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  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • BOMA = Building Owner’s & Manager’s Assoc. CARB = California Air Resource Board Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
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  • VTS

    1. 1. Engineered Tower Systems Optimization Presented by Christine Lazo Vertical Systems LLC 7113 Telegraph Rd. Montebello, CA 90640 310 451 0630 christine@vertisys.net 1
    2. 2. Optimizing Current Design  Using Existing Technology  Cost Effective  Water Saving  Energy Saving  Green Technology  Low Sound Levels  Higher Quality  Engineering Expertise & Data 2
    3. 3. Need For Constant Improvement “The hot and wild weather is a sign of things to come. But fresh ideas and new technology can cool us down and make this a GREEN CENTURY.” 3
    4. 4. Cooling Towers – ComplexBalance Water Use Human Health Energy & Safety Cooling Tower Balance Weight Biological And Control Size Fouling Corrosion Cleanliness Access/Maint. Sound Seismic 4
    5. 5. What is the Ideal TowerSystem?  Reduce Water Consumption (LEED/EPA)  Reduce Energy Consumption (LEED/EPA)  Reduce Maintenance – (Owner / Engineer)  Reduce Life Cycle Cost (Owner)  Reduce Size / Weight – (Architect / Structural)  Reduce Health Impact / Liability (BOMA)  Reduce Toxic Emissions (CARB/BOMA)  Reduce Corrosion (Owner)  Reduce Sound Levels (Neighbors) 5
    6. 6. How Does An EngineeredTower System Work? Tower Performance Improvement - AT Variable Frequency Drive - Yaskawa Solids Control – Lakos Water Treatment – Pulse~Pure Monitoring and Logging – By Others = Vertical Tower System 6
    7. 7. Vertical Tower Systems Saving Water Saving Energy Saving Maintenance Saving Money 7
    8. 8. Vertical Tower Systems Saving Water Saving Energy Saving Maintenance Saving Money 8
    9. 9. Water - Precious Resource 2000 Begins the Century of Water 9
    10. 10. Principles of Tower Water Usage Evaporation = 1% of flow at 10 F Range Drift = Flow x Drift Rate % Bleed ≅ Evaporation / (Cycles of Conc–1) Filter Flush = Depends on filtration method With proper Design, 3 of the 4 factors can be reduced 10
    11. 11. Principles of Tower Water Usage Evaporation = 1% of flow at 10 F Range Drift = Flow x Drift Rate % Bleed ≅ Evaporation / (Cycles of Conc–1) Filter Flush = Depends on filtration method With proper Design, 3 of the 4 factors can be reduced 11
    12. 12. Saving Water:Control Drift Loss  Use a better Drift Eliminator  Improve from .005% to .001% Drift  .001% Drift on All Evapco Products 8,640 Gallons Water Saved Per Year 500 Ton System 12
    13. 13. Principles of Tower Water Usage Evaporation = 1% of flow at 10 F Range Drift = Flow x Drift Rate % Bleed ≅ Evaporation / (Cycles of Conc–1) Filter Flush = Depends on filtration method With proper Design, 3 of the 4 factors can be reduced 13
    14. 14. Water Savings: Bleed Rate Cycles of ConcentrationMinerals are concentrated throughevaporation.Mineral Units in Blowdown Water = Cycles ofMineral Units in Make-up Water Concentration 14
    15. 15. Saving Water:Reduce Bleed Rate Run Cycles of Concentration Higher Typical Treatment for Towers: COC = 2 to 3 At 2.5 Cycles a 500 Ton Open Tower uses 1,440,000 Gallons of Bleed Water Pulse~Pure Reduces Bleed by 60% 740,000+ Gallons 6 Water Saved COC Per Year 500 Ton System 15
    16. 16. The PULSE~PURE System State of the Art R&D Lab Chemical Free Water Treatment Promoted By LEED and US EPA A Green Building Technology Water analysis 1 Yr Monitoring Contract Included Money Back Guarantee 16
