MICROBIOLOGY INDUSTRY

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Leuconostoc mesenteroides in sauerkraut

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  • This is the slide presented in Industrial Microbiology class. Not so good although.
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MICROBIOLOGY INDUSTRY

  1. 1. MICROORGANISMS USED IN INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY Bahirah binti Ramzam @ Ramzan
  2. 2. Leuconostoc Mesenteroides Kingdom: Bacteria Division: Firmicutes Class: Bacilli Order: Lactobacillales Family: Leuconostocaceae Genus: Leuconostoc Species: L.mesenteroides
  3. 3. "sour cabbage“: finely cut cabbage Long shelf-life, distinctive sour flavor. Condiment  meat dishes and hot dogs. What Is Sauerkraut ..?
  4. 4. Low temperature (18ºC).pH 3.5.Anaerobic condition Start fermentation
  5. 5. Heterofermentative (produce different compounds) convert glucose and fructose  lactic acid, mannitol, acetic acid, ethanol, and carbon dioxide. Health benefit Probiotic foodrebuild healthy gut bacteria levels. Vitamin C and vitamin B. Traditional ulcer treatment. Prevent scurvy.
  6. 6. Only fermented and uncooked sauerkraut exhibits those beneficial characteristics. Cans of commercially manufactured sauerkraut are usually pasteurized (heat treated) in order to increase storage life. This process kills Lactobacillus beneficial bacteria and destroys some of the vitamin C, therefore such a product does not offer the same health benefits as homemade sauerkraut. The product becomes a sauerkraut flavored cabbage, but cannot be considered the probiotic anymore. What is left is just a can of fermented cabbage. Much of the commercial sauerkraut cabbage is not even fermented but only soaked in salt and vinegar to mimic the flavor of traditional sauerkraut.
  7. 7. . HOW.HOW.HOW. . HOW..HOW..HOW.. . HOW.HOW.HOW. . HOW..HOW..HOW. . HOW.HOW.HOW. . . . HOW.HOW.HOW. . HOW..HOW..HOW.. . HOW.HOW.HOW. . HOW..HOW..HOW. . HOW.HOW.HOW. . https://www.foodpreservationmethods.com/sauerkraut-kimchi-pickles-relishes/sauerkraut
  8. 8. sauerkraut made http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sauerkraut https://www.foodpreservationmethods.com/sauerkraut-kimchi-pickles-relishes/sauerkraut • Simple!! --salt, cabbage and time– • Fermenting temperature– affect quality of product. • Cabbage is finely shredded, layered with salt, ferment. • Fully cured sauerkraut keeps for several months in an airtight container stored at 18ºC temperature. • Process of pickling lacto-fermentation • Refrigeration or pasteurization is not required (although these treatments prolong storage life). • The fermentation process has three phases.
  9. 9. Chop cabbage Sprinkle salt Add vegetables Cover kraut Leave to ferment Check the krautat least every two days. Taste.
  10. 10. First phase. Anaerobic bacteria such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter lead the fermentation. Begin producing an acidic environment favours later bacteria. Second phase Acid levels become too high for many bacteria, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides and other Leuconostoc spp. take dominance. Third phase Various Lactobacillus species, including L.brevis and L.plantarum, ferment any remaining sugars, further lowering the pH. Properly cured sauerkraut is sufficiently acidic to prevent a favorable environment for the growth of Clostridium botulinum, the toxins of which cause botulism.
  11. 11. Stage One Leuconostoc mesenteroides initiates sauerkraut fermentation. Leuconostoc mesenteroides produce carbon dioxide, replaces the oxygen in the jar, making the environment anaerobic (oxygen-free). When lactic acids reach between 0.25 and 0.3%, Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria slow down and die off, although enzymes continue to function. Heterofermenter (produce different compounds such as lactic acid, acetic acid (vinegar), ethyl alcohol, carbon dioxide (soda gas) and mannitol). This stage lasts between one and three days, depending on temperature. Temperature >72° F (22° C)- Not grow. 2 days Leuconostoc mesenteroides will produce 0.3% lactic acid -- increased acidity  restrict its growth. Enzymes is produced will continue to develop flavor.
  12. 12. Stage Two Lactobacillus plantarum continue the ferment until lactic acid level of 1.5-2% is attained. High salt and low temperature inhibit these bacteria. Ferment at temperatures >72° F (22° C) --higher acidity levels. Homofermenter . This stage continues for 10-30 days, depending on temperature. Consumes sugar and produces lactic acid which imparts acidic taste to fermented food. Give sauerkraut an acceptable quality-- can be served or canned. If there is enough sugar left, fermentation continue until all sugar supply is exhausted Stage Three Lactobacillus brevis finish off the ferment. When lactic acid reaches 2-3%, they reach their max growth. As there is no more sugar left in the cabbage the fermentation comes to the end. You will know your sauerkraut is ready for long-term storage or to eat, when no more bubbles appear on the sides or top of your jar. This final stage lasts under a week.
  13. 13. Leuconostoc mesenteroides is a bacterium associated with the sauerkraut and pickle fermentations. Initiates the desirable lactic acid fermentation in these products. Can tolerate fairly high concentrations of salt and sugar (up to 50% sugar). Initiates growth in vegetables more rapidly -range of temperatures and salt concentrations than any other lactic acid bacteriaproduces carbon dioxide and acids (rapidly lower the pH and inhibit the development of undesirable micro-organisms). The carbon dioxide produced replaces the oxygenenvironment anaerobic and suitable for the growth of subsequent species of lactobacillus. Removal of oxygento preserve the colour of vegetables and stabilises any ascorbic acid that is present. http://www.fao.org/docrep/x0560e/x0560e10.htm
  14. 14. THANK YOU. Happy Holiday 

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