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  1. 1. Chapter 10 Database Management
  2. 2. Chapter 10 Objectives Discuss the functions common to most DBMSs Identify the qualities of valuable information Explain why data is important to an organization Discuss the terms character, field, record, and file Identify file maintenance techniques Differentiate between a file processing system approach and the database approach Describe characteristics of relational, object-oriented, and multidimensional databases Explain how to interact with Web databases Discuss the responsibilities of database analysts and administrators Define the term, database Next
  3. 3. Data and Information <ul><li>What is a database ? </li></ul>p. 514 - 515 Database software allows you to Collection of data organized so you can access, retrieve, and use it Database software also called database management system (DBMS) Add, change, and delete data Create database Sort and retrieve data Create forms and reports Next
  4. 4. Data and Information <ul><li>How are data and information related? </li></ul>p. 514 - 515 Fig. 10-1 <ul><li>Data is a collection of unprocessed items </li></ul><ul><li>Information is data that is organized and meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Computers process data into information </li></ul>Next
  5. 5. Data and Information <ul><li>What is data integrity? </li></ul>p. 516 <ul><ul><li>Degree to which data is correct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) —computer phrase that means you cannot create correct information from incorrect data </li></ul></ul></ul>Garbage out Garbage in Data integrity is lost Next Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Data Security below Chapter 10
  6. 6. Data and Information <ul><li>What are the qualities of valuable information? </li></ul>Useful Accessible Organized p. 516 - 517 Timely Verifiable Accurate Cost-effective Next
  7. 7. The Hierarchy of Data <ul><li>What is a hierarchy? </li></ul>p. 517 Fig. 10-2 <ul><ul><li>Database contains files, file contains records, record contains fields, field contains characters </li></ul></ul>Next
  8. 8. The Hierarchy of Data <ul><li>What is a field ? </li></ul>p. 518 Fig. 10-3 <ul><ul><li>Combination of one or more characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest unit of data user accesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Field name uniquely identifies each field </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Field size defines the maximum number of characters a field can contain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data type specifies kind of data field contains </li></ul></ul></ul>Next
  9. 9. The Hierarchy of Data <ul><li>What are common data types? </li></ul>p. 518 Yes/No (also called Boolean )—only the values Yes or No (or True or False) Hyperlink Web address that links to document or Web page Object (also called BLOB for binary large object)—photograph, audio, video, or document created in other application such as word processing or spreadsheet Next Currency dollar and cent amounts or numbers containing decimal values Date month, day, year, and sometimes time Memo lengthy text entries Text (also called alphanumeric )—letters, numbers, or special characters Numeric numbers only AutoNumber unique number automatically assigned to each new record
  10. 10. The Hierarchy of Data <ul><li>What is a record ? </li></ul>p. 519 Group of related fields Key field , or primary key , uniquely identifies each record Next
  11. 11. The Hierarchy of Data <ul><li>What is a data file ? </li></ul>p. 518 – 519 Fig. 10-4 <ul><ul><li>Collection of related records stored on disk </li></ul></ul>Next key field records fields 2 East Penn Drive 99 Tenth Street 33 Timmons Place 33099 Clark Street 54 Lucy Court Address Pittsboro Carmel Cincinnati Montgomery Shelbyville City IN Ruiz Adelbert 3928 IN Elena 4872 OH Drake Louella 3876 AL Murray Shannon 2928 IN Brewer Milton 2295 State Last Name First Name Member ID Gupta
  12. 12. Maintaining Data <ul><li>What is file maintenance ? </li></ul>p. 520 <ul><ul><li>Procedures that keep data current </li></ul></ul>Next <ul><ul><ul><li>Changing records </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adding records </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deleting records </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Maintaining Data <ul><li>Why do you add records? </li></ul>p. 520 Fig. 10-5 <ul><ul><li>Add new record when you obtain new data </li></ul></ul>Next
  14. 14. Maintaining Data <ul><li>Why do you change records? </li></ul>p. 521 Fig. 10-6 <ul><ul><li>Correct inaccurate data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update old data </li></ul></ul>Next
  15. 15. Maintaining Data <ul><li>Why do you delete records? </li></ul>p. 522 Fig. 10-7 <ul><ul><li>When record no longer is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some programs remove record immediately, others flag record </li></ul></ul>Next
  16. 16. Maintaining Data <ul><li>What is validation ? </li></ul>p. 522 - 523 Fig. 10-8 <ul><ul><li>Process of comparing data with a set of rules to find out if data is correct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce data entry errors and enhance data integrity before program writes data on disk </li></ul></ul>Next
