Food proteins today ,tomorrow,and beyond

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A presentation by New Food Innovation ltd , On Food Proteins review protein sustainability , food protein sources , novel proteins, manipulation , functionality , Novel proteins , and food waste valorisation

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Food proteins today ,tomorrow,and beyond

  1. 1. Food Proteins Today, tomorrow and beyond
  2. 2. To meet the increasing demand from a growing population we will need to produce more food in the next 40 years than has been produced in the previous 8,000 years. Jason Clay, Senior Vice President WWF Protein global food context Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond
  3. 3. Proteins and sustainability Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond
  4. 4. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Sources of common dietary proteins • Animal -  Muscle, blood, milk, egg • Botanical -  Cereals (wheat, corn, barley, oats, rice) -  Legumes (peas, soybeans etc.) -  Tubers (potato) -  Oil seeds (Peanut, rapeseed) • Microalgae -  Blue green seaweed (Spirulina) • Microorganisms -  Mycoprotein
  5. 5. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Key functional properties •  Gelation from denaturisation and aggregation -  Properties of gel dependant on Degree of unfolding and kinetics of aggregation -  Driven by heat, pH, ionic strength -  Globular proteins irreversible gels -  Fibrous proteins e.g. gelatine from collagen thermally reversible gels •  Interfacial properties -  Foam and emulsion stability •  Film formation •  Primary Building block for life
  6. 6. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Dairy protein - Whey •  Whey protein –  In the past regarded as a waste stream from cheese manufacturing process –  Now regarded as a valuable material that contains wide range of biologically active proteins with functional, nutritional and physiological properties •  Challenges present in low concentrations, high cost of isolation, globular nature resulting in thermal denaturisation -  Commercial production using membrane or ion exchange •  Concentrates up to 80% protein in which little denaturisation has occurred •  Betalactoglobulin is most allergenic and so removed for infant formulas
  7. 7. Design is not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works. Steve Jobs Dairy protein - Whey Whey Protein Concentrate In Excess if $1bn
  8. 8. Without Creativity there would be no progress – Edward de Bono Valorisation - Whey
  9. 9. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Dairy protein uses •  Infant nutrition –  Whey Protein hydrosylates are particularly favoured in infant nutrition because the hydrolysis breaks down the allergenic structures •  Sports nutrition –  Whey protein also is one of the richest sources of leucine, an essential amino acid that triggers initiation of muscle protein synthesis and athletes recovery •  Yoghurts –  Denaturisation of whey proteins provide the texture in yoghurts by increasing water binding capacity –  Growing trend of Greek yogurt has more protein than regular yogurt because the straining process leaves a more concentrated product –  Yoplaits Proforce is a 2x protein level yoghurt for children •  Health function –  Caesin and whey proteins are a rich source of peptides that reduce blood pressure and may induce satiety –  Simpless™ from CPKelco is a microparticulated whey protein used to deliver low fat food
  10. 10. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Egg protein •  12.6% of edible portion of egg is protein •  Polyfunctional properties of eggs from the various proteins –  Foaming from egg white e.g. sponge cake, meringue –  Gelation/coagulation e.g. custards, boiled eggs quiche –  Emulsification from egg yolk e.g. mayo, salad dressing •  Fractionation and modification to produce enhanced functionality •  Egg albumin contains numerous unique proteins, lysozyme has attracted most attention as an antimicrobial agent particularly against gram positive bacteria Protein Protein fraction present in egg white [%] Denaturation temperature [°C] Ovalbumin 58 77 S-Ovalbumin 85 Ovotransferrin 13 60 Ovomucoid 11 70 Ovomucin 3.5 Lysozym 3.5 81
  11. 11. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Soy protein •  Soybeans consumed for more than 2000 years. As Nimame (cooked whole soy), Edamame (green fresh soy), Tofu etc. •  Soy protein –  high-quality plant protein (comparable in quality to animal-based protein) –  contains more lysine than most plant proteins. –  soy protein maintains foods' quality while reducing its cost –  functional benefits •  Growth stifled in past by strong ‘beany’ off flavours but the growing health credentials of soy have seen it grow again •  Used in a wide variety of applications –  soy milk, soups to salad dressings, breads to breakfast cereals, and from pastas to pet foods –  Clarisoy™ has been developed as a soy protein isolate for clear beverages