    17. 17. Application Where can PULSE~PURE be applied? Not everywhere: • Open loop only: • Open cooling tower • Spray loop of closed circuit cooler • Water sample must pass lab analysis 17
    18. 18. Typical Cooling Tower Application Recommended Location Alternate Location 18
    19. 19. Cooling Tower Water Treatment The PULSE~PURE System Challenges: • Scaling • Corrosion • Biological 19
    20. 20. Cooling Tower Water Treatment No Problem Treatment Minerals Scale Disease,Biological Odor & SlimeCorrosion Not Too Bad 20
    21. 21. Cooling Tower Water Treatment No Problem Chemicals Treatment Keep in Minerals Scale Solution Disease, Kill withBiological Odor & Slime Poisons Huge Problems Created, But TryCorrosion Not Too Bad To Fix By Adding Inhibitor 21
    22. 22. Cooling Tower Water Treatment No Problem Chemicals Pulse~Pure Treatment Keep in Minerals Scale Solution Powder Disease, Kill withBiological Odor & Slime Poisons Encapsulate HugeCorrosion Not Too Bad Problems Very Good Created, 22
    23. 23. Pulse~Pure Performance  Prevents scale from forming  Controls microbial life  Removes old scale, encrustation and bio-film  Facilitates good corrosion properties  Allows significant savings of water and energy 23
    24. 24. No Chemicals NecessaryWhat Risks Do Chemicals Carry?  Environmental  Local People ingest Water Treatment Chemicals at some concentration breathe or drink  Customer must store chemicals onsite – this represents need for accountability, MSDS sheets, environmental Cal - OSHA inspections, real estate to store, abatement of spills, container disposal, special delivery of toxic materials, Personal Protective materials/clothing, employee training of safe handling practices, emergency eye- wash stations, etc  Employees must haul heavy containers  Containment – What happens to the chemicals if a fire occurs? Are they Flammable? Do they produce toxic fumes?  Please have a look at some MSDS sheetsElimination of Chemical Treatment Reduces Toxic Emissions From Cooling Tower 24
    25. 25. Pulse~Pure Removes Surface Charge onSuspended Particles to Prevent Scale No Treatment Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) Scale Scale Formation on Surfaces 25
    26. 26. Pulse~Pure Removes Surface Charge onSuspended Particles to Prevent Scale No Treatment Pulse~Pure Treatment Calcium Carbonate Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) Particles (CaCO3) Scale Scale Formation Particle Formation on Surfaces in Bulk Solution 26
    27. 27. Microbial Treatment –Two Methods of ControlEncapsulation: Minerals Electroporation: DamagesRemove Bacteria Bacteria Membranes Both methods are “Non-Species Specific”, thus preventing bacteria from surviving through Mutation 29
    28. 28. Effectiveness: • EVAPCO guarantees bacteria counts of 10,000 CFU/mL or less • 10 times more effective than chemical based treatment • Most systems test at <2,000 CFU/mL (better than EPA drinking water standards) 30
    29. 29. What about LEED?Pulse~Pure Can Contribute Up to 7LEED Points:•WE Credit 1.1: Water Efficient Landscaping:Reduce by 50% (2 points)•WE Credit 1.2: Water Efficient Landscaping: NoPotable Water Use (2 points)•WE Credit 2: Innovative Wastewater Technologies(1 point)•EQ Credit 5: Indoor Environmental Quality: IndoorChemical & Pollutant Source Control (1 point)•ID Credit 1: Innovation & Design Process (1 point) 31
    30. 30. Legionella Disease ControlLegionnaire’s Disease must have: Legionella (almost always present) Amplification (biofilm with protozoa) An Aerosol Produced (poor drift elim) Transmission (1 to 5 micron mist) Susceptible Person 32
