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Obesity the Food industry and consumer preferences

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A quote from the E-Book produced by QEP marketing clinic :-
"This E book is not a Diet Book !
Rather it is an analysis of why and how obesity occurs from an emotional and sensory taste perspective and how it drives consumer preference for short term gain for potential long term pain .
In addition, the book suggests how the food industry could help develop healthier food and beverages which appeal to consumer preference
The Information in this book is derived from qualitative research over the last 30 years conducted by QEP marketing clinic using our proprietary methodology and systems .
These insights are drawn from over 7000 groups , each run on average for 2 hours in duration , amongst a total of well over 35,000 research respondents covering more than 5,000 different food and beverage existing brands, products or new product development concepts .
This experience has provided a wealth of practical insight and knowledge into understanding the emotions behind taste and delivering consumer preference from that understanding "

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Obesity the Food industry and consumer preferences

  1. 1. A Publication of QEP Marketing Clinic Obesity The Food Industry and Consumer Preference
  2. 2. Table of Contents About&this&Book&–&the&Company&and&the&Author& Chapter&1&–&The&problem&of&Obesity& Chapter&2&–&Fat&–&Salt&–&Sugar&–&The&Villains& Chapter&3&–&The&Food&Industry&–&The&Elephant&&&the& Rollercoaster& Chapter&4&–&Consumer&Learnt&Behavior&of&Obesity& Chapter&5&–&EmoJons&and&Taste&–&The&Real&Cause&of& Obesity& Chapter&6&–&How&OvereaJng&AddicJon&Occurs& Chapter&7&–&Changing&Consumer&Taste&Preference&–&A& PotenJal&SoluJon& Conclusion&
  3. 3. About This Book This&book&is&not&a&diet&book&& Rather&it&is&an&analysis&of&why&and&how&obesity&occurs&from&an&emoJonal&and& sensory&taste&perspecJve&and&how&this&drives&consumer&preference&for&short& term&gain&for&potenJal&long&term&pain& &In&addiJon,&the&book&suggests&how&the&Food&industry&could&develop&healthier& food&and&beverages&which&appeal&to&consumer&preference& The&informaJon&in&this&book&is&derived&from&qualitaJve&research&over&the&last& 30&years&conducted&by&QEP&MarkeJng&Clinic&using&our&proprietary&methodology& and&systems.& These&insights&are&drawn&from&over&7,000&groups,&each&run&on&average&for&two& hours&in&duraJon,&amongst&a&total&of&well&over&35,000&research&respondents& covering&more&than&5,000&different&food&and&beverage&exisJng&brands,&products& or&new&product&development&concepts.& This&experience&has&provided&a&wealth&of&pracJcal&insight&and&knowledge&into& understanding&the&emoJons&behind&taste&and&delivering&consumer&preference& from&that&understanding.&
  4. 4. About QEP Marketing Clinic Based&in&the&US&and&UK&we&are&a&food&and&drink&market&research&company&that& helps&large&global&brand&owners&to&gain&compeJJve&advantage&by&understanding& why&and&how&consumers&make&their&taste&choices&through&emoJonal& preference.& Our&company&has&over&30&years’&experience&researching&over&7,000&food&and&drink& products,&helping&to&gain&consumer&preference&for&companies&globally&such&as& Kra[,&CocaCola,&Kellogg’s,&PepsiCo,&Mars&and&Diageo&amongst&others.& By&using&proprietary&qualitaJve&and&tools&and&methodology,&including&our&recently& introduced&global&Mobile&and&Web&based&market&research&tools&we&understand& the&posiJve&and&negaJve&emoJons&in&a&product’s&taste&and&texture&to&deliver& compeJJve&advantage&in&exisJng&and&new&brands.& For&more&informaJon&visit& www.qepmarkeJngclinic.com& We&also&publish&a&regular&blog&on&Consumer&Preference&of&EmoJon&and&Sensory& Taste&h_p://blog.qepmarkeJngclinic.com/blog&& QEP&MarkeJng&Clinic&is&the&branded&trademark&of&QEP&Research&Inc&and&QEP& Research&Ltd.&
  5. 5. The Author About&the&Author:&&Derek&Roberts& Derek&started&his&long&and&acJve& career&in&FMCG&markeJng&as&a& graduate&trainee&with&Cadbury& Schweppes.&A[er&a&number&of& promoJons&he&progressed&to& an&internaJonal&markeJng&role& in&Smith&Kline&Beecham&(the& precursor&to&GSK).& He&then&became&NPD&Director& for&Bass&brewers,&the&UK’s& largest&brewer.&& In&this&la_er&role&he&became&personally&aware&of&QEP& MarkeJng&Clinic&and&recognized&and&acJvely&used&its& unique&methodology&on&several&projects&with&success&as&a& client.& He&subsequently&joined&the&company&in&2001&and&now&runs&the& internaJonal&arm&of&the&company&including&the&Mobile&and&Web& service,&based&out&of&Chicago&and&London&
  6. 6. CHAPTER ONE The Problem
  7. 7. The Problem World Statistics According&to&the&WHO,&worldwide&obesity&has&doubled&since& &1980&&www.who.int/en/& In&2008&more&than&1.4&billion&adults,&20&and&over,&were&overweight,&of& these&500&million&were&obese& .&& More&than&10&%&of&the&world’s&populaJon&was&obese& Overweight&and&obesity&are&the&fi[h&leading&risk&for&global& &deaths.&& At&least&2.8&million&adults&die&each&year&as&a&result&of&being& &overweight&or&obese.& &In&addiJon,&44%&of&the&diabetes&burden,23%&of&the&coronary&heart& disease&burden&and&between&7%&and&41%&of&certain&cancer&burdens&are& a_ributable&to&overweight&and&obesity&according&to&WHO&studies& This&problem&is&increasing&in&the&young&& In&2011,&more&than&40&million&children&under&the&age&of&five&were& overweight&
  8. 8. The Problem Developing Worldwide Once&considered&a&highincome&country&problem,&overweight&and& obesity&are&now&on&the&rise&in&low&and&middleincome&countries,& parJcularly&in&urban&selngs&according&to&the&WHO& Globally,&more&people&die&of&obesity&related&causes&than&starvaJon&& &More&than&30&million&overweight&children&under&5&are&living&in& developing&countries&and&10&million&in&developed&countries.& China&has&opened&its&first&clinics&for&dealing&with&childhood&obesity& and&the&problem&is&increasing&in&other&developing&countries& Where&there&is&a&growing&affluent&middle&class&such&as&China,&India& and&Brazil&a&calorific&high&“Western”&diet&follows&….&and&so&does& obesity&