  12. 12. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Pea protein •  Pea Protein can be used as: –  A functional ingredient for emulsifying properties, –  An efficient source of protein for particular nutritional needs such as sport and slimming foods, gluten-free foods, and also re- balanced everyday foods especially vegetarian foods –  Shown in combination with oat fibre to lower cholesterol by 5% •  Advantages –  Safe simple process aqueous extraction and milling/drying –  High nutritional value (rich in lysine and arginine) –  Safe traced origin –  Attractive labelling –  Environment friendly –  Non allergenic
  13. 13. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Protein rich cereal seeds •  Maize, barley, rice, wheat, sorghum, oats, peas, pearl millet –  (Protein contents vary 7-25%) •  For consumers they provide –  Bulkiness, ease of cooking, lack of anti-nutritional factors, good storage stability and blend of vitamins and minerals •  Focus is on developing –  Higher yielding varieties –  Nutritionally superior grains –  Shorter growth cycles –  Process technology to separate out the higher protein fractions
  14. 14. Minor seed opportunities Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond •  Quinoa –  Has good nutritional properties (12% protein, high in lysine 7g/16gN) –  Needs to be correctly processed to remove saponins •  Bambarra groundnut –  21% protein with a lysine content of 6.4g/16gN •  Buckwheat •  Carob/locust bean gum (found in endosperm) –  Bean 21% protein (low fat <1.5%) –  Gum 60% protein •  Lupin –  35-40% protein 6 -12% fat –  High in tyrosine and argenine at 7 /13.9g / 16gN respectively
  15. 15. Imagination is more important than knowledge ; Albert Einstein Food waste Protein – Brewing
  16. 16. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Food Waste -Potato protein •  Potato 4th largest produced crop •  Obtained from the juice (45% of solids protein) recovered after starch removal by mild chromatographic process •  Products have higher biological value than other veg proteins •  Received GRAS approval in 2012 •  Growing use in sports nutrition
  17. 17. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Mycoprotein •  Developed by Rank Hovis McDougal and sold as Quorn from 1985 •  Made by an industrial fermentation process using the mould fusarium venenatum with glucose as feed •  Properties –  Meat like texture due to strand type similar to animal muscle –  Mild flavour –  Naturally low in fat (~3%) and high in protein and fibre –  Overall nutritional value high –  In over-nourished countries like UK potential to lower intake of sat fats –  Sustainable at least 3 times lower in embedded carbon than the meat equivalent –  More acceptable to humans as we already eat fungus Spun soya Chicken breast Mycoprotein
  18. 18. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Novel Protein -Hydrophobins •  Ubiquitous to filamentous fungi •  Small cysteine‐rich protein (4 disulfide bonds) •  Chemically and thermally stable •  Self-assemble at hydrophobic/hydrophilic interfaces (e.g. air/water & oil/water) •  Uses –  Opportunity to produce highly stable air filled products –  Reduction in fat content of emulsified foods without losing the rich mouth feel that fat provides
  19. 19. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Novel Protein - Algae • Protein contents between 40 and 65% • Allows production of algae rich protein in arid climates and on previously non farmable land – Feed on sunlight and waste Carbon dioxide (carbon neutral process) – Requires 1% of the water to grow than soy – High pH means that competing microorganisms cannot develop – Product is a high quality protein on a dry weight basis (64-70%) • Uses – Poultry feed – As a carotenoid to improve the colour of egg yolks – Almagine HP™ protein fibre lipid mix from algae on sale since 2012 – Aurora algae looking to produce 600T per month in 2014
  20. 20. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Novel -Ice structure protein •  Found in cold tolerant organisms e.g. fish, insects, algae, winter wheat and carrots •  Modifies the ice crystal formation in manufacture of frozen product –  Allows production of ice cream with a low fat content but a creamy mouth feel –  Lengthening shelf life of frozen foods –  Utilised GM modified bakers yeast as source