    31. 31. VTS System Address Legionella?  Eliminates Amplification (Pulse~Pure)  Reduces Drift by 80% (Evapco)  Maintains Cleanliness (Lakos) 33
    32. 32. Legionella Amplification Amoeba grazing on biofilm The prey becomes the predatorIf water temperature is about 90oF, the Legionella eat the Amoeba fromthe inside. Millions of Legionella (Red) in a virulent state are spewedinto the water when the host explodes. 34
    33. 33. Legionnaire’s Disease Control No Biofilm = No Amplification No Amplification Means Best Protection From Legionnaire’s Disease 35
    34. 34. Corrosion Reduction Localized Corrosion  No Microbial Influenced Corrosion (MIC)  No pitting  White rust easily avoided Chemical Corrosion Eliminated  Biocide corrosion is avoided Water Chemistry  Operates in an alkaline environment Water is saturated with calcium carbonate – a natural corrosion inhibitor 36
    35. 35. Pulse~Pure Does It All Scaling Corrosion Control Control Microbial Control In Cooling Towers 37
    36. 36. Water Savings Cycles of ConcentrationMinerals are concentrated throughevaporation.Mineral Units in Blowdown Water = Cycles ofMineral Units in Make-up Water ConcentrationTypical Chemical Treatment = 2 to 4 “C of C”Typical Pulse~Pure Treatment = 6 to 8 “C of C” 38
    37. 37. Saving Water:Reduce Bleed Rate Run Cycles of Concentration Higher Typical Treatment for Towers: COC = 2 to 3 At 2.5 Cycles a 500 Ton Open Tower uses 1,440,000 Gallons of Bleed Water Pulse~Pure Reduces Bleed by 60% 740,000+ Gallons 6 Water Saved COC Per Year 500 Ton System 39
    38. 38. Principles of Tower Water Usage Evaporation = 1% of flow at 10 F Range Drift = Flow x Drift Rate % Bleed ≅ Evaporation / (Cycles of Conc–1) Filter Flush = Depends on filtration method With proper Design, 3 of the 4 factors can be reduced 40
    39. 39. Saving Water:Reduce Filter Flush Rate  Switch from Sand Filters to Centrifugal Separators  Backwash time drops from 10 Minutes to 0 minutes per day 625,000 Gallons Water Saved Per Year 500 Ton System 41
    40. 40. Water Treatment & Solids ControlContaminant Source: Make-Up Water Loss of water via Evaporation Make-Up Water 42
    41. 41. Water Treatment & Solids ControlContaminant Source: Airborne Particles 43
    42. 42. Problem: Solids Accumulation 44
    43. 43. Problem: Solids Accumulation • Fouling of Equipment 45
    44. 44. Problem: Solids Accumulation • Bacteria Growth 46
    45. 45. Problem: Solids Accumulation• Scaling of Equipment Surfaces• Corrosion of Equipment Surfaces 47
    46. 46. Problem: Solids Accumulation • Bacteria Growth 48
    47. 47. Solids Accumulation - Solutions • Filtration Systems  Full Stream  Side Stream  Basin Cleaning 49
    48. 48. VTS System• Tower Basin Sweeping on Every Tower 50
    49. 49. Filtration Techniques• Tower Basin Sweeping• Reduces Cleaning Routines by 5X• Controls Solids Build-up in Tower• Does Not Fully Protect HeatExchangers/Process Load• Sizing Depends on Size of Basin• Requires Hydroboosters (Nozzles) 51
    50. 50. Hydroboosters – SampleConfiguration 52
    51. 51. Hydroboosters – SampleConfiguration 53
    52. 52. Filtration – Sand Filters How It Works: 54
    53. 53. Filtration – Sand Filters Backwash Process: 55
    54. 54. Filtration – Sand FiltersIdeal for floating & light debrisNot ideal for grit, rust & heavy solids 56
    55. 55. Filtration – Sand FiltersBackwash: Light debris only. Backwash: Requires LargeAmount of Water 57
    56. 56. Filtration – Lakos CentrifugalSeparator with SRV• Zero Water Usage• Removes Light and Heavy Particles (98% of particles down to 74 microns)• Stores Solids in Vessel for Removal• The Green Filter Technology 58