  9. 9. The Problem Obesity BMI Definition Overweight&and&obesity&are&defined&as&abnormal&or&excessive&fat&& accumulaJon&that&may&impair&health.& Body&mass&index&(BMI)&is&a&simple&index&of&weightforheight&that&is& &commonly&used&to&classify&overweight&and&obesity&in&adults.&& It&is&defined&as&a&person's&weight&in&kilograms&divided&by&the&square&& of&their&height&in&meters&(kg/m2).& The&WHO&definiJon&is:&a&BMI&greater&than&or&equal&to&25&is&& overweight&a&BMI&greater&than&or&equal&to&30&is&obesity& &BMI&provides&the&most&useful&&populaJonlevel&measure&of& overweight&and&obesity&as&it&is&the&same&for&both&sexes&and&for&all&ages& of&adults.&& However,&it&should&be&considered&a&rough&guide&because&it&may&not&& correspond&to&the&same&degree&of&body&fat&in&different&individuals.&
  10. 10. The Problem The “Home” of Obesity In&America,&considered&to&the&‘home’&of&obesity&the&American&Heart& FoundaJon&www.heart.org/HEARTORG/& &state&that:& 66%&(144&million)&of&all&US&ciJzens&are&overweight&or&obese&based&on&the& BMI&scale&& Of&these&33%&(71&million)&are&obese& 1&in&3&children&(5&to&19yo)&are&overweight&or&obese& These&figures&are&a&higher&%&in&low&income,&low&educaJon,&high& unemployment&areas&reflecJng&the&general&US&populaJon&trends&in& obesity& Compared)to)a)historical)study)conducted)in)1973)and)1974))a)study) conducted)in)2008)and)2009)showed)that)5)=mes)as)many)children) were)obese)in)the)US) Calorific&consumpJon&is&increasing,&in&addiJon&the&evidence&is&that&these& calories&are&“empty&“&i.e.&low&in&nutrients,&which&affects&general&health&
  11. 11. The Problem Public Attempts to Change Many&health&authoriJes,&government&and&consumer&bodies&frequently& appear&in&the&media&staJng&the&size&of&the&problem&so&the&general&public& are&not&ignorant.& &Many&celebriJes&campaign&for&healthier&eaJng,&parJcularly&for&the& young&including&in&the&US,&Michelle&Obama&who&heads&a&naJonal&US& campaign&to&champion&healthier&eaJng.&& This&has&resulted&in&Federal&grants&to&encourage&healthier&school&meals& despite&claims&of&higher&wastage&and&less&school&meals&being&consumed& due&to&children’s&resistance&to&the&healthier&food& There&are&also&plans&to&bring&clearer&labeling&&for&processed&food&&& beverage&packaging&to&assist&consumers.& Such&public&authoriJes&receive&excellent&publicity&from&the&media&for& their&good&work.& In&turn&there&are&a&plethora&of&diets&and&schemes&to&assist&in&dieJng&and& healthy&eaJng,&although&these&o[en&seem&to&vary&and&conflict&in&advice.& Many&consumers&religiously&follow&the&latest&fads&and&fashion&in&healthy& eaJng&and&dieJng&
  12. 12. The Problem The Obvious Answer To&avoid&being&overweight&or&obese&&the&physical&answer&is&simple.&& Balance&the&calories&you&eat&with&the&calories&you&expend&in&energy& form&through&acJvity:&energy&in&–&energy&out& &Ideally&the&calories&you&take&in&are&in&a&balanced&format&of&healthier& nutriJous&sources&such&as&fruit,&vegetables,&pulses,&grains,&with&some& dairy&and&meat/&fish&protein&according&to&the&WHO& So&the&&quesJon&must&be&asked&&if&the&problem&is&idenJfied&&and& serious&and&its&cause&is&known&&&why&is&it&sJll&a&problem?&& Surely&responsible&minded&logical&&consumers&will&appreciate&the& problem&and&act&accordingly&in&their&behavior&to&avoid&obesity?& &Why&is&the&problem&sJll&growing?&Somebody&must&be&to&blame!& Perhaps&it&is&all&the&Food&Industries&fault&who&manipulate&the&poor& consumer&to&do&the&industries&whim&so&that&huge&profits&can&be&made& &or&maybe&there&is&more&to&it&than&that!&&
  13. 13. The Problem Causes The&causes&of&obesity&are&highlighted&as&being&:& The&increased&consumpJon&of&high&calorific&processed&and&fast&food& containing&sugar,&fat&(and&salt)&& The&general&decline&in&manual&labor&as&society&changes&to&more& sedentary&office&based&occupaJons&using&less&physical&acJvity& The&food&industry&has&come&into&much&criJcism&as&they&are&accused&of& offering&food&and&beverage&which&encourage&obesity&& They&also&seem&to&offer&confusing&advice&/&direcJon&to&consumers&by&the& use&of&obtuse&labeling&on&packs& Indeed,&there&are&many&calls&for&the&Food&industry&to&be&forced&to&limit&fat& &salt&&sugar&&levels&from&public&and&private&health&bodies&around&the& globe& Plus)declare)the)unhealthy)ingredients)clearly)on)the)pack)in)the)form)of) a))health)warning.)Such)an)ini=a=ve)may)seem)fanciful)but)that’s)what) the)cigareHe)industry)also)thought)years)ago!)
  14. 14. CHAPTER TWO Fat – Salt – Sugar = The Villains
  15. 15. Fat Salt Sugar Fat Fat&/&Salt&/&Sugar&are&at&the&core&of&excessive&eaJng&and&the&problem& of&obesity.&& Consumers&who&are&overweight&are&mainly&unhealthy&as&a&result&of& consuming&too&much&calories&through&sugar&and&fat.& As&part&of&this&process&the&food&they&eat&also&has&high&level&of&salt& which&can&lead&to&high&blood&pressure&problems&& The&big&problem&is&that&singly&or&in&combinaJon,&fat&–&salt&&sugar&are& major&carriers&of&taste&in&a&food& Not&only&do&they&carry&the&taste&through&the&mouth&they&also&have&a& taste&of&their&own&plus&bring&out&the&best&taste&in&other&ingredients& In&addiJon&sugar&and&fat&have&also&a&major&contribuJon&to&enhancing& mouthfeel&texture&of&products&in&conjuncJon&with&helping&the& product&flow&through&the&mouth&
  16. 16. Fat Salt Sugar Different types of Fat Looking&at&the&problem&of&fat,&certain&fats&are&more&unhealthy&than& others&and&can&cause&higher&levels&of&heart&disease& Generally&the&consensus&is&that&monounsaturated,&polyunsaturated&and& omega&3&found&in&oily&fish&are&beneficial&to&physical&and&to&a&certain& extent,&emoJonal&health.& Even&saturated&fat&&found&in&red&meat&and&certain&dairy&products,&has& been&found&to&have&beneficial&properJes&and&not&the&villain&it&was&once& thought&&but&again&there&is&some&debate&over&this&& Monounsaturated&fats&are&found&in&olive,&canola,&peanut&and&sesame&oil& as&well&as&certain&nuts,&avocados&and&olives& Polyunsaturated&fat&is&found&in&soybean,&corn,&safflower&oil,&soymilk&and& tofu& Saturated&fats&are&found&in&red&meat&and&many&dairy&products&such&as& cheese&!&
