- Hyphens -We use hyphens with some compound words:• Compound numerals twenty-one forty-nine eighty-six• Numeral and adjective compounds preceding nouns four-year-old boy ten-foot alligator• Often with “ex,” and “self” ex-wife ex-president self-educated self-esteem• Compounds containing prefixes and proper adjectives mid-September anti-American• Usually when two vowels would be put togetherco-author de-emphasize ultra-ambitious
- Hyphens -We use hyphens with some compound words:• Compound adjectives that precede nouns up-to-date information well-known actress friendly-looking doctors much-needed change Examples: This website provides up-to-date information. Angelina Jolie is a well-known actress.I went to the hospital and saw friendly-looking doctors. **BUT** The information on this website is up to date. That actress is well known. The doctors at the hospital looked friendly.
- Hyphens -We use hyphens with some compound words:• Compound adjectives that precede nouns up-to-date information well-known actress friendly-looking doctors much-needed change These compound adjectives function together as one idea.We wouldn’t say, “They are friendly and looking doctors.”That doesn’t make sense. Therefore: friendly-lookingWe don’t say “She’s a friendly-sweet girl.” “Friendly-sweet” doesn’t work as one idea.We can say, “She’s a friendly and sweet girl.” Therefore: “She’s a friendly, sweet girl.”
: Colons :• We use colons to separate the hour and minute. 9:25 a.m. 11:53 p.m. 1:00 p.m. 6:30 a.m.• We also use colons near the end of a sentence when what follows is a list.They visited three countries on their vacation in Europe: Spain, Italy, and Croatia.• Colons are placed after salutations in business letters. Dear Mr. Grant: Dear Sir or Madam: To whom it may concern:
; Semicolons ; Call back tomorrow. He will give you an answer.Do you remember how we can combine twocomplete sentences?• We can use a comma and conjunction: Call back tomorrow, and he will give you an answer.• We can also use a semicolon Call back tomorrow; he will give you an answer. (no conjunction)
; Semicolons ;We also use a semicolon before certain words when they start a second independent clause. These word include: however therefore for example nevertheless nonetheless moreover for instance He isn’t available at the moment; however, you can leave him a message. I didn’t study; therefore, I don’t think I will do very well on the exam.
; Semicolons ;Finally, we use a semicolon to separate items in a series when a comma won’t work. Comma: The people at the conference are from Idaho, Arizona, Virginia, and Hawaii.Semicolon: The people at the conference are from Boise, Idaho; Phoenix, Arizona; Richmond, Virginia; and Honolulu, Hawaii.
, Comma vs. Semicolon ;It was a beautiful day, and It was a beautiful day; thethe sun was shining. sun was shining.He isn’t here. I He isn’t here; however, Iwill, however, tell him you will tell him you called.called.Her sons were born in Her sons were born onMay, October, and May 12, 1999; OctoberDecember. 6, 2002; and December 16, 2005.