  17. 17. Maintaining Data <ul><li>What are the types of validity checks? </li></ul>p. 523 <ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency Check tests for logical relationship between two or more fields </li></ul></ul></ul>Next <ul><ul><ul><li>Range Check determines whether number is within specified range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Completeness Check verifies that a required field contains data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check Digit number(s) or character(s) appended to or inserted into a primary key value to confirm accuracy of primary key value </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabetic/ Numeric Check ensures correct type of data entered </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. File Processing Versus Databases <ul><li>What is a file processing system ? </li></ul>p. 524 Each department or area within organization has own set of files May have weaknesses Records in one file may not relate to records in any other file Isolated data—data stored in separate files so it is difficult to access Next Data redundancy—same fields stored in multiple files
  19. 19. File Processing Versus Databases <ul><li>What is the database approach ? </li></ul>p. 524 - 525 Fig. 10-9 <ul><ul><li>Many programs and users can share data in database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secures data so only authorized users can access certain data </li></ul></ul>Next
  20. 20. File Processing Versus Databases <ul><li>What are the strengths of the database approach? </li></ul>p. 525 Reduced data redundancy Improved data integrity Shared data Easier access Reduced development time Next
  21. 21. File Processing Versus Databases <ul><li>How do a database application and a file processing application differ in the way they store data? </li></ul>p. 525 Fig. 10-10 Next
  22. 22. Database Management Systems <ul><li>What are popular database management systems (DBMSs)? </li></ul>p. 526 Fig. 10-11 Next Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click MySQL below Chapter 10
  23. 23. Database Management Systems <ul><li>What is a data dictionary ? </li></ul>p. 527 Fig. 10-12 <ul><ul><li>Contains data about each file in database and each field within those files </li></ul></ul>Next
  24. 24. Database Management Systems <ul><li>What is a query ? </li></ul>p. 528 - 529 Fig. 10-13 <ul><ul><li>Request for specific data from a database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query language consists of simple, English-like statements that allow users to specify data to display, print, or store </li></ul></ul>Next Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Query below Chapter 10
  25. 25. Database Management Systems <ul><li>What is a query by example (QBE) ? </li></ul>p. 528 - 529 Fig. 10-14 <ul><ul><li>Program retrieves records that match criteria entered in form fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a graphical user interface that assists users with retrieving data </li></ul></ul>Next
  26. 26. Database Management Systems <ul><li>What is a form ? </li></ul>p. 530 Fig. 10-15 <ul><ul><li>Window on screen that provides areas for entering or changing data in database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to retrieve and maintain data in a database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form that sends data across network or Internet is called e-form, short for electronic form </li></ul></ul>Next
  27. 27. Database Management Systems <ul><li>What is a report generator ? </li></ul>p. 530 Fig. 10-16 <ul><ul><li>Allows user to design a report on screen, retrieve data into report design, then display or print reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called report writer </li></ul></ul>Next
  28. 28. Database Management Systems <ul><li>What is data security? </li></ul>p. 530 - 531 Read-only privileges - user can view data, but cannot change it DBMS provides means to ensure only authorized users can access data Access privileges define activities that specific user or group of users can perform Full-update privileges -user can view and change data Next
  29. 29. Database Management Systems <ul><li>What are backup and log ? </li></ul>p. 531 Fig. 10-17 <ul><ul><li>Backup is a copy of the entire database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Log is a listing of activities that change database contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS places three items in log: before image, actual change, and after image </li></ul></ul></ul>Next
  30. 30. Database Management Systems Video: How A Photo Sharing Site Keeps its Data Next CLICK TO START
  31. 31. Database Management Systems <ul><li>What is a recovery utility ? </li></ul>p. 531 - 532 <ul><li>Rollforward — DBMS uses log to re-enter changes made to data-base since last save or backup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called forward recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rollback — DBMS uses log to undo any changes made to database during a certain period of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called backward recovery </li></ul></ul>Next Uses logs and/or backups to restore database when it is damaged or destroyed Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Continuous Backup below Chapter 10
  32. 32. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases <ul><li>What is a data model ? </li></ul>p. 532 Fig. 10-18 <ul><ul><li>Rules and standards that define how database organizes data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines how users view organization of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four popular data models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Object-oriented </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Object-relational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multidimensional </li></ul></ul></ul>Next