    57. 57. Saving Water:Reduce Filter Flush Rate  Switch from Sand Filters to Centrifugal Separators  Backwash time drops from 10 Minutes to 0 minutes per day 625,000 Gallons Water Saved Per Year 500 Ton System 59
    58. 58. Saving Water –500 ton VTS systemEvapco Induced Draft Tower, with Lakos SolidsSeparator & Pulse~Pure System:  Drift Reduction = 8,640 Gallons  Blowdown Reduction = 745,000 Gallons  Filter Flush = 625,000 Gallons  Total VTS Water Savings = 1,378,640 Gallons  25-35% Reduction in Water Usage 60
    59. 59. Vertical Tower Systems Saving Water Saving Energy Saving Maintenance Saving Money 61
    60. 60. Saving Energy – The VTSSolution  Decrease Airflow by 33%  Add VFD(s) – Improve Part Load  Reduce Fouling Due to Scale  Reduce Fouling Due to Biofilm 62
    61. 61. Saving Energy With Evapco Towers/CoolersDesign Advantage – Counterflow Heat Transfer95 °F Entering Water Temperature Counterflow Fill: 93 °F Even Temperature Gradients Water Temp through Fill Cross-section Isotherms 91 °F More Effective Heat Transfer 88 °F Requires Less Air 86 °F Reduced Size & Weight 85 °F NetEntering Air at 74 °F Wet-Bulb Temperature Outlet Water Temperature 63
    62. 62. Crossflow Inefficiency Crossflow Fill Temperature Gradient 95° F Entering Water Temperature 94°Crossflow Fill: F 92° Water- Temperature Gradients F Temp Not Uniform Across Fill et-Bulb Temperature 90 Entering Air at 74° F °F- Some Water Not Cooled to Design Temperature 88 °F- Less Efficient – Requires MORE air 85 °F 85° F Net 82 0° F Outlet Water °F W 8 Temperature 64
    63. 63. Counterflow - Design Advantages Plan Area & Layout Compact Counterflow Design35% LESS PLAN AREA Compared to Equivalent Size Crossflow Tower
    64. 64. Design Advantages – Air Requirements Saving Energy – Reducing Airflow  EVAPCO Counterflow: 20,000 CFM per 100 Tons  Crossflow by Others: 30,000 CFM per 100 Tons  EVAPCO Induced Draft Products . . . Less Air  Less Air = Less Fan HP 66
    65. 65. Lower Airflow = Less Fan Horsepower Evapco ‘AT’ Typically 10% to 30% reduction in Motor size vs Crossflow  Example: 500 ton tower (9’ x 20’)  AT - 15 HP vs. Brand X - 20HP  First Cost Savings and Energy Savings 67
    66. 66. Improving Tower Part Load with VFD Variable Frequency Drives: Have Become • Less expensive • More Reliable VFD Savings Depends on System Design Typically Reduces Tower Fan energy by 35% per year Equates to $3,000 per Year at 500 Tons 68
    67. 67. Yaskawa VFDs Worlds Largest in Volume VFD Manufacturer 69
    68. 68. Save Energy Lost in Fouling Eliminate Biofilm, Reduce Scale Install a Lakos Separator on tower basin Install Pulse~Pure Water Treatment System Reduce fouling by over 70% 71
    69. 69. Vertical Tower Systems Saving Water Saving Energy Saving Maintenance Saving Money 72
    70. 70. Save Maintenance - Towers 73
    71. 71. EVAPCO USS The Finest Cooling Towers Available Type 304• Premium Stainless Steel Materials " USS " Type 316 Stainless Steel 74
    72. 72. Saving Maintenance - Materials Material Resistance to Corrosion Chlorine PPM 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 G-235 S304 SS316 75
    73. 73. Saving Maintenance - Materials Material Resistance to Corrosion Chlorine PPM 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 G-235 S304 SS316 76