  21. 21. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Protein modification Chemically and physically modify proteins can • Improve bioavailability • Functional properties, solubility, gelation, foaming, emulsification – Increased acetylisation will shift the solubility curve to lower pH increase the shear modulus and net density of resulting gels improve foaming and emulsifying properties – Sugar conjugates have shown increased shelf life, improved acid stability – Crosslinking and extrusion proteins to modify textural properties Nandi Proteins • Using a unique formula and measuring system which harnesses a combination of heat, time and temperature control on denaturising proteins • Milk protein has been denatured in a controlled fashion to improve its physical properties and act as a fat replacer • The functionalities such as gelling, water binding and fat binding can be tuned to a customer’s specific requirement • Indeed use of Nandi modified milk and egg proteins has been shown to: – Reduce the fat within cheese without compromising taste – Replace the chemical emulsifiers in cake – Deliver cleaner label dairy drinks – Produce Lower fat mayonnaise with the same organoleptic qualities of full fat
  22. 22. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Future - proteins •  Hampton Creek Foods are developing plant based ingredients with the functionality of eggs. •  Beyond Meat, Sand Hills foods and Ojah are at the cutting edge of plant protein research and development, with a goal of driving innovation and progress on meat-free plates. •  Modern Meadow invented a tissue engineering technique based on bioprinting of artificial raw meat the 3D assembly of tissues
  23. 23. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Future - Leaf protein •  Rubisco –  Most abundant protein in world –  Protein naturally abundant in chloroplasts –  Water, fat binding properties –  Foaming equivalent to egg white –  Good gel strength
  24. 24. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Future - Single cell protein •  Yeasts/bacteria grown on hydrocarbons •  After fermentation yeast needs only to be concentrated by centrifugation and dried •  Product is a cream coloured powder, no odour and virtually no taste, approx. 60% protein •  Advantages –  Long shelf life –  Stable process and prices –  Not subjected to seasonal climatic conditions •  Disadvantages –  Not nutritionally rich proteins deficient in most sulphur containing amino acids. –  Must minimise nucleic acid content
  25. 25. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Future -Krill protein •  Nutritive value of fish protein equivalent to land animals •  Average protein content 6-28% •  Opportunity Antarctic krill •  Antarctic krill meal for animal nutrition contains at least 56% protein. Analyses of the amino acid profile of krill protein demonstrate that all essential amino acids are present and are nutritionally well balanced
  26. 26. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Future -Insects as protein •  Insects are vital to the health and prosperity of the earth –  Pollination of crops –  Removal of dung –  Controlling Pests –  Food for animals (they are the start of the food chain) –  Already being consumed –  More than 1000 species currently eaten round the world. –  We already eat cochineal –  Insect protein quality comparable to beef, pork and chicken and low in fat –  More efficient manufacture than meat protein –  1kg grasshoppers is equivalent to protein content of 10 hot dogs
  27. 27. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Future mammalian protein •  Could include -  Capybara -  Kangaroo -  Manatee •  However what will consumer acceptability be like?
  28. 28. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Future -Waste animal protein for food •  Wool – clean wool is a pure protein keratin -  To render it digestible it needs grinding and treatment either enzymatically or chemically -  Wool flour prepared by solubilisation with papain ground and used at 20% incorporation in scones and sponge cake. Sensory panel unable to tell difference •  Feathers are 90% protein -  Hydrolysed feather meal is used as a partial replacement for meat meal in poultry feed -  Hydrolyzed feather meal is a good source of natural protein for most animal diets. It can be used to replace a significant portion of other protein sources in livestock and aquaculture diets
  29. 29. Food Proteins - Today, tomorrow and beyond Thank you for your Attention Alan Marson The End Connectiivity Alan Marson New –Food Innovation ltd Alan@new-foodinnovation.co.uk 00447831494368 Connect with me on :- http://www.linkedin.com/in/alanmarson

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