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INTRODUCTION The purpose of a floor is - To provide a level surface. To support live and
dead loads. A floor must satisfy the following requirements – Adequate strength and stability.
Adequate fire resistance. Sound insulation. Damp resistance. Thermal insulation. Floors are of
two types – Ground floors. Upper floors.
Ground floors may rest directly above the ground or may be supported at a little distance above
the ground. Floors supported directly above the ground are known as solid floors While the floor
supported above the ground level are known as suspended floors. Suspended floors are generally
made of timber.
Selection Of Flooring Material:
Selection Of Flooring Material
Layer wise construction of floor base for solid ground floor – Lowest layer, made of compacted
earth fill. Second layer, made either of lean cement concrete or lime concrete or sometimes of
broken brick bats or stones rammed properly. Third layer, made either of cement concrete or of
bricks or stones arranged and packed properly. Fourth layer constitutes of floor finish
Types of floors
Floor finish materials are- Mud Bricks Flag stones Concrete Terrazzo Mosaic Tiles Wood or
timber Rubber Linoleum Flooring Cork Glass Plastic or P.V.C. Marble
MUD FLOORING Used for unimportant buildings, particularly in villages. MERITS Cheap,
hard and fairly impervious. Easy in construction and maintenance. Good thermal insulation.
DEMERITS For proper maintenance, the floors are required to be given a wash of cement cow
dung plaster once or twice a week which is objectionable from sanitary considerations.
BRICK FLOORING Suitable for cheap construction Used in places where heavy articles are to
be stored e.g. warehouses, stores and goodowns. Used in alluvial places like U.P., Punjab where
stone is scarce and well burnt bricks are readily available. MERITS Durable and hard. Non-
slippery and fire resistant. Initial cost is less. Easy in maintenance . DEMERITS It is absorbent .
FLAG-STONE FLOORING Stones with rough surface are used on rough works like good own,
sheds, stores etc. Stones with polished surfaces are used in schools, hospitals etc. Used in places
like Tamilnadu and A.P. where slab stones are available in abundance. MERITS Hard, durable
and wear-resisting. Easy in construction, repair and maintenance. DEMERITS Appearance is
unattractive. Poor shock absorbing characteristics. Surface is uneven.
CEMENT CONCRETE FLOORING:
CEMENT CONCRETE FLOORING Used for residential, commercial and industrial buildings.
The floor consists of two components – The two components of the floor can be constructed
either monolithically or non-monolithically. Base course may be 7.5 to 10 cm thick. It may be
either in lean cement concrete (1 : 3 : 6 or 1 : 5 : 10) or lime concrete containing 40% mortar of 1
: 2 lime-sand and 60% coarse aggregate. The topping is then laid in square or rectangular panels
of size 1X1 or 2X2 or 1X2 m. It consists of 1 : 2 : 4 cement concrete.
MERITS Resistant to dampness. Possesses high durability. Provides a smooth, hard and even
surface. Can be easily cleaned and is economical. Fire resistant. DEMERITS Defects, once
developed, cannot be easily rectified. Does not provide sound and heat insulation.
TERRAZZO FLOORING It is laid in thin layer over concrete topping. Very decorative and has
good wearing properties. Used in residential buildings, hospitals, offices, schools and other
public buildings. It is expensive.
MOSAIC FLOORING Made of small pieces of broken tiles of china glazed/cement/marble
arranged in different pattern. Tiles used are available in a variety of patterns and colours.
Commonly used in operation theatres, temples, bathrooms and superior type of building floors.
TILED FLOORING Constructed from square or any other shape made of clay, cement or
terrazzo. Available in different sizes and thicknesses. Used in residential houses, offices, schools
and other public buildings. An alternative to terrazzo flooring. MERITS Non absorbent,
decorative and durable. Quick laying of floors. Easily repaired. DEMERITS Initial and
maintenance cost is high. On becoming wet, provides a slippery surface.
MARBLE FLOORING Superior type of flooring. Used in residential buildings, temples,
hospitals etc where cleanliness is required. Marble slabs may be square or rectangular.
TIMBER FLOORING Not used much for residential buildings in India because it is costly. Used
for carpentry halls, dancing halls, auditoriums etc. Common in hilly areas where timber is cheap
and available. Entire area below the floor is covered with an impervious material(cement
concrete or asphalt) to prevent dampness. Elastic in nature. Resistant to wear and tear.
RUBBER FLOORING Consists of sheets or tiles of rubber in a variety of patterns and colours
with thickness varying from 3 to 10 mm. Sheet or tile is manufactured by mixing pure rubber
with fillers such as cotton fibre, granulated cork or asbestos fibre. Sheets/tiles are fixed to
concrete base by appropriate adhesives. Resilient and noise proof. They are costly. Used in office
or public buildings.
LINOLEUM FLOORING A covering available in rolls which is spread directly on concrete or
wooden flooring. Linoleum sheets may be plain or printed. It may be 2 to 6 mm thick and 2 to 4
m wide. Linoleum tiles are also available. Linoleum coverings are attractive, resilient, durable,
cheap and can be cleaned easily. It rots when gets wet. Hence it cannot be used for bathrooms
CORK FLOORING Cork is the outer bark of cork oak tree. This flooring is perfectly noiseless
and is used in libraries, theatres, art galleries etc. It may be in the form of either carpet or tiles. It
is fixed to a concrete base. Its size varies from 10 cm X 10 cm to 30 cm X 90 cm and thickness
varies from 5 mm to 15 mm.
GLASS FLOORING It is used where light is to be transmitted from upper floor to lower floor.
Structural glass is available in the form of tiles or slabs. Its thickness varies from 12 to 30 mm.
These slabs or tiles are fixed in closely spaced frames. It is very costly and therefore not
PLASTIC OR P.V.C. FLOORING:
PLASTIC OR P.V.C. FLOORING It is made of plastic material fabricated in the form of tiles of
different sizes and colour shades. Widely used in all types of buildings. The tiles are laid on
concrete base. The floor is washed with warm soap water before use. It is resilient, smooth, good
looking and can be cleaned easily. It is costly and slippery and is damaged when comes in
contact with burning objects.