Iranian literature


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Iranian literature

  1. 1. Behzaad Bahreyni
  2. 2. The oldest of Iranian traditions, Nowruz recalls thecosmological and mythological times of Iran. Its founder is adeputy of Ahura Mazda on earth, a position that imparts tohim and the celebration a spiritual dimension and aparticular sense of secular authority. The celebration isorganized according to the dynamics of love between theCreator and his creation, the material world.The word "Nowruz" is a compound of two Persian words,"now" which has the same etymology as the English word"new" and means new, and the word "ruz" which meansboth "day" and "time." Literally meaning the "new day,"nowruz is usually translated as "new year."The Persian Nowruz begins on the first day of spring(usually the 21st of March).
  3. 3. Sofreh-i NowruzA few days before the arrival of Nowruz, a rather large table clothis spread on the floor of the main room of the house and thefollowing items are placed on it:
  4. 4. Haftsin or seven edible things the names of which in Persianbegin with the letter "sin" or "s" are placed in a tray next toeach other on the Sofreh.Sib , Somaq , Sir , Samanu , Senjed , Serkeh and Sabzeh are theusual edible items from among which seven are chosen. Theseven "sin"s symbolically recall Ahura Mazda and the sixAmesha Spentas who help him regulate the affairs of manaccording to the "din" or order prescribed by Ahura MazdasAhuric Order.
  5. 5. Samanu sweet pudding made from wheat-symbolizing affluenceSenjed the dried fruit of the oleaster tree - symbolizing love Sir garlic - symbolizing medicine Sib apples - symbolizing beauty and healthSomaq sumac berries - symbolizing (the color of) sunriseSerkeh vinegar - symbolizing age and patienceSabzeh Wheat or barley sprouts - symbolizing rebirth
  6. 6. Persian PoemGhazalGhazal is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and arefrain, with each line sharing the same meter. A ghazal may beunderstood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss orseparation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. Theform is ancient, originating in 6th-century Arabic verse. It isderived from the Arabian panegyric qasida. The structuralrequirements of the ghazal are similar in stringency to those ofthe Petrarchan sonnet. In style and content it is a genre thathas proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expressionaround its central themes of love and separation. It is one ofthe principal poetic forms which the Indo-Perso-Arabiccivilization offered to the eastern Islamic world.It is common in ghazals for the poets name to be featured inthe last verse
  7. 7. HAFEZKhāja Shamsu Dīn Muhammad Hāfez-eShīrāzī known by his pen name Hāfez ;was a Persian lyric poet. His collectedworks composed of series of Persianpoetry (Divan) are to be found in thehomes of most Persian speakers inIran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan , aswell as elsewhere in the world, wholearn his poems by heart and use themas proverbs and sayings to this day. Hislife and poems have been the subjectof much analysis, commentary andinterpretation, influencing post-fourteenth century Persian writingmore than any other author.
  8. 8. I said I long for thee ; You said your sorrows will end Be my moon, rise up for me ; Only if it will ascend. I said, from lovers learn ; How with compassion burn Beauties, you said in return ; Such common tricks transcend. Your visions, I will oppose ; My minds paths, I will close You said, this night-farer knows ; Another way will descend. With the fragrance of your hair; Im lost in my worlds affair You said, if you care, you dare ; On its guidance can depend.I said hail to that fresh air ; That the morning breeze may shareCool is that breeze, you declare ; With beloveds air may blend. I said, your sweet and red wine ; Granted no wishes of mine You said, in service define ; Your life, and your time spend.I said, when will your kind heart ; Thoughts of friendship start? Said, speak not of this art ; Until its time for that trend. I said, happiness and joy ; Passing time will destroy. Said, Hafiz, silence employ ; Sorrows too will end my friend.
  9. 9. Map of PERSIAN EMPIRE – 500 BC
  10. 10. Map of PERSIAN EMPIRE – 500 BC
  11. 11. Persian ReligionZoroastrianism also called Mazdaism and Magianism, isa religion and philosophy based on the teachings ofprophet Zoroaster (also known as Zarathustra,in Avestan)and was formerly among the worlds largest religions.Itwas probably founded some time before the 6th centuryBCE in the eastern part of ancient Greater Iran.In Zoroastrianism, the Creator Ahura Mazda is all good,and no evil originates from him. Thus, in Zoroastrianismgood and evil have distinct sources, with evil (druj) tryingto destroy the creation of Mazda (asha), and good tryingto sustain it.
  12. 12. Faravahar, symbol of Ahura Mazda Good Thoughts Good Words Good Deeds Faravahar is one of the best-known symbols ofZoroastrianism, the state religion of ancient Iran. Thisreligious-cultural symbol was adapted by the Pahlavi dynasty to represent the Iranian nation.