is limited time to make ahave low morale, decision  A manager’s power is challenged by high turnover and an employee absenteeism and work stoppage
    70. 70. PARTICIPATIVE (DEMOCRATIC) Lets work together to solve this. . .
    71. 71. PARTICIPATIVE (DEMOCRATIC)• This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect.• This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything -- this is why you employ knowledgeable and skillful employees. Using
    72. 72. Participative/DemocraticLeadership Style  also known as consultation, empowerment, joint decision-making, democratic leadership, Management By Objective (MBO) and power- sharing.
    73. 73. Participative/DemocraticLeadership Style Leader Characteristics: Concerns with human relations & teamwork Fosters open & two- way communication Recognizes and encourages achievement
    74. 74. Bureaucratic Leadership StyleStyle: Leader Everything is done Char act er ist ics: according to procedure or policy manages “by t he book” Exer cises power by exer cising f ixed r ules Tends t o r elat e
    75. 75. LAISSEZ FAIR E (DELEGATIVE) You two take care of the problem while I go…
    76. 76. LAISSEZ FAIRE (DELEGATIVE)• In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do ever ything! You must set priorities and delegate cer tain tasks.• This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely!
    77. 77. Laissez Faire Leadership Style A.K.A. “hands-off” little or no direction followers have all freedom and authority subordinates determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own.
    78. 78. Laissez Faire Leadership Style EFFECTI VE when EMPLOYEES ar e: I NEFFECTI VE when…highly skilled, • It makes experienced, employees f eel and educated. insecure at thetrustworthy unavailability of aUtilizing manager. outside experts, such as • Leaders are staf f specialists ungratef ul
    79. 79. Theories of Leadership
    80. 80. Evolution of Leadership Theory Leadership theory is an evolving field; while these highlight the mostcommon theories of the last century, more theories continue to be researched in the elusive search for a definitive understanding of leadership. More recent leadership theories are discussed on the following slides.
    81. 81. GREAT MAN THEORY• This theory assumes that the capacity for leadership is ”leaders are born inherent, that great not made”• These theories portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise leadership when needed
    82. 82. Trait TheoryTraits that are related to leadership effectiveness:  Intelligence traits - knowledge, judgment, decisiveness.  Personality traits - adaptability, creativity, integrity, etc.  Ability traits – ability to enlist cooperation, popularity, prestige, etc.
    83. 83. Trait TheoriesTrait Theories• Assume some people have certain characteristics or traits that make them better leaders than others• Studied great leaders throughout history• Power and situations were ignored
    84. 84. Rensis Liker t• He developed Likert Scales and Linking Pin Model• He also developed an Organizational Design• He identify 4 main styles of leadership called the Four (4) Systems Approach
    85. 85. Four Systems Model System 1 - Exploitative Authoritative: Responsibility lies in the hands of the people at the upper echelons of the hierarchy. The superior has no trust and confidence in subordinates. The decisions are imposed on subordinates and they do not feel free at all to discuss things about the job with their superior. The teamwork or communication is very little and the motivation is based on threats. System 2 - Benevolent Authoritative: The responsibility lies at the managerial levels but not at the lower levels of the organizational hierarchy. The superior has condescending confidence and trust in subordinates (master-servant relationship). Here again, the subordinates do not feel free to discuss things about the job with their superior. The teamwork or communication is very little and motivation is based on a system of rewards.