  33. 33. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases <ul><li>What is a relational database ? </li></ul>p. 533 Fig. 10-19 <ul><ul><li>Stores data in tables that consist of rows and columns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each row has primary key </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each column has unique name </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores data relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses specialized terminology </li></ul></ul>Next Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Relational Databases below Chapter 10
  34. 34. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases <ul><li>What is a relationship ? </li></ul>p. 533 Fig. 10-20 <ul><ul><li>Connection within data </li></ul></ul>Next
  35. 35. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases <ul><li>What is Structured Query Language (SQL) ? </li></ul>p. 534 Fig. 10-21 <ul><ul><li>Allows you to manage, update, and retrieve data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has special keywords and rules included in SQL statements </li></ul></ul>Next Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click SQL below Chapter 10
  36. 36. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases <ul><li>What is an object-oriented database (OODB) ? </li></ul>p. 534 - 535 Object is item that contains data, as well as actions that read or process data <ul><ul><li>Can store more types of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can access data faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmers can reuse objects </li></ul></ul>Next Advantages Often uses object query language (OQL) Stores data in objects Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Object-Oriented Databases below Chapter 10
  37. 37. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases <ul><li>What are examples of applications appropriate for an object-oriented database? </li></ul>p. 534 Next Multimedia databases Store images, audio clips, and/or video clips Groupware databases Store documents such as schedules, calendars, manuals, memos, and reports Computer-aided design (CAD) databases Store data about engineering, architectural, and scientific designs Hypertext databases Contain text links to other documents Hypermedia databases Contain text, graphics, video, and sound Web databases Link to e-form on Web page
  38. 38. <ul><li>What is a multidimensional database ? </li></ul>Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases p. 535 Next Stores data in dimensions Multiple dimensions, also called hypercube , allow users to analyze any view of data Can consolidate data much faster than relational database Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Multidimensional Databases below Chapter 10
  39. 39. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases <ul><li>What is a data warehouse ? </li></ul>p. 536 Next <ul><ul><ul><li>Data mart is smaller version of data warehouse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses multidimensional databases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often uses a process called data mining to find patterns and relationships among data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Huge database system that stores and manages data required to analyze historical and current transactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quick and efficient way to access large amounts of data </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Web Databases <ul><li>What is a Web database? </li></ul>p. 536 - 537 Fig. 10-23 <ul><ul><li>Database you access through the Web by filling in a form on a Web page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually resides on a database server, a computer that stores and provides access to a database </li></ul></ul>Next Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Collaborative Databases below Chapter 10
  41. 41. Database Administration <ul><li>What are guidelines for developing a database? </li></ul>1. Determine the purpose of the database 4. Determine the relationships among the tables or files <ul><ul><li>Design tables on paper first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each table should contain data about one subject </li></ul></ul>p. 537 Fig. 10-24 <ul><ul><li>Be sure every record has a unique primary key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use separate fields for logically distinct items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not create fields for information that can be derived from entries in other fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow enough space for each field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set default values for frequently entered data </li></ul></ul>3. Design the records and fields for each table 2. Design the tables Next
  42. 42. Database Administration <ul><li>What is the role of the database analyst and administrator? </li></ul>p. 538 <ul><li>Focuses on meaning and usage of data </li></ul><ul><li>Decides proper placement of fields, defines relationships, and identifies users’ access privileges </li></ul><ul><li>Creates and maintains data dictionary, manages database security, monitors database performance, and checks backup and recovery procedures </li></ul>Next Database analyst (DA) Database administrator (DBA) Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Database Administrators below Chapter 10
  43. 43. Summary of Database Management Chapter 10 Complete How data and information are valuable assets to an organization Methods for maintaining high-quality data Assessing the quality of valuable information Advantages of organizing data in a database Various types of databases Role of the database analysts and administrators