  17. 17. Fat Salt Sugar Trans Fats - A Villain What&is&clear&and&unequivocal&is&that&the&villain&of&fat&is&trans&fat&which&is&a& normal&fat&molecule&that&has&been&altered&during&a&process&called& hydrogena+on.!During&this&process,&liquid&vegetable&oil&is&heated&and& combined&with&hydrogen&gas&This&makes&food&more&stable&and&less&likely&to& spoil,&which&is&ideal&for&food&distribuJon&and&prolonged&shelf&life&& The&scienJfic&view&is&that&no&amount&of&trans&fats&is&healthy.&Trans&fats& contribute&to&major&health&problems,&from&heart&disease&to&cancer.& &However,&the&primary&source&of&trans&fats&comes&from&various&processed& and&fast&food&such&as:& Baked&goods&–&cookies,&crackers,&cakes,&muffins,&pie&crusts,&pizza&dough,& and&some&breads&like&hamburger&buns& &Fried&foods&–&doughnuts,&French&fries,&fried&chicken,&chicken&nuggets,&and& hard&taco&shells&& Snack&foods&–&potato,&corn,&and&tor<lla&chips;&candy;&packaged&or& microwave&popcorn& All&very&aBrac<ve&and&appealing&food&to&many&consumers& The&USDA&recommendaJons&for&an&individual&is&to:& Keep&total&fat&intake&to&2035%&of&calories&&Limit&saturated&fats&to&less&than& 10%&of&your&calories&&&Limit&trans&fats&to&1%&of&calories&&
  18. 18. Fat Salt Sugar Sugar Sugar&in&processed&foods&can&come&in&many&names&sucrose,&high&fructose& corn&syrup,&fructose,&glucose,&cane&sugar&amongst&others& The&main&point&of&sugar&in&terms&of&health&is&that&–&& It&is&calorific&It&releases&dopamine&which&affects&the&reward&center&in&the& brain&and&can&be&addicJve&& There&is&also&evidence&to&suggest&that&sugar&in&soda&can&fool&us&to&thinking& we&have&not&consumed&as&much&calories&as&we&think&&so&consume&more& calories& It&also&builds&cholesterol&and&causes&diabetes&–&a&major&killer&& High&fructose&corn&syrup&made&through&disJllaJon&and&fermentaJon&has& come&in&for&parJcular&criJcisicm&and&studies&(in&rats)&have&found&it& produces&significantly&more&weight&gain&than&convenJonal&white&sugar&–& although&this&is&controversial&and&open&to&debate& However,&overall&the&USDA&state&that&16%&of&all&daily&&calories&consumed&in& the&US&come&from&sugar& Of&these&calories&46%&come&from&soda,&energy&drinks&and&sugar&sweetened& fruit&drinks&
  19. 19. Fat Salt Sugar Salt According&to&the&American&Heat&AssociaJon& 3,400&milligrams&is&the&amount&of&sodium&that&the&average&American& consumes&daily& 1,500&milligrams&or&less&is&the&recommended&daily&allowance&of& sodium.&& Excessive&sodium&is&a&major&cause&of&high&blood&pressure&which&can& cause&heart&disease&and&strokes& So)if)the)problem)is)if)we)are)consuming)too)much)fat,)sugar)and)salt) why)do)we)not)eat)less)and)the)food)industry)reduce)the)levels)in) processed)and)fast)food?&
  20. 20. Fat - Salt - Sugar Conundrum Salt&has&also&some&non&sodium&alternaJves&&although&here&there&are& contra&indicaJons&with&specific&illnesses&related&to&potassium& However,&replacing&fat&is&a&potenJal&big&problem&as&it&is&a&major&source&in& different&forms,&of&taste,&carrying&and&increasing&the&taste&plus&delivering& a&creamy&melt&taste&and&texture& &From&our&consumer&research&many&low&fat&alternaJves&work&for&some& consumers&who&have&made&a&value&choice&of&diet&and&eat&healthier.& &However,&the&majority&reject&such&products&as&thin&in&mouthfeel,& arJficial&and&thin&tasJng,&the&experience&is&briefer&and&shallower,&lacking& depth&and&saJsfacJon.& &Certainly&trans&fats&can&be&replaced&with&other&less&harmful&fats&&but&the& calories&remain.&Surely)the)food)industry)can)find)alterna=ves)to)Fat)–) Salt)and)Sugar?)Or)maybe)it)is)not)that)simple)
  21. 21. The Food Industry The Elephant & The Rollercoaster
  22. 22. The Food Industry To&take&a&broad&view&of&obesity&criJcisms&at&the&food&industry,&it&o[en& seems&that&the&analogy&applies&of&the&“Elephant&and&the&Roller coaster”&that&was&used&by&America&in&dealing&with&their&European& allies&at&the&height&of&the&cold&war&& The&Americans&would&ask&their&European&allies&what&would&be&the&best& way&to&help&deal&with&the&Soviet&threat.&The&analogy&was&that&the& Europeans&would&ask&for&an&Elephant&to&be&able&to&go&down&a&roller coaster&&at&speed(!)& The&Americans&would&go&away&and&work&out&the&best&way&to&design& and&then&subsequently&&would&build&such&an&apparatus.&& When&ready&they&would&present&to&the&Europeans&&and&put&the& Elephant&in&the&Roller&Coaster&and&then&launch&the&poor&beast&& However,&the&Europeans&would&then&turn&around&and&say& (metaphorically)&“Well&actually&we&do&not&want&this&but&we&now&need& a&Ferris&wheel&and&can&it&take&2&giraffes”& The Elephant & The Rollercoaster
  23. 23. The Food Industry The Reality The&point&being&that&when&you&design&and&build&a&model&based&on& one&set&of&rules&&it&is&difficult&to&change&the&model&to&adopt&to&a& completely&different&set&of&rules&once&you&have&that&model&up&and& running.&& The&food&industry&is&based&on&producing&and&delivering&good&value,& compeJJvely&priced&convenient&mass&food&and&beverages&which& has&the&quality&and&taste&to&be&appealing&to&consumers&and&have&a& durable&shelf&life&.&& These&are&encapsulated&in&brands&which&can&thrive&in&a&compeJJve& environment,&increasingly&dominated&by&retailers&& This&is&against&a&background&of&rising&raw&material&&commodity& prices.& The)whole)mass)market)food)model)from)farm)to)retail)shelf)is) based)on)this)model)–)not)an)easy)one)to)change)
  24. 24. The Food Industry “Healthier” Alternatives Many&food&companies&have&tried&to&offer&“healthier”&alternaJves&to&their& standard&product&/&brand&&lines&in&parJcular&by&reducing&one&or&more&of& the&big&3&diet&nasJes:&Sugar&&Salt&&Fat.& &There&are&diet&sodas,&low&salt&and&reduced&fat&alternaJves&to&most& processed&food&& The&problem&is&by&reducing&one&or&all&of&the&big&3&sugar&–&salt&–&fat,&sales& plummet&with&rising&consumer&complaints&So&the&consumer&is&talking&with& their&wallets&and&stomach& Therefore&the&Food&Industry&is&in&between&a&rock&and&hard&place.&If&it&stays& as&the&same&it&faces&increasing&pressure&and&criJcism&& If&it&changes&product&formulaJons&drasJcally,&consumer&preference&rebels& by&switching&to&a&compeJJve&alternaJve& It)is)very)difficult)to)stop)the)elephant)on)the)rollercoaster.)It)will)take) fundamental)changes)in)how)the)Food)Industry)operates,)the)products) offered)and)the)rela=onship)with)the)consumer)
  25. 25. The Food Industry Taking out the Nasties For&example,&the&fast&food&industry&have&made&a&major&effort&to& introduce&salad&and&fruit&to&their&menus&but&the&vast&majority&of& products&consumed&are&sJll&the&tradiJonal&fast&food&items& The&problem&most&food&manufacturers&face&is&that&if&they&take&unilateral& acJon&and&reduce&one&or&more&of&the&“nasJes”&across&their&mass& market&product&range,&they&suffer& Sales&decline,&they&loose&money&as&usually&there&are&higher&product& costs&associated&plus&they&face&losing&share&to&compeJtors& For&example,&many&producers&have&3&varieJes&of&a&product&–&Normal& Standard&–&Reduced&fat&–&Low&fat&–&Guess&which&is&usually&the&best& seller?& Many&consumers&find&Reduced&fat&almost&acceptable&but&the&Low&fat&is& usually&seen&as&very&different&from&the&normal&standard&variety&and&only& consumed&by&serious&commi_ed&dieters&&
