Computer Basic


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Computer Basic

  1. 1. A. Computer Basics 1.00 Examine the Role of Hardware and Software.
  2. 2. What Is A Computer? <ul><li>An electronic device that receives data, processes data, stores data, and produces a result (output). </li></ul><ul><li>A collection of electronic circuits, which can be on or off (open or closed). </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>These two states of the circuit are represented by two digits, 0 and 1. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called the binary system. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combining bits (0 and 1), you can </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>represent any character or number. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Benefits of Using Computers <ul><li>Error-free calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency and repetition </li></ul>
  5. 5. What Is A Computer System? <ul><li>Hardware : the tangible, physical equipment that can be seen and touched such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Case </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard and Mouse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disk Drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speakers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Software : the intangible set of instructions that tells the computer what to do; know as programs or software programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Software </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Computers <ul><li>Supercomputer: most powerful - Used to do things like predict hurricanes and navigate satellites </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframes and Minicomputers : </li></ul><ul><li>Used by business and government to process large amounts of information </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Personal computers: smaller and less powerful than the other types of computers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notebook or Tablet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laptop </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Personal Computers <ul><li>Desktop computer : designed to be used on a desktop. </li></ul><ul><li>Notebook/Tablet computer: designed to be used on a desktop but still small enough to be portable. </li></ul><ul><li>Laptop computer: designed to be small enough and light enough to be used on your lap. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Web TV : provides easy access to the Internet without having to have a traditional computer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables you to connect to the Internet and usually includes a keyboard or other device for entering and selecting data. </li></ul></ul>Additional Types of Computers
  11. 11. <ul><li>PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) a handheld device that is often used in conjunction with a desktop or other PC. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May have a special keyboard, some use a pen or stylus for entering data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Data can be transferred to a desktop or laptop computer </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Data Communications <ul><li>The technology that enables computers to communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>The transmission of text, numeric, voice or video data from one machine to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular examples: Internet, electronic messages (e-mail), faxes, and electronic or online banking </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Four components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sender : the computer that is sending the message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver : the computer receiving the message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel : the media that carries or transports the message. (telephone wire, coaxial cable, microwave signal, or fiber optic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol : the rules that govern the orderly transfer of the data sent. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>When computers are connected to other computers </li></ul><ul><li>They can share information and sometimes hardware (printers) </li></ul><ul><li>Two Types: Local-Area and Wide-Area </li></ul>Network
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>Local Area Networks (LAN): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers connected together in a relatively close location such as in the same building or department. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The data and software for these computers are stored on a central computer called the file server. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Wide Area Networks (WAN): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When local area networks are expanded to include several local area networks within a city, state, region, territory, country, continent, or the world. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The microprocessor, the brains of the computer. Referred to a CPU or processor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Housed on a tiny silicon chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chip contains millions of switches and pathways that help your computer make important decisions. </li></ul></ul>Central Processing Unit
  18. 18. <ul><ul><ul><li>CPU knows which switches to turn on and which to turn off because it receives its instructions from computer programs (software). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU has two primary sections: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic/logic unit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control unit </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU): </li></ul><ul><li>- Performs arithmetic computations and logical operations; by combining these two operations the ALU can execute complex tasks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Arithmetic operations include addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Logical operations involve comparisons. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Control Unit : is the “boss” and coordinates all of the CPU’s activities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses programming instructions, it controls the flow of information through the processor by controlling what happens inside the processor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We communicate with the computer through programming languages. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: COBOL, C++, HTML, Java Script or </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Found on the motherboard </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> Random Access Memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> Read Only Memory (ROM) </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Random Access Memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Memory on the motherboard that is short term; where data, information, and program instructions are stored temporarily on a RAM chip or a set of RAM chips. Known as the main memory . </li></ul><ul><li>This memory is considered volatile. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The computer can read from and write to RAM. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>When the computer is turned off or if there is loss of power, what ever is stored in RAM disappears. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Temporary Memory” – Short Term </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>Read-Only Memory (ROM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory on the motherboard that is long term; where the specific instructions that are needed for the computer to operate are stored. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This memory is nonvolatile and your computer can only read from a ROM chip. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><ul><li>The instructions remain on the chip regardless if the power is turned on or off. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most common is the BIOS ROM; where the computer uses instructions contained on this chip to boot or start the system when you turn on your computer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> “ Permanent Memory” – Long Term </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Basic Controllers: </li></ul><ul><li>On the motherboard, a device that controls the transfer of data from the computer to a peripheral device and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally stored on one single chip. