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Compartmentation and Fire Doors

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Learn the purpose compartmentation and fire doors. Understand code requirements, door types, and proper inspection methods.

Learning objectives:
- Know what codes and standards apply to fire doors
- Identify fire door types, components, and proper operation
- Conduct a fire door inspection to confirm compliance with codes and standards.

Published in: Engineering

Compartmentation and Fire Doors

  1. 1. Compartmentation and Fire Doors
  2. 2. Active vs. Passive Active Fire sprinkler system Fire alarm system Smoke control systems Fire extinguishers Passive Smoke dampers Fire walls Fire doors
  3. 3. Compartmentation as a System A space within a building that is enclosed by fire or smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and bottom.
  4. 4. Compartmentation as a System
  5. 5. Compartmentation as a System • Fire-resistance rated walls compartmentalize a structure to contain fire and smoke. • Opening protectives required to protect openings in rated walls
  6. 6. Where are fire doors required? NFPA 1, Fire Code NFPA 101, Life Safety Code International Building Code (IBC) NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Other Opening Protectives
  7. 7. Where are fire doors required? NFPA 1, Fire Code 12.4.1* The installation and maintenance of assemblies and devices used to protect openings in walls, floors, and ceilings against the spread of fire and smoke within, into, or out of buildings shall comply with Section 12.4 and NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Other Opening Protectives. [80:1.1] 12.7.4.1 Every opening in a fire barrier shall be protected to limit the spread of fire and restrict the movement of smoke from one side of the fire barrier to the other. [101: 8.3.4.1]
  8. 8. Where are fire doors required? NFPA 101, Life Safety Code 8.3.3.1 Openings required to have a fire protection rating by Table 8.3.4.2 shall be protected by approved, listed, labeled fire door assemblies and fire window assemblies and their accompanying hardware, including all frames, closing devices, anchorage, and sills in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Other Opening Protectives, except as otherwise specified in this Code.
  9. 9. Where are fire doors required? International Building Code (IBC) 716.5 Fire door and shutter assemblies. Approved fire door and fire shutter assemblies shall be constructed of any material or assembly of component materials that conforms to the test requirements of Section 716.5.1, 716.5.2 or 716.5.3 and the fire protection rating indicated in Table 716.5. Fire door frames with transom lights, sidelights or both shall be permitted in accordance with Section 716.5.6. Fire door assemblies and shutters shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of this section and NFPA 80.
  10. 10. -Steel Door Institute (SDI)
  11. 11. Where are fire doors required? NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Other Opening Protectives 1.1* Scope. This standard regulates the installation and maintenance of assemblies and devices used to protect openings in walls, floors, and ceilings against the spread of fire and smoke within, into, or out of buildings.
  12. 12. Types, Components, Operation
  13. 13. Types, Components, Operation
  14. 14. Where are fire doors required? Stairwells Corridors Incidental Use
  15. 15. Types, Components, Operation Fire door assemblies – classified by the number of minutes they have been tested to withstand fire: – 180 minutes – 90 minutes – 60 minutes – 45 minutes – 20 minutes
  16. 16. Types, Components, Operation
  17. 17. Types, Components, Operation Listed and Labeled
  18. 18. Types, Components, Operation Listed and Labeled
  19. 19. Types, Components, Operation Double-Egress Pairs - One leaf swings in each direction for egress - Fire exit hardware required - Magnetic control - Astragal
  20. 20. Types, Components, Operation Dutch Doors
  21. 21. Types, Components, Operation Door Operation - Self-closing - Automatic-closing - Power-operated
  22. 22. Types, Components, Operation Latch and Hardware - Active latchbolt (positive latching) - Fire exit hardware, where required only - Listed and Labeled - No dogging of fire exit hardware - Panic vs. Fire
  23. 23. Types, Components, Operation Latch and Hardware (1)A cross bar or a push pad…not less than one-half of the width of the door leaf. (2)Mounted as follows: (a)New installations 34-48” AFF. (b)Existing installations 30-48” AFF. (3)Force not to exceed 15 lbf to actuate.
  24. 24. Types, Components, Operation Clearances Bottom of Door – • 3/4” max • 3/8” max if bottom 38” AFF Jambs, Head, and Meeting • 1/8” +/- 1/16” metal doors • 1/8” wood doors Gaskets • Listed and labeled
  25. 25. Types, Components, Operation Protection Plates • Listed and labeled • Not required where the top of plate is less than 16 in. above the bottom of the door
  26. 26. Types, Components, Operation Signage • NTE 5% of door face • Applied with adhesive • Not to impair door operation • Not attached to glass or glazing
  27. 27. Types, Components, Operation Vision Panels and Glazing
  28. 28. Field Modifications Changes made to a listed assembly or component after it has been manufactured.
  29. 29. Inspection, Testing, Maintenance NFPA 101, Life Safety Code 8.3.3.3.1 Fire door assemblies shall be installed, inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 80.
  30. 30. Inspection, Testing, Maintenance NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Other Opening Protectives 5.2.4.1* Periodic inspections and testing shall be performed not less than annually. 5.2.4.2 As a minimum, the provisions of 5.2.3 shall be included in the periodic inspection and testing procedure.
  31. 31. Inspection, Testing, Maintenance (1) No open holes or breaks exist in surfaces of either the door or frame.
  32. 32. Inspection, Testing, Maintenance (2) Glazing, vision light frames, and glazing beads are intact and securely fastened in place, if so equipped
  33. 33. Inspection, Testing, Maintenance (3) The door, frame, hinges, hardware, and noncombustible threshold are secured, aligned, and in working order with no visible signs of damage.
  34. 34. Inspection, Testing, Maintenance (4) No parts are missing or broken.
  35. 35. Inspection, Testing, Maintenance (5) Door clearances at the door edge to the frame, on the pull side of the door, do not exceed clearances listed in 4.8.4 and 6.3.1.
  36. 36. Inspection, Testing, Maintenance (6) The self-closing device is operational, that is, the active door completely closes when operated from the full open position.
  37. 37. Inspection, Testing, Maintenance (7) If a coordinator is installed, the inactive leaf closes before the active leaf.
  38. 38. Inspection, Testing, Maintenance (8) Door is self-latching in the closed position.
  39. 39. Inspection, Testing, Maintenance (9) Opening not equipped with items that interfere or prohibit operation.
  40. 40. Inspection, Testing, Maintenance (10) No field modifications to the door assembly have been performed that void the label.
  41. 41. Inspection, Testing, Maintenance (11) Gasketing and edge seals, where required, are inspected to verify their presence and integrity.
  42. 42. Inspection, Testing, Maintenance (12) Labels are clearly visible and legible.

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