  26. 26. The Food Industry Labeling From&our&own&work&in&several&countries&it&appears&that&in&general&consumers& are&very&confused&about&labeling&parJcularly&regards&to&ingredients& Indeed&far&more&physical&and&emoJonal&cues&are&obtained&from&the&packaging& and&graphics&rather&than&reading&the&ingredients&copy& The&majority&of&consumers&do&not&read&ingredient&labels&–&only&those&who&are& very&keen&on&dieJng&and&healthier&eaJng.&They&do&not&have&Jme&when&they& are&filling&their&grocery&trolley& The)main)request)is)for)clear)and)unequivocal)guidance)on)the)number)of) calories)–)either)per)serving)or)as)a)%)per)gram)or)ounce) Secondary)to)that)is)the)level)of)sugar)–)salt)and)fat.)Not)much)is)known) about)different)sorts)of)sugar)or)fat) The&clearest&and&most&informaJve&type&of&labeling&appears&to&be&the&red&–& amber&–&green&“traffic”&light&adopted&voluntarily&by&some&UK&retailers&and& producers&& h_p://mulJmedia.food.gov.uk/mulJmedia/pdfs/frontofpackguidance2.pdf&
  27. 27. The Food Industry Labeling Confusion What&is&clear&is&that&many&consumers&are&suspicious&that&many&food& manufacturers&are&being&deliberately&obtuse&and&confusing&to&“hide’& unhealthy&ingredients& Whether&or&not&that&is&the&case&–&the&percepJon&is&very&powerful& This&belief&is&carried&into&health&bodies&and&authoriJes&who&are& pressurizing&governments&to&take&acJon&to&force&food&manufacturers&to& label&more&clearly&around&the&globe& The&danger&is&that&specific&types&of&&ingredient&lists&will&be&forced&on&the& food&industry&and&that&these&lists&will&be&designed&by&bureaucrats&and&civil& servants&–&or&worse:&Health&warnings& This&is&the&worst&case&scenario&for&the&food&industry&and&possibly&provide& even&more&confusion&for&consumers& The)food)industry)need)to)design)consumer)friendly)labeling)and) ingredient)lists)which)are)clear,)easily)understandable)and)informa=ve) Indeed&it&could&be&argued&that&a&potenJal&compeJJve&advantage&could&be& obtained&by&a&brand&being&the&thought&leader&in&their&category&
  28. 28. CHAPTER FOUR Consumer Learnt Behavior of Overeating
  29. 29. Learnt Behavior Taking the Risk There&are&consumers&who&follow&a&rigid&pa_ern&of&eaJng&healthy& food&and&control&their&intake&of&salt&–&sugar&&fat&and&associated& calories&&usually&with&an&accompanying&exercise&regime.& &However,&many&who&try&and&follow&such&regimes&fail&or&try&and& balance&calorific&intake&by&“being&good”&in&certain&meals&so&that& they&can&indulge&at&other&moments&as&they&have&‘earned&the& calories”& In)general)the)majority)of)consumers)prefer)their)food)to)have) sugar)X)salt)X)fat)in)some)combina=on)even)when)they)are)aware) that)it)may)not)be)good)for)them)or)even)have)adverse)long)term) health)risks) Many&are&not&prepared&to&downgrade&porJon&sizes&or&alter&the&type& of&food&they&consume&when&moving&from&an&acJve&youth&to&a&more& sedentary&middle&and&old&age& &They&seem&to&ignore&or&be&prepared&to&take&the&risk.&Why?& A&major&reason&can&be&traced&to&learnt&behavior&
  30. 30. Learnt Behavior How Emotions of Taste are Learned &To&understand&consumer&behavior&we&have&to&look&at&how&the&emoJons& of&taste&(the&key&to&consumer&preference&and&behavior)&are&learned& A&lot&of&‘guidance’&is&from&the&parent&who&has&an&obvious&enormous& influence&on&the&child’s&diet&&both&consciously&and&unconsciously& forming&the&child’s&preference.&& Babies&are&highly&sensiJve&to&their&parents’&emoJons&and&can&read&the& expressions&and&body&language&of&their&parent&like&a&skilled&interrogator& and&are&therefore&influenced&by&the&belief&structure&and&diet&of&their& parents&&parJcularly&their&mother.& Similarly,&faces&and&a&sense&of&anJcipated&delight&signal&a&yummy&dessert& while&stern&faces&and&a&sense&of&forcefeeding&because&it&is&‘good&for&you’& signal&carrots&or&even&worse&–&broccoli!&
  31. 31. Learnt Behavior Childhood Palate Development Children&are&therefore&extraordinarily&influenced&by&their&parents&in& the&diet&they&encounter&which&then&can&have&a&huge&influence&into& adulthood.&& As&a&child&grows&older&the&diet&they&encounter&will&start&to&become&a& pa_ern&determined&by&their&parents’&own&emoJonal&preference&and& the&society&they&grow&up&in.&& The&balance&between&sweet,&savory,&salt,&spicy,&bland&and&creamy&is& fed&to&the&child&with&a&recommended&emoJonal&response&which&the& parents&themselves&learnt&from&their&own&childhood.&& Their&child&follows&their&example&and&follows&the&emoJonal& response&and&subsequent&behavior.&
  32. 32. Learnt Behavior Learnt Taste Palate The&learning&of&taste&and&their&meanings&from&childhood&and& adolescence,&experimenJng&with&flavors&and&tastes&in&their&teens,& the&encounter&with&new&foods,&drinks&and&brands&means&that&over& their&lifeJme&every&adult&builds&up&a&whole&series&of&taste& preferences.&& &The&ingredients&in&a&recipe&can&be&adulterated&but&tend&to&develop& the&core&intrinsic&flavor&further&and&usually&with&a&greater&intensity.&&& These&flavors&are&learnt&by&society,&becoming&associated&with&the& purpose&and&occasion&it&is&used&in&and&therefore&mean&the&same&to& those&consumers&operaJng&in&an&age&cohort&in&that&society.&& &All&of&this&becomes&learnt&opinion,&differing&by&generaJon&and& slightly&separated&between&men&and&woman&to&form&a&taste&palate.&
  33. 33. Learnt Behavior Learnt Value Structure Therefore&many&consumers&bring&to&their&food&and&drink& consumpJon&pa_erns,&value&judgments&about&how&much&or&how& li_le&or&how&frequently&certain&foods&should&by&consumed&causing& them&to&criJque&tastes&and&mouthfeels.& &&They&then&choose&the&available&foods&and&drink&that&reflect&their& beliefs&on&what&they&should&or&should&not&be&consuming.&& &What)is)happening)is)that)taste)selec=on)is)based)on)foods)that) support)their)emo=onal)beliefs)and)to)be)true)to)their)values.))) These)emo=ons,)posi=ve)or)nega=ve)will)largely)determine)what) they)eat)or)drink.)