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: keyboards, mouse, monitors, and printers </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Serial and Parallel Ports </li></ul><ul><li>Used to connect our peripheral devices to the computer; usually one serial and one parallel port on a computer. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serial devices transmit data one bit at a time. A modem may be connected to this port. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel devices transfer several bits at a time. A printer may be connected to this port. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Universal Serial Bus (USB) </li></ul><ul><li>A new standard that supports data transfer rates of up to 12 million bits per second. </li></ul><ul><li>A single USB port can be used to connect up to 127 peripheral devices </li></ul><ul><li>Expected to replace serial and parallel ports in the near future. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Expansion Slots </li></ul><ul><li>An opening on the motherboard where a circuit board or expansion board can be inserted. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Additional Memory, video cards, modem cards, and sound cards . </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. How Does A Computer Process Data? <ul><li>PC system case – the metal and plastic case that houses the main system components of the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Central to all of this is the motherboard or system board that mounts into the case. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a circuit board (a thin plate or board that contains electronic components) that contains many integral components. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Data Representation <ul><li>ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) </li></ul><ul><li>The most popular and widely used standardized coding system </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Byte </li></ul><ul><li>Eight bits or combinations of ones and zeros represent a character. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: 00000001 =1 or 00001010 - 10 </li></ul><ul><li>KB-Kilobyte roughly 1 thousand bytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MB-Megabyte roughly 1 million bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GB-Gigabyte roughly 1 billion bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TB-Terabyte roughly 1 trillion bytes </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Input, Output, & Storage Devices <ul><li>Input device : hardware that allows you to communicate with your computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Output device: hardware that allows your computer to communicate with the user </li></ul>Input/Output - Storage device : hardware that allows you to store or retrieve information
  35. 35. Computer Input Devices <ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse/Trackball </li></ul><ul><li>Joystick </li></ul><ul><li>Light pen </li></ul><ul><li>Pointing Stick </li></ul><ul><li>Touchpad </li></ul><ul><li>Touch screen </li></ul><ul><li>Bar code reader </li></ul><ul><li>Scanner </li></ul><ul><li>Microphone </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics Tablet </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Cameras </li></ul>
  36. 36. Computer Output Devices <ul><li>Monitor : screen that display information such as text, numbers, and pictures-softcopy. </li></ul><ul><li>Printer : gives you information from the computer in printed form – hardcopy. </li></ul><ul><li>Speakers : allow you to hear voice, music, and other sounds from your computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Modem : allows you to use your computer to communicate with other computers. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Three Types of Printers <ul><li>Dot Matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives a printed image in a pattern (matrix) of tiny ink dots. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less expensive and not as clear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Inkjet Printer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better quality of printed document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machine uses an ink cartridge and a printing element to print a finer image on the paper. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Laser </li></ul><ul><li>Best quality of printed documents </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laser beam and an ink toner cartridge are used to produce the images. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More expensive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quick </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Storage Devices <ul><li>Magnetic storage devices use oxide-coated plastic storage media called mylar. </li></ul><ul><li>As the disk rotates in the computer, an electromagnetic read/write head stores or retrieves data in circles called tracks. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><ul><li>Tracks are numbered from the outside to the inside and as data is stored on the disk it is stored on one of these numbered track. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each track is labeled and the location is stored in a log on the disk known as a file allocation table (FAT). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Types of Storage Devices <ul><li>Hard Disk Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Used to store data inside of the computer </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic platter that holds a large amount of information in a form the computer can understand. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><ul><ul><li>Accessing data is faster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of data that can be stored is much more than what can be stored on a floppy disk. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size of Hard drive is measured in megabytes or gigabytes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><ul><li>Floppy Disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat circles of iron oxide-coated plastic enclosed in a hard plastic case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are 3 ½ inches and have a capacity to hold 1.44 MB or more of data. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><ul><li>Zip Disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of storing tremendous amounts of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are only the size of a 3 inch disk but can hold as much as 1 gigabyte of data </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Types of Storage Devices <ul><li>Magnetic Tape Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Used for making backup copies of large volumes of data. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very slow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used to replace data that may have been lost on the hard drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look similar to audio tapes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holds more than Floppy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Optical Discs </li></ul><ul><li>Use laser technology to read and write data on silver platters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact Disk (CD) can store 650MB to 800MB of information and data. CD-ROM (Read Only Memory) can only read data from a CD-ROM. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can store data on a CD only if you have a CD Burner and CD-R (writable) or CD-RW (rewritable) CD. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><ul><li>DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) is the size of a regular CD and can be played in a regular CD or in a DVD movie player. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD can store 4.8GB to 8.0GB of information and data. DVD-ROM is readable only (a movie DVD). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can store data on a DVD only if you have a DVD Burner and DVD+R/DVD-R (writable) or DVD-RW (rewritable) DVD. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Systems Software <ul><li>A group of programs that coordinate and control the resources and operations of a computer system. </li></ul><ul><li>Enables all components of the computer system to communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Operating System, Utility Programs, and Graphic User Interface (GUI). </li></ul>