    86. 86. Four Systems Model• System 3 - Consultative:  Responsibility is spread widely through the organizational hierarchy. The superior has substantial but not complete confidence in subordinates. Some amount of discussion about job related things takes place between the superior and subordinates. There is a fair amount of teamwork, and communication takes place vertically and horizontally. The motivation is based on rewards and involvement in the job.• System 4 - Participative:  Responsibility for achieving the organizational goals is widespread throughout the organizational hierarchy. There is a high level of confidence that the superior has in his subordinates. There is a high level of teamwork,
    87. 87. Robert R. Blake & Jane Mouton• Developed the Managerial Grid Model which attempt to conceptualize management in terms of relations and leadership• They characterized 5 leadership styles according to two dimensions: concern for task or production and concern for people
    88. 88. The Major Leadership Grid Styles1,1 Impoverished management. Often referred to as Laissez-faire leadership. Leaders in thisposition have little concern for people or productivity, avoid taking sides, and stay out of conflicts.They do just enough to get by.1,9 Country Club management. Managers in this position have great concern for people andlittle concern for production. They try to avoid conflicts and concentrate on being well liked. Tothem the task is less important than good interpersonal relations. Their goal is to keep peoplehappy. (This is a soft Theory X approach and not a sound human relations approach.)9,1 Authority-Compliance. Managers in this position have great concern for production andlittle concern for people. They desire tight control in order to get tasks done efficiently. Theyconsider creativity and human relations to be unnecessary.5,5 Organization Man Management. Often termed middle-of-the-road leadership. Leaders inthis position have medium concern for people and production. They attempt to balance theirconcern for both people and production, but they are not committed.9+9 Paternalistic “father knows best” management. A style in which reward is promised forcompliance and punishment threatened for non-compliance Opportunistic “what’s in it for me”management. In which the style utilized depends on which style the leader feels will return himor her the greatest self-benefit.9,9 Team Management. This style of leadership is considered to be ideal. Such managershave great concern for both people and production. They work to motivate employees to reachtheir highest levels of accomplishment. They are flexible and responsive to change, and theyunderstand the need to change.
    89. 89. Hersey and Blanchard’s Contingency Theory
    90. 90. According to this theory, the effectiveness of a persons leadershipstyle depends not so much on the leader but on the follower-the followers maturity should be assessed
    91. 91. Fred Fiedler  Developed his theory on the premise thatleaders’ personal characteristics are stable, and so is the leadership style  “Fiedler Contingency Model” is a leadership theory that moved from research of traits andpersonal characteristics of leaders to leadership styles and behaviors
    92. 92. Fielder’s Contingency Model In this model leadership is effective when the leader’s style is appropriate to the situation, as determined by three principal factors:     1.       Leader-member relations: The nature of the interpersonalrelationship between leader and follower, expressed in terms of goodthrough poor, with qualifying modifiers attached as necessary.  It isobvious that the leader’s personality and the personalities ofsubordinates play important roles in this variable.2.       Task structure: The nature of the subordinate’s task, described asstructured or unstructured, associated with the amount of creativefreedom allowed the subordinate to accomplish the task, and how thetask is defined.3.       Position power:  The degree to which the position itself enablesthe leader to get the group members to comply with and accept his orher direction and leadership
    93. 93. Contemporary Leadership Theories Transactional Leadership Style the leader motivates the followers by appealing to their own self-interest MOTIVATE by means of EXCHANGE process Encompasses 4 types of behavior:  Contingent reward  Management by Exception  Active Management by Exception  Laissez- Faire Leadership
    94. 94. Transactional Leadership• Exchanges rewards for services• Management by exception (Watches for deviations)• Keeps the system operating smoothly – Uses reward and coercive power bases – Recognizes what workers want and tries to deliver it – Rewards according to worker effort – Responsive to worker self-interests
    95. 95. TransformationalLeadership  The most effective leadership behavior to achieve long term success and improved performance  Transformational leaders are highly visible and spend a lot of time communicating
    96. 96. Transformational LeadershipBurns (1978)• Both leader and followers have the ability to raise each other to higher levels of motivation and morality – Traditional manager – concerned with day-to-day operations termed as transactional leader – Manager who is committed, has a vision, and empowers others with vision is termed as transformational leader
    97. 97. TRANSFORMATIONAL/ TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIPTransformationalTransformational Broadening andLeadershipLeadership elevating follower goals•Idealized Influence Performance Performance •Idealized Influence beyond•Inspiration beyond •Inspiration expectations expectations•Intellectual stimulation •Intellectual stimulation•Individualized •Individualizedconsideration considerationTransactionalTransactionalLeadershipLeadership Leader/follower exchange•Contingent reward •Contingent reward Agreed upon Agreed upon•Management by performance performance •Management byexception (active or exception (active orpassive) passive)•Laissez faire •Laissez faire
    98. 98. Leadership Styles Transactional leadership Transformational leadership