  34. 34. Leant Behavior Culture Culture&also&had&an&affect&on&learnt&behavior& In&many&cultures&extended&members&of&the&family&‘break&bread’&together.& In&Southern&Europe&and&parts&of&Asia&this&is&the&major&consumpJon&occasion& of&the&day&with&the&head&of&the&household&holding&court&and&demonstraJng& altudes&and&behavior&to&the&children&about&food&and&drink&–&including& monitoring&healthy&food&intake&and&table&manners.& One&result&of&this&in&Southern&Europe&is&a&huge&respect&for&food&and&rituals& associated&with&food,&across&many&varied&courses&and&dishes.&& &Even&small&children&join&the&meal&and&eat&a&toned&down&version&of&the&dishes,& older&children&are&encouraged&to&drink&diluted&wine&and&coffee.&& &This&leads&to&a&much&healthier&appreciaJon&of&both&drinks&in&later&life&–&much& less&consuming&forbidden&fruit&than&in&other&cultures.&& Food&is&seen&as&a&social&event&where&different&flavors&and&textures&are& consumed&as&part&of&a&balanced&intake& The&so&called&“Mediterranean”&diet&is&a&classic&example&of&how&this&works&and& is&learnt&generaJonally&
  35. 35. Learnt Behavior Culture – Contd.. In&those&cultures&where&individual&freedom&is&highly&valued&and&the&family& unit&plays&a&lesser&role,&this&has&an&inevitable&impact&on&food&and&drink& consumpJon.&&& Taking&parts&of&Scandinavia&Northern&Europe&and&North&America&as&an& example,&the&children&are&given&substanJal&freedom,&jusJfied&by&social& agreements.& &&The&result&in&food&terms,&substanJal&grazing&and&snacking.&&& &Food&is&o[en&consumed&individually&on&the&run,&at&different&Jmes&of&the& day,&o[en&by&hand&and&standing&up.&& This&is&more&prevalent&when&working&mothers&are&in&the&household&where& Jme&is&at&a&premium&plus&they&may&not&be&home&when&the&child&returns& from&school&& The&result&is&that&mainly&processed&foods&are&taken&out&of&the&fridge&and& microwaved&for&convenience.&Pizza,&burgers,&nuggets&consumed&by& children&&endorsing&learnt&behavior&
  36. 36. CHAPTER FIVE Emotions & Taste – The Real Causes of Obesity
  37. 37. The Real Cause of Obesity Emotions To&understand&the&causes&of&Obesity&it&is&worthwhile&to&examine&how& flavors&and&eats&operate.&& Everything&we&have&learnt&about&the&psychology&of&flavors&and&how&they& drive&emoJons&directly&posiJons&them&as&a&major&driving&force&to& greater,&not&less,&consumpJon&& The&key&ingredients&in&both&fast&foods&and&many&processed&products& are;&& Firstly&so[ness&in&the&mouth&requires&minimal&chewing&enabling&rapid& eaJng&and&swallowing&of&bitesized&porJons&partly&whole.& Plus&sweetness&supported&by&salJness&maximizes&both&the&taste&and& sugar&impact&and&enhances&the&flavor&delivery.&&
  38. 38. The Real Cause of Obesity Taste Fats&and&oils,&vegetable,&sugar&and&mineralbased&carry&the&flavor& throughout&the&mouth,&maximizing&the&number&of&taste&receptors& involved,&so&enhancing&the&flavor&duraJon&and&hence,&awareness.& &&They&are&also&both&volaJle&and&reach&into&the&olfactory&organ,&the& nose,&creaJng&even&further&flavor&emoJonal&messages&and&last&in&the& mouth,&o[en&for&hours.&& &This&is&one&basis&for&compulsive&eaJng,&the&leaving&of&a&‘flavor&trail’& that&slowly&fades&and&demands&its&recapture& In&our&consumer&research&we&have&had&instances&of&people&craving& such&compulsive&consumpJon&that&they&physically&lock&the&food&in&a& cupboard&as&a&restraint!&
  39. 39. The Real Cause of Obesity Texture If&people&had&to&chew&the&food&more&to&extract&the&flavor&enjoyment&it& would&take&longer&to&eat,&be&be_er&digested&and&the&feeling&of&being& full&reached&far&sooner.& &&People&would&need&to&consume&less.& Many&foods&are&specifically&designed&to&target&the&greatest&and& longest&flavor&saJsfacJon&that&is&possible&in&the&shortest&amount&of& biJng,&crunch&and&chewing&& This&generates&compulsive&eaJng&even&before&we&consider&the& messages&that&the&tastes&actually&create&in&the&consumer’s&mind& Governments)and)health)authori=es,)know)fast)and)processed)food) is)unhealthy)but)appear)to)have)no)idea)why)it)is)so)popular.)
  40. 40. The Real Cause of Obesity The Melt in the Mouth As&an&example,&the&single&most&saJsfying&inmouth&experience&is&the& flowing&across&the&tongue&of&a&rich&syrup&or&what&we&refer&to&as&‘The&Melt’&& This&melt&occurs&when&the&food&reacts&to&the&sJmulus&of&the&chewing& process,&the&temperature&of&the&mouth&on&the&melJng&of&the&flavor& through&the&enzymes&in&the&flavor.&& The&melt&is&a&criJcal&transiJon&where&the&taste&and&texture&move&from&one& state&to&another&into&a&liquor& &This&liquor&speed&of&melt&and&richness&flows&through&the&mouth&and&signal& the&emoJons&which&are&going&to&be&generated&in&the&ConsumpJon& Experience.& If&these&emoJons&are&posiJve&and&fit&into&the&consumer’s&perceived&value& structure&then&the&experience&is&appreciated&
  41. 41. The Real Cause of Obesity Melt Mood Change This&is&a&powerful&determinate&of&preference&for&as&the&melt&occurs& alternaJve&tastes&are&picked&by&different&receptors&in&the&mouth.&& The&sequence&and&the&change&from&one&taste&to&another&have&a& strong&influence.&Individual&taste&notes&are&unlikely&to&be&idenJfied,& apart&from&those&which&are&very&obvious.&& Rather,&it&is&the&journey&of&these&tastes&which&is&emoJonally& significant.& Frequently&this&is&a&powerful&trigger&and&inmouth&experience,&linked& heavily&to&the&individual’s&relaxaJon&and&indulgence.&& It&can&change&a&mood&so&much&that&people’s&eyes&move&out&of&focus& as&their&thoughts&become&innerdirected&in&the&moment.&
  42. 42. The Real Cause of Obesity Emotional Addiction When&supported&by&the&appropriate&tastes&and&mouthfeels&this&can& be&a&difficult&behavior&to&stop.&& The&user,&once&the&emoJonal&escape&from&the&experience&has& stopped,&will&be&dragged&from&their&reverie&and&emoJonal&escape& once&the&mouth&is&empty.& &The&desire&to&return,&or&more&likely&to&maintain&by&repeJJon,& encourages&the&consumpJon&of&more&of&what&has&been&eaten.& This)can)become)highly)addic=ve,)par=cularly)when)the)emo=onal) response)is)powerful)and)aHrac=ve)to)an)individuals)par=cular) needs)and)circumstances)
  43. 43. The Real Cause of Obesity Not Just Sweet Obviously&many&of&the&rich&sweet&foods&deliver&their&emoJonal&peace& through&richness&and&sugariness.&Cakes&and&chocolate&are&prime& examples.& &However,&savory&foods&are&equally&capable&of&delivering&such& emoJons&through&the&melt&and&with&less&associated&guilt.& &Cheeses&are&an&excellent&example&as&are&rich,&creamy&sauces&which& can&work&well&with&neutral&carriers,&such&as&pasta,&to&deliver&complex& and&rich&melts.& &A&lot&of&foods&melt&at&mouth&temperature&and&flow&through&the&mid& mouth,&coaJng&the&tongue&and&roof&of&the&mouth.&
  44. 44. The Real Cause of Obesity Emotional & Physical The&rate&of&flow&through&the&mouth&is&very&important&as&well&as&the& feeling&of&weight&in&the&mouth.&& The&slower&the&flow,&the&deeper&the&relaxaJon,&the&more&profound&the& state&of&reverie&and&the&greater&the&escape&from&exisJng&thought& processes,&concerns&and&stress& That&is&why&heavy&alcoholic&drinks&and&desserts,&providing&a[er&dinner& depth&and&sweetness,&are&part&of&the&mood&change&& This&melt&can&slow&the&heart&rate,&reduce&blood&pressure&and&help& relaxaJon&enabling&the&enjoyment&of&the&tastes&to&be&heightened&in& the&ConsumpJon&Experience.& It)can)be)seen)that)the)balance,)nature)of)taste,)sweetness,)fat) content,)richness)and)syrupy)dissolve)of)the)melt)will)have)various) levels)of)emo=onal)impact)
  45. 45. The Real Cause of Obesity Emotional Journey of Taste As&discussed,&not&only&does&the&texture,&richness&and&weight&of&the& dissolve&signal&messages&and&set&up&emoJonal&release,&so&do&the& flavors&themselves&which&have&different&emoJonal&connecJons& learned&through&life.&& The&extent&of&the&emoJonal&impact&is&found&within&the&texture&of&the& melt,&or&in&the&flavor&and&how&they&are&working,&synergisJcally&or& sequenJally&& As&the&impact&of&flavor&and&mouthfeel&varies&with&different&foods,&in& different&parts&of&the&mouth,&so&do&the&emoJons.& &The)emo=onal)journey)is)the)reward)and)that)is)why)the)taste)is) enjoyed.)))This)can)be)a)difficult)and)complex)journey)to)decode)but) is)achievable)
  46. 46. CHAPTER SIX Overeating Addiction
  47. 47. Overeating Addiction Taste & Texture Contrasts All&the&most&popular&processed&and&fast&foods&provide&textural&sJmulus&at& the&front&of&the&mouth&and&also&a&contrast&at&the&rear&of&mouth&on&which&to& chew&to&prolong&the&saJsfacJon.& The&key&to&the&appeal&of&such&foods&is&based&around&taste&and&texture& contrasts.& They&have&so[&and&hard&components,&someJmes&a&crisp&and&chewy& elements& &In&taste&they&iniJally&are&sharp,&intrusive&and&impact&at&the&front&of&the& mouth&with&rich,&heavier,&slower&tastes&that&relax&you&in&the&rear&of&the& mouth.& &Sweetness&is&also&present&along&with&fat&to&carry&the&flavor,&through& caramelizaJon&in&the&cooking&process&by&adding&specific&addiJonal& ingredients&& This&slows&the&heart&rate,&relaxes&the&consumer&and&creates&a&mellow& disposiJon.& &It&reduces&stress.&&&
  48. 48. Overeating Addiction Fast Food The&acquisiJon&by&the&consumer&of&an&acJve&preference&for&fast&food& tastes,&flavors&and&mouthfeel&occurs&because&the&fun&and&informal&nature& of&fast&food&consumpJon,&when&people&first&experience&it,&is& extraordinarily&a_racJve.&& &It&is&far&more&fun&than&normal&food&at&home.&& &Take&any&child&out&for&a&meal&to&a&fast&food&restaurant&and&they&just&adore& the&event.&&Happy&faces&all&around,&laughter&and&the&maximum&of&family& harmony.&&It&is&an&event&that&cries&out&to&be&repeated.&& &Hence&the&demand&for&children’s&parJes&at&fast&food&restaurants&& This&is&the&best&social&event&in&a&preteens&normal&life&and&what&gets&the& credit?&&It&is&the&locaJon&and&the&food&itself.&&& So,)every)=me)fast)food)is)suggested)the)child)recalls)the)happiness,)lack) of)formality)and)the)freedom)of)fast)food.))