  49. 49. Systems Software <ul><li>Operating System (OS): </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an interface between the user or application program and the computer hardware. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Win 95/98/2000/XP/Vista </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mac System 6/7/8/9 </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Utility Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Help you perform housekeeping chores; complete specialized tasks related to managing the computer’s resources, file management, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>GUI (Graphical User Interface) </li></ul><ul><li>Interface between the operating system and the user. Graphical symbols (icons) represent files, disks, programs, and other objects. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Application Software <ul><li>Programs that work with the operating system software to help you use your computer to do specific types of work. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Application Software Categories <ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics and Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment and Leisure </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Programs </li></ul>
  53. 53. Business Software <ul><li>Spreadsheet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulate Numeric Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intersection of row and column is a cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grade Book, Financial Report </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lets you set up an electronic filing systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort and Search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address book, Card Catalog </li></ul></ul>Word Processing Create, edit, and print text documents Report, flyer, memo
  54. 54. <ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works with your modems or network hardware and allows your computer to communicate with other computers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange computer files and email </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphics Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses pictures or images to help communicate messages. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Combines text, graphics, animation, video, and audio. </li></ul><ul><li>Clip art </li></ul><ul><li>Graphical images to be added to documents </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Uses both pictures and words to give you the ability to create documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Newsletters and brochures </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Education & Reference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Available on many topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quicker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AR, CCC, & Encyclopedia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entertainment & Leisure </li></ul><ul><li>Fun </li></ul><ul><li>Games and simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Tests your skills </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul>
  57. 57. Integrated Software <ul><li>Combine several software applications into one program. </li></ul><ul><li>Include: Work Processing, Spreadsheet, Database, & Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: MS Works, MS OFFICE, & Lotus SmartSuite </li></ul>
  58. 58. Proper Computer Care <ul><li>Keep food and drinks away from the computer and keyboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid dusty locations. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a surge protector. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep magnets Away. </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Do not block vents on the CPU. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid bright sunny locations. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not move the computer while it is in use. </li></ul><ul><li>Always exit programs properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a virus check program on a regular basis. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Proper Diskette Care <ul><li>Do not remove from drives while drive in running or light is on. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid contact with magnets and electromagnetic fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep disks stored in a clean, cool and dry place with a protective cover. </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>Keep protective metal slider in place. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a virus check program on a regular basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid hot and cold locations. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a back-up copy of your programs and files. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Proper CD or DVD Care <ul><li>Keep CDs or DVDs stored in a clean, cool and dry place with a protective cover. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid touching the back side of the CD or DVD; to avoid scratches. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid hot and cold locations. </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>Make a back-up copy of your programs and files on CD or DVD. </li></ul><ul><li>Insert into CD or DVD Drive properly; label facing up. </li></ul><ul><li>Only write on CD’s or DVD;s with a proper marking Pen on a label or the correct side of the CD or DVD. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Proper Care of Printers <ul><li>Avoid cold, hot, and dusty locations. </li></ul><ul><li>Always use the correct ink or toner replacement. </li></ul><ul><li>Always have the proper printer cable connected to your computer. </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>Never pull paper out of a printer in motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not turn off the printer while printing. </li></ul><ul><li>Read the instruction manual before operating a printer. </li></ul><ul><li>Always use the proper type of paper in your printer. </li></ul>
  66. 66. How to Maintain your Computer System <ul><li>Start a notebook of information on your system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Serial numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Vendor support telephone numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> User IDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Date and vendor for each equipment and software purchase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Trouble log </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>Periodically review disk directories & delete unneeded files. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure all plug-ins are secure at all times. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off the power and disconnect the equipment form the power source before you open the inside of you computer. </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>Keep surrounding area dirt and dust free. </li></ul><ul><li>Back up files and data regularly. </li></ul><ul><li>Periodically defragment your hard disk. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect your system from computer viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to use system diagnostic programs </li></ul>
  69. 69. Ergonomics <ul><li>The science of designing equipment for a comfortable and safe working environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper Computer Ergonomics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit up straight and lean forward slightly from the waist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep your feet flat on the floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your body should be about a hand’s length from the front of the keyboard and centered with the keyboard. </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. <ul><li>Place all materials you will type on the right side of the computer and supplies on the left side. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep any items you are not using off your desk. </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally rest your eyes and take short breaks. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid lights that cause glare on the monitor. </li></ul>
  71. 71. <ul><li>Keep your fingers on the home row keys and curved. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your wrists up, not touching the keyboard or desk. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus your eyes on the book, copy or screen. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Questions of the Day 1. Definition of Hardware 2. Definition Of Software 3. Definition of CPU 4. Definition of RAM 5. Information Processing Cycle (Draw the Cycle)