    74. 74. Fiberglass vs. Steel Construction Fiberglass SteelStrength greatly reduces at high temps Retains full strength regardless ofand moisture temp or moisture exposureSurface degradation due to UV, water, Does not lose strength or resistance toheat, high winds environmental extremesReliant on pigment for UV protection Galvanized steel is opaque: no sunlightand opacity - Algae = no algaeRoughness over time promotes bio- Steel remains flat and smooth forgrowth cleanlinessProne to distortion and water leaks 11 times elastic modulus than FRPFlammable Non-combustibleContaminative & Unrecyclable Direct recyclable material 77
    75. 75. Reduce SoundEVAPCO COUNTERFLOW • Low Sound Options • Quietest Units on MarketSuper Low Sound Fan: 9-15 dBA Reduction ! 78
    76. 76. Reduce Sound EVAPCO COUNTERFLOW• Low Sound Options• Quietest Units on Market Pan Water Silencers: 4-12 dBA Reduction ! 79
    77. 77. Seismic Compliance IBC 2006 – International Building Code 80
    78. 78. Seismic Compliance IBC 2006 – International Building Code  Evaporative cooling equipment must meet the same seismic or wind load forces as the building to which they are attached. 81
    79. 79. Seismic Compliance Evapco offers:  Standard Structural Design  ≤ 1.0g seismic or 60 psf wind loads  Upgraded Structural Design  > 1.0g seismic or 60 psf wind loads  Designed for 5.12g and 145psf, making it applicable to ALL building locations in North America. 82
    80. 80. Seismic Compliance Evapco is OSHPD pre-approved for AT Towers, ATWB Closed Circuit Coolers, and ATC Evaporative Condensers 83
    81. 81. Seismic Compliance OSP certification is limited by Sds and is very site specific. The tower must be selected to meet this value. The following parameters are the limits of OSP certification:  Sds = 2/3 * Fa * Ss  Where:  Ss = the mapped spectral accelerations for short periods  Fa = site coefficient defined by table 1613.5.3(I) in the code, which depends on the Site Class  Site Class = based on soil properties defined by table 1613.5.2; Site class D is the default. Usually, the structural engineer will provide all this information for you in the structural S-1 drawings. 84
    82. 82. Seismic ComplianceUnit Characteristics in Pre-Approved OSHPD Seismic Certification EVAPCO: Sds of 1.93 85
    83. 83. Vertical Tower Systems Saving Water Saving Energy Saving Maintenance Saving Money 86
    84. 84. Saving Money – 500 Ton VTS(Open System)  Water = 1,378,640 x 2.22/748 = $ 4,092  Sewer = 1,378,640 x 2.80/748 = $ 5,161  Power Fan HP Reduction = $ 447  Power Saved - VFD on Fan = $ 2,618  Power Saved - Chiller Fouling = $ 15,144  Chemical Elimination = $ 3,000  Maintenance Reduction = $ 3,000 Yearly Estimated Savings = $ 33,462 87
    85. 85. Payback: VTS vs TraditionalDesign – Open System Traditional VTS 500 Ton System Cost: Premium: $ 36,000 $ 28,000 Payback : VTS System: 10 Months Life Cycle Cost Savings $500,000 88
    86. 86. Vertical Tower Systems Saving Water Saving Energy Saving Maintenance Saving Money 89
    87. 87. Closed Circuit Coolers -AdditionalSavings 90
    88. 88. Is VTS Today’s Tower System?  Reduced Size / Weight / Airflow (Evapco AT/USS Product)  Reduced Maintenance (Pulse~Pure, Lakos, Evapco)  Reduced Health Impact / Liability (Eliminated Chemicals)  Reduced Energy Consumption (Biofilm, Scale, Fouling Reduction)  Reduced Water Consumption (Drift, Bleed & Flush)  Reduced Toxic Emissions (No Chemicals)  Reduced Corrosion / Increased Life (No Chemicals)  Reduced Life Cycle Cost (VTS System) 91
    89. 89. Cooling Towers – ComplexBalance Water Use Human Health Energy & Safety Cooling Tower Balance Weight Biological And Control Size Fouling Corrosion Cleanliness Access/Maint. Sound Seismic 92

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