  49. 49. Overeating Addiction Fast Food Party As&a&party&or&family&shares&this&food&such&as&pizza&either&in&a& restaurant&or&as&a&takeaway,&so&the&stress&reducJon&creates&bonding& and&unity&of&purpose&and&shared&pleasure.&&& It&is&similar&to&that&of&a&family&eaJng&together&at&a&formal&meal&but& much&be_er&than&a&formal&dinner.& &&There&are&no&porJon,&or&fairness,&problems,&everyone’s&meal&is& equal&and&the&delight&shared&out&evenly.&&& Because&these&savory&meals&appear&to&be&real&food,&not& confecJonery&or&snacks,&the&absence&of&guilt&encourages&the& frequency&of&these&events.&& The)actual)flavors)themselves)are)related)in)the)unconscious)mind) to)the)arrival)home)from)school)in)childhood,)the)shared)family) ea=ng)events)and)home)comfort)and)security))
  50. 50. Overeating Addiction Fast Food Addiction The&flavor&notes&equally,&but&this&Jme&unconsciously,&trigger&the&same& emoJonal&response.&& &Taste&a&burger&meal&and&you&are&‘eaJng&freedom’.&& &So)it)has)an)addic=ve,)flavor)and)mouthfeel)too.))Now)whenever)those) flavor)notes)occur)in)other)processed)foods)they)create)this)condi=oned,) but)unaware,)response.))They)are)immediately)liked)and)the)person)feels) good!)) &That&is&at&the&heart&of&overeaJng&amongst&younger&consumers.&& &UnJl&you&break&that&response&you&will&not&ever&change&that&‘learned& palate’.&& This&is&very&difficult&to&break&–&as&well&meaning&authoriJes&are&finding&out&
  51. 51. Overeating Addiction Dealing with Stress Fast&food&can&make&you&feel&safe!& Processed&food&can&make&you&feel&family&protecJon&and&secure!&&& This&potenJally&safe&and&secure&food&has&the&potenJal&to&damage&your& health.&&& The&harder&your&life,&and&the&fewer&pleasures&it&delivers,&the&more& processed&foods&help&you&to&feel&be_er.&& &It&seems&similar&to&alcohol&and&cigare_es,&as&a&delivery&vehicle&for& pleasure&relief&or&simply&escape.&&What&is&more&it&works.&& &It)is)too)easy)for)those)without)the)stresses)of)an)unsa=sfactory)or) difficult)life)to)cri=que)others)for)consuming)such)foods)and)becoming) obese.)) In&much&the&same&way&as&non&smokers&or&drinkers&are&baffled&why& anybody&should&smoke&or&drink&(reformed&smokers&and&drinkers&have& even&stronger&feelings!)&&
  52. 52. Overeating Addiction Emotional not Cognitive The&answer&lies&in&changing&the&foods,&breaking&the&messages&of& comfort&and&hope.&& &It&is&largely&a&waste&of&Jme&and&effort&trying&to&persuade&people&to&eat& fruits&and&vegetables&since&unless&you&have&associated&these&from& childhood&with&Family&and&Security&of&Home&they&cannot&deliver&the& emoJonal&needs&that&processed&foods&can.&& &People)can)understand)cogni=vely)what)the)right)diet)should)be,)but) unless)that)delivers)the)‘Emo=onal)Support’)of)processed)foods)it) requires)too)great)an)emo=ve)loss)to)give)up)these)tastes)and) mouthfeels.)) &It&is&here&that&the&addicJon&lies.&
  53. 53. Overeating addiction Spreading Addiction We&have&done&research&work&on&alcohol&products,&smoking&and& indeed&both&pharmaceuJcal&and&recreaJonal&drugs,&for&over&thirty& years,&all&over&the&planet&and&it&is&the&same&everywhere.&&& People&are&addicted&to&how&these&products&(including&foods)&make& them&feel,&not&to&the&actual&products&themselves& Therefore&overeaJng&addicJon&follows&the&arrival&of&processed& foods&with&an&absolute&pure&correlaJon.&&& With&these&items&reaching&the&emerging&markets,&it&is&absolutely& certain&that&not&only&will&there&be&an&exploding&populaJon&but& that&populaJon&will&individually&be&exploding&too!&
  54. 54. Overeating Addiction Emotional Comfort As&previously&discussed,&people&draw&emoJonal&comfort&from&their& food.&& These&are&largely&based&on&their&posiJve&childhood&learnt&experiences.& &In&previous&generaJons&these&were&built&around&‘&home&&made’&dishes& where&the&ingredients&were&more&controlled&&o[en&based&on& availability.&& Newer&more&convenient&,&exciJng&and&flavorsome&processed&foods& have&superseded&in&many&cases&the&home&made&versions.& &However,&these&processed&foods&are&more&addicJve&and&of&less& nutriJonal&substance&
  55. 55. Overeating Addiction Addictive Behavior How&does&this&slide&to&Obesity&occur?& Our&work&shows&that&obesity&like&alcohol&and&to&an&extent&drugs,&runs&in& families.&& &There&does&appear&to&be&a&propensity&to&habitual&or&addicJve&behavior& with&certain&people&as&they&seek&greater&EmoJonal&Comfort&and&Reward&&& If&they&gain&emoJonal&benefit&from&an&acJvity&they&tend&to&overindulge& in&that&pasJme&–&o[en&to&relive&stress&or&an&unhappy&situaJon.&& &Others&balance&their&pleasures&more&carefully&–&o[en&if&they&have&firmer& value&structure&and&self&esteem.& Income&and&the&expectancy&of&others&whose&acceptance&is&sought&is& another&powerful&influence.&&You&behave&as&those&do&around&you,&i.e.& family&and&peers&&&
  56. 56. Overeating Addiction Seeking pleasures As&you&go&down&the&social&/&disposable&income&scale&and&the&choice&of& pleasures&can&be&harder&to&acquire,&so&you&gravitate&to&those&you&can& afford.& &This&means&cheaper&addicJons&such&as&wrong&food&choices&are&one&of& the&less&guilty&a_racJons&compared&to&more&expensive&addicJons&such&as& drugs&and&alcohol.&&However,&in&such&wrong&food&choices&is&where&you& find&the&greatest&potenJal&problems.&& &It&is&patronizing&to&see&this&as&ignorance&or&weak&willed&it&is&merely&the& cheapest&outlet&of&potenJal&addicJon.&&One&has&to&eat&anyway,&so&the& food&is&the&cheapest&opJon.&& &&A&consequence&is&that&overweight&parents&tend&to&have&similar&children& as&they&seek&to&spread&the&pleasure&amongst&the&family.&
