ACADEMIC
WRITING
Presented by: Bahare Harandizade
5/10/2014
1
THE WRITING PROCESS
• Writing Foundations
1. Background to writing
2. Developing plans from titles
• Reading and Note-Maki...
JOURNALS
• Every journal that is published.
• Careful preparation
• some time looking at the papers in several of the most...
• The following terms are also commonly used in essay titles:
Analyze, Describe, Examine, State, Suggest, Summaries
• Almo...
• Although it can be acceptable to use articles from newspapers ,
magazines and the internet, in academic work students ne...
ACCURACY IN WRITING
1. Abbreviations
2. Adverbs
3. Articles
4. Caution
5. Conjunctions
6. Formality in verbs
7. Modal verb...
ABBREVIATIONS
• Abbreviations are an important and expanding feature of contemporary English
• Three types:
a) shortened w...
ADVERBS
• Adverbs are used in academic texts in a variety of ways.
• Most important use:
1. to provide more detail, with v...
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Writing

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Writing

  1. 1. ACADEMIC WRITING Presented by: Bahare Harandizade 5/10/2014 1
  2. 2. THE WRITING PROCESS • Writing Foundations 1. Background to writing 2. Developing plans from titles • Reading and Note-Making 1. Evaluating a text 2. Understanding purpose and register 3. Selecting key points 4. Note-making 5. Paraphrasing 6. Summary writing 7. Combining sources • Writing Stages 1. Planning a text 2. Organizing paragraphs 3. Organizing the main body 4. Introductions 5. Conclusions 6. Re-reading and re-writing 7. Proof-reading 5/10/2014 2
  3. 3. JOURNALS • Every journal that is published. • Careful preparation • some time looking at the papers in several of the most recent • Some journals include their Instructions to Authors • the website of the Mulford Library of the Medical College of Ohio, http://mulford.meduohio.edu/instr 5/10/2014 3
  4. 4. • The following terms are also commonly used in essay titles: Analyze, Describe, Examine, State, Suggest, Summaries • Almost all essays, reports and articles have the same basic pattern of organization: 1. Introduction 2. Main body 3. Conclusion • The structure of the main body depends on what the title is asking you to do EXP: discuss the main body is often divided into two parts, one looking at the advantages of the topic and the other looking at the disadvantages ‫تصویر‬ ‫لینک‬ 5/10/2014 4
  5. 5. • Although it can be acceptable to use articles from newspapers , magazines and the internet, in academic work students need to be aware that these sources may have less credibility 5/10/2014 5
  6. 6. ACCURACY IN WRITING 1. Abbreviations 2. Adverbs 3. Articles 4. Caution 5. Conjunctions 6. Formality in verbs 7. Modal verbs 8. Nationality language 9. Nouns and adjectives 10. Nouns: countable uncountable 5/10/2014 6 11. Passives 12. Prefixes and suffixes 13. Prepositions 14. Prepositions after verbs 15. Punctuation 16. Referring 17. Relative pronouns 18. Singular/ plural 19. Tenses 20. Time words and phrases
  7. 7. ABBREVIATIONS • Abbreviations are an important and expanding feature of contemporary English • Three types: a) shortened words – photo (photograph) b) acronyms – UNESCO c) others --(USA /BBC / IBM) 5/10/2014 7
  8. 8. ADVERBS • Adverbs are used in academic texts in a variety of ways. • Most important use: 1. to provide more detail, with verbs and adjectives  EXP:decomposition eventually ceases in modern landfills 2. Adverbs linked to verbs and adjectives usually fall into three groups.  Time (when?) previously published retrospectively examined  Degree (how much?) declined considerably contribute substantially  Manner (in what way?) medically complicated remotely located 5/10/2014 8

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