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Diagrammatic Summary of Research Methodology, Ethics & Statistics


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A diagrammatic summary of three presentations given for the UQU Medical Research Club "Your Journey Towards Research: Writing Research Proposal" held at King Abdullah Medical City, Makkah. May 17, 2012.

Presentations summarized include:
1. Research Methodology
2. Research Ethics
3. Statistics

Diagrammatic Summary of Research Methodology, Ethics & Statistics

  1. 1. Diagrammatic Summary of 1. Research Methodology 2. Ethical Considerations 3. Statistical Considerations“The Journey Towards Your Research Project: Writing Research Proposal” SohailBajammal, MBChB, MSc, FRCS(C), PhD(c) Assistant Professor of Orthopaedics, Umm Al-Qura University Director of CME & Research Administration, King Abdullah Medical City Makkah bajammal
  2. 2. Doing Research Methodology Research EBM Using@bajammal
  3. 3. EBM (evidence-based clinical practice) Research Patients’ Evidence Preferences Clinical Expertise Clinical Circumstances@bajammal Haynes et al. BMJ 2002;324:1350
  4. 4. Perspectives of Research Think Broad! Basic Social Science Health Problem Legal Economic “Trauma” Clinical Diagnosis Therapy Prognosis@bajammal
  5. 5. Research Methodology Phases Planning Conducting Publishing@bajammal
  6. 6. Research Problem Methodological, Ethical & Statistical Research Question Considerations at Each Stage Research Design Data Collection Data Analysis Research Dissemination@bajammal
  7. 7. Patho Physiology of Research Research Study Plan Actual Study Question Design Implement Target Intended Actual subjects Population Sample Errors Errors Actual Phenomena Intended measurements of interest variables Truth in the Truth in the Findings in Universe Infer Study Infer the Study External Validity Internal Validity@bajammal From Hulley et al. Designing Clinical Research. LWW
  8. 8. Research Mixed- Quantitative Qualitative Methods Descriptive Analytical Cross- Case report Case series Observational Experimental sectional Case-Control Cohort Study@bajammal
  9. 9. Sampling Quantitative Sampling Non- Probability probability Sampling Sampling Simple Multistage Systematic Stratified Convenience Snowball Random Cluster@bajammal
  10. 10. Case-Control Studies Shisha Smokers GO BACK IN TIME Cases NOT Shisha Smokers (e.g., Lung Cancer) Ask patients Read files Shisha Smokers GO BACK IN TIME Control (e.g., NO Lung NOT Shisha Smokers Cancer)@bajammal
  11. 11. Prospective Cohort Methodologically sound, but Unethical Shisha Lung Cancer Follow Up Smokers No Lung Cancer NOT Shisha Lung Cancer Follow Up Smokers No Lung Cancer@bajammal
  12. 12. Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) Drug A F/U Outcomes Patients RANDOM with MI Drug B F/U Outcomes@bajammal
  13. 13.
  14. 14. Types of Variables Categorical Quantitative (Continuous or “Qualitative” Discrete) Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Nationality Stage I, II, III Temperature Pulse Gender & IV cancer (0 is not zero) (0 is dead)@bajammal
  15. 15. Measures of Central Tendency Best measure of Type of Variable central tendency Nominal Mode Ordinal Median Interval/ratio Mean (not skewed) Interval/ratio Median (skewed)@bajammal
  16. 16. Normal Distribution MEAN 68 % of observations 1 SD 2 SD 95 % of observations 99.7 % of observations 3D-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 STANDARD DEVIATIONS Courtesy of Prof. Hassan Baaqeel
  17. 17. Choice of Statistical Tests Parametric Non-Parametric Tests Tests Interval/Ratio 1. Ordinal Goal (normal 2. Interval/Ratio Nominal distribution) (skewed) Comparison of 2 Unpairedt-test Mann-Whitney U unrelated groups Chi-square Test Comparison of >2 ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis H unrelated Comparison of 2 Paired t-test Wilcoxon related groups Binomial Sign Test Comparison of >2 Repeated measures Friedman related groups ANOVA Correlation Pearson’s Spearman’s rho Chi-square Test@bajammal
  18. 18. Hypothesis Testing (α&β errors)Null Hypothesis: No association between predictor & outcome Truth in the Population Results in the Study Sample Association Between No Association Between Predictor & Outcome Predictor & Outcome Reject null Correct Type I error (α) hypothesis Fail to reject null Type II error (β) Correct hypothesis@bajammal