  57. 57. Overeating Addiction &OvereaJng&is&formed&amongst&people&whose&parents&are&in&the& normal&weight&range&through&learnt&experience&in&society,&through& peers&and&culture& Tastes&are&first&experienced&and&are&compared&to&already&known& flavors&and&experiences.&&‘This&tastes&a&bit&like&X’&or&‘The&texture&is&very& like&Y’.&So&therefore&it&must&be&good&or&bad&–&based&on&percepJon&not& always&reality& &&Humans,&in&order&to&cope&with&complexity&and&ease&of&recall,&make& conclusions&about&experiences&o[en&talking&them&over&with&others.&& &This&enables&a&shorthand&view&composed&of&a&very&few&words&to&be& logged&in&the&brain&as&their&opinion&of&that&experience.&&‘Holidays&are& great’,&‘Tax&is&annoying&but&necessary’,&‘I&like&cold&beer’.& Experience Based
  58. 58. Overeating Addiction Categorizing Ideas This&series&of&categorized&ideas&become&concepts&and&tend&to&remain& fixed&unless&serious&new&evidence&is&experienced.& &You&could&describe&these&as&a&‘branding’&of&the&acJvity&or&experience.&&& This&enables&us&to&handle&the&complexity&of&modern&life&we&do&not&need& to&think&through&how&we&feel&about&everything&every&Jme&we& experience&it.&&& Further&most&of&these&categories&are&emoJonal&preferences&jusJfied&by& a&flawed&logic.&&& We)hold)views)that)suit)our)personality)not)those)that)our)brain)has) deduced.&“&The&gym&is&boring”&“&A&li_le&bit&of&cake&will&not&do&me&any& harm””&“Its&just&the&one&burger”&
  59. 59. Overeating Addiction Breaking Addiction So&a_empts&to&persuade&people&to&change&behavior&by&appealing&to& their&cogniJve&skills&are&only&effecJve&when&the&individual&is&desperate& and&prepared&to&seriously&review&their&opinion.& &&In&food&terms,&people&give&up&sugar&in&coffee&only&when&&they&are& very&serious&about&sugar&intake&and&six&weeks&later,&and&it&does&take& six&weeks,&they&cannot&stand&sweet&coffee.&& &We&then&reclassify&coffee&and&we&start&to&reduce&the&sweetness&level& in&all&our&other&foods.& Now&we&have&become&a&person&who&does&not&like&sweet&things&and& look&down&on&those&who&do&with&great&emoJonal&smugness.&
  60. 60. Overeating Addiction Reformed Behavior Those&who&have&made&an&acJve&choice&to&refrain&from&fast&and& processed&foods&have&had&to&give&up&some&indulgence&that&they& really&liked,&so&they&now&have&no&paJence&for&those&that&have&not.& Yet&that&key&consumpJon&change&was&not&merely&symbolic&but&more& significantly&it&was&the&catalyst&of&the&change&for&them&to&impact& their&ongoing&behavior&of&consuming&less&fat&–&salt&&sugar&in&their& general&diet.& Change&is&possible&but&difficult&to&achieve&at&a&personal&level.&& The)“pain’)of)the)loss)of)emo=onal)sa=sfac=on)from)cu`ng)down) or)refraining)completely)is)only)achieved)where)the)personal) emo=onal)“gain”)is)greater)from)new)values)–)such)as)improved) self)image,)health)and)so)forth)
  61. 61. Overeating Addiction Changing Learnt Behavior People&do&develop&lifestyles&and&philosophies&and&these&opinions& directly&affect&the&food&and&drink&they&consume.&& &Changing&beliefs&impact&and&influence&the&acquired&flavor&and& preferred&choice&but&it&does&take&commi_ed&and&sustained&effort.& &&For&example,&those&who&have&a&commitment&to&a&balanced&diet,& o[en&keep&a&constant&if&informal&audit&of&what&they&are&eaJng&and& the&porJon&sizes.&& &This&enables&them&to&reduce&the&effect&of&indulging&on&fa_y&foods&by& consuming&lighter&less&sweet&and&rich&foods&–&either&pre&event&–&to& ‘buy’&the&indulgent&occasion&by&‘being&good’&& AlternaJvely&a[er&the&event&in&subsequent&behavior&to&miJgate&guilt& and&restore&balance.& In)summary,)learnt)behavior)can)be)changed)but)it)relies)on)a) drama=c)change)in)a`tude)being)translated)into)day)to)day) behavior)–)not)an)easy)task)
  62. 62. CHAPTER SEVEN Changing Preference
  63. 63. Changing Preference Changing Behavior in the Long Term &To&change&behavior&is&very&difficult&to&enforce&and&needs&a&complete& revaluaJon&and&rethink&of&both&food&and&health&behavior.& &However,&forcing&this&on&consumers&would&undoubtedly&produce&a& negaJve&reacJon&and&strong&resistance.&& The)introduc=on)of)healthier)notes)in)processed)and)fast)food)over) a)period)of)years)could)poten=ally)alter)the)conscious)and)sub)X) conscious)emo=ons)linking)processed)foods)with)‘unX)healthy)‘) tastes.&& So&that&grains,&pulses,&vegetable&and&fruit&flavors&are&perceived&as& being&part&of&delivering&of&the&desired&emoJonal&fulfillment& ParJcularly&if&their&flavor&notes&are&“embedded’&in&processed&food&to& influence&and&change&the&cycle&of&learnt&behavior.&& However,&this&is&a&long&term&soluJon&and&difficult&to&implement&but& could&achieve&the&desired&results&
  64. 64. Changing Preference A&shorter&term&soluJon&is&to&reduce,&fatsalt&sugar&(parJcularly&trans& fats&and&potenJally&high&fructose&corn)&in&processed&food& However,&as&discussed&unless&the&consumer&has&a&parJcular&value& structure&of&healthy&eaJng,&the&fact&is&that&the&majority&of&consumers& ‘walk’&with&both&their&stomach’s&and&wallets& Refusing&to&give&up&short&term&gain&to&avoid&potenJal&long&term&pain&& So&how&can&this&reducJon&be&achieved&effecJvely?.& From)our)work)we)can)see)that)a)solu=on)is)to)offer)a)similar)level)of) posi=ve)emo=onal)delivery)through)taste)and)texture)sa=sfac=on) Taste & Texture Satisfaction
  65. 65. Changing Preference Reconstructing the Consumption Experience We&have&worked&with&food&manufacturers&in&sweet&and&savory&dairy,& snacks,&cookies,&cereals&and&candy&and&seen&remarkable&results&in& delivering&consumer&saJsfacJon&in&different&fat&–&salt&–&sugar&&reduced& foods.& &This&includes&foods&which&could&be&categorized&as&“be_er&for&you”& and&some&that&could&be&“good&for&you”.&& This&obviously&varies&on&a&case&by&case&basis& The)boHom)line)is)that)if)the)Consump=on)Experience)of)a)food)is) broken)down)and)reconstructed)in)a)diligent)and)detailed)manner)X) the)whole)consump=on)experience)can)be)improved)and)made) healthier)
  66. 66. Changing Preference Reducing Fat-Salt-Sugar Taking&an&analogy&of&the&journey&of&the&consumpJon&experience&of&a& food&or&drink&as&a&row&of&books&on&a&shelf.&& The&books&being&varying&degrees&of&thickness&and&height.&Fatsaltsugar& are&big&thick&books&which&carry&taste&and&texture&through&the&front&of& the&mouth&through&to&the&mid&/&rear&mouth&and&subsequent&a[ertaste& If&we&remove&these&large&thick&books&the&row&of&books&collapse&&so&the& consumpJon&experience&collapses,&leading&to&consumer&dissaJsfacJon& Rather&the&large&books&of&Fat&Salt&&Sugar&need&to&be&replaced&by&a& series&of&thinner&books&&or&other&tastes&and&textures&to&deliver&the&full& consumpJon&experience.& &Simply)stripping)out)or)reducing)FatXSaltXSugar)leads)to)a)collapse)in) the)consump=on)experience.)) The)consumer)needs)to)be)offered)an)equivalent)experience)X)or)even) beHer)
  67. 67. Changing Preference Increasing Taste Intensity One&area&we&have&worked&on&with&food&manufacturers&is&to&look&to&raise& the&taste&intensity&of&the&experience&through&flavor&enhancing&intense& flavors&such&as&herbs,&spices&and&umami&& In&the&right&combinaJon&such&flavors&increase&salJness,&sourness&and& even&sweetness&(surprisingly)&& By)increasing)the)taste)intensity)the)palate)and)subsequently)the) stomach)can)be)fooled)into)thinking)the)consumer)has)eaten)more)and) receive)a)greater)sa=sfying)experience)
  68. 68. Changing Preference Taste Intensity – Contd... This&applies&to&foods&with&fat,&salt&and&sugar.&Intense&taste&if& delivered&and&released&in&the&correct&sequence&can&hit&all&the& required&areas&of&the&ConsumpJon&Experience& The&huge&growth&of&‘ethnic’&food&from&the&Far&East&in&the&West&is&a& classic&example&of&how&such&extreme&intense&tastes&can&work&and& offer&emoJonal&delight&and&taste&fulfillment& &In&addiJon,&&this&is&increased&when&taste&intensity&is&aligned&with& and&accompanied&by&texture&complexity&such&as&a&product&being& crisp&and&so[,&crunchy&and&chewy&in&both&the&front&and&mid/&rear&of& the&mouth,& This&combinaJon&can&potenJally&increase&the&emoJonal&and&physical& reward&exponenJally&&
  69. 69. Changing Preference Optimizing products We&have&worked&extensively&with&food&manufacturers&globally&in&this&area& through&our&emoJonal&preference&consumer&research&methodology&and& have&found&that&excellent&results&can&be&achieved&&&with&work&and&effort!& So&for&example,&sugar&can&be&replaced&or&reduced&using&natural&(including& honey)&or&arJficial&sweeteners.&Despite&concerns&there&is&no&scienJfic& evidence&to&suggest&any&contra&indicaJons&in&such&sweeteners&& The&so[&drinks&industry&has&had&excellent&results&in&this&area.&Coke&is& currently&test&markeJng&a&svelte&based&natural&sweetener&product&in& several&markets& &With&judicious&use&of&different&flavors&the&metallic&style&arJficial&and& thinness&in&the&drink&can&be&overcome&to&deliver&a&full&consumpJon& experience.& These)principals)can)be)applied)to)most)processed)foods)and)fast)foods) products)to)op=mize)the)consump=on)experience)sa=sfac=on)but) delivering)less)damaging)fat)–)salt)–)sugar)elements)in)order)to)reduce) the)problem)of))obesity)
  70. 70. CHAPTER EIGHT Conclusion
  71. 71. Conclusion 1 It&is&obvious&that&obesity&is&a&major&health&problem&and&growing&exponenJally& in&all&ways&and&measures& Most&soluJons&to&the&problem&from&well&meaning&authoriJes&and&health& bodies&essenJally&fall&into&two&areas& X)Appeal)to)peoples)cogni=ve)common)sense)to)change)their)behavior) logically)by)ea=ng)less)and)healthier) &Force)the)food)and)beverage)industry)to)‘do)the)right)thing’)and)reduce)fat)–) salt)and)sugar)in)processed)and)fast)foods)) &If&necessary&to&use&legislaJon&if&the&industry&does&not&comply&to&put& health&warnings&on&products&to&scare&consumers&into&the&correct&eaJng& behavior&
  72. 72. Conclusion 2 Unfortunately&everything&we&have&learned&from&our&experience&shows& that&these&measures&are&unlikely&to&succeed&–&no&ma_er&how&well&& meaning& They&are&unlikely&to&change&consumer&behavior&significantly& The&emoJons&derived&from&the&taste&and&texture&of&fast&and&processed& food&(including&beverages)&are&so&powerful&that&they&are&a_racJve&to& many&and&addicJve&to&some.&& To)break)this)aHrac=on)the)learnt)behavior)of)consumer)preference) needs)to)change)
  73. 73. Conclusion 3 This&can&be&changed&in&two&ways& Firstly&in&the&long&term,&healthier&food&tastes&and&textures&(such&as& nuts&,grains,&pulses&Fruit&and&vegetables)&need&to&be&added&to&fast&and& processed&food.& &This&is&difficult&and&requires&major&changes&in&the&food&industry&and& consequent&consumer&behavior&–&so&is&probably&unlikely&to&happen& The)other)alterna=ve)is)simpler)–)to)reduce)the)level)of)fat)–)salt)and)sugar)in) fast)and)processed)food)BUT)replace)with)other)ingredients)which)add)taste) and)texture)to)improve)the)Consump=on)Experience)once)the)“nas=es”)have) been)reduced)or)replaced)
  74. 74. Conclusion 4 Finally,&it&is&obvious&that&Obesity&is&a&major&problem.& &The&Food&Industry&has&come&in&for&major&criJcism&as&a&cause&of&the&& problem&Some&of&this&is&jusJfied& What&is&clear&that&cannot&afford&to&sit&back&and&defend&the& &status&quo&on&fat&salt&–&sugar&in&processed&and&fast&food.&& Otherwise&they&will&end&up&eventually&with&the&legal&restricJons& &of&the&cigare_e&industry&& Rather)the)Industry)to)take)more)of)the)ini=a=ve)by)developing) )products)that)replace)or)reduce)fatX)saltX)sugar)with)an)) equivalent)or)beHer)Consump=on)Experience) In&this&manner,&learnt&behavior&can&be&based&on&consumer&& preference&which&aligns&with&a&healthier&diet&and&living&
  75. 75. FOR MORE INFORMATION ON QEP MARKETING CLINIC SIGN UP TODAY FOR MORE INFORMATION CLICK BELOW Click&on&the&link&below&to&find&out&more&informaJon&about&our&proprietary& consumer&research&methodology&to&uncover&the&emoJon&preference&of&taste& including&our&new&mobile&and&web&service&from&our&blog&which&features&our& service&and&contact&details& h_p://blog.qepmarkeJngclinic.com/blog&&
  76. 76. CapJon&and&Photo& Credit:&Use&this&space& to&provide&credit&to&the& original&photo&or& graphic&creator&and& provide&context&on&its& meaning.& “This is a quote you can use to further highlight a point or message.” &Author&

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