RIT Lectures 1 and 2 - Studying Effectively

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RIT Lectures 1 and 2 - Studying Effectively

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RIT Lectures 1 and 2 - Studying Effectively

  1. 1. © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Research in Information Technology Lectures 1 and 2 Studying Effectively
  2. 2. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 2 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Managing Time – 1 Agenda • Introduction • Three-stage approach to managing time • Deciding what you want to do • Analysing what you are doing • Improving the way you do things • Dealing with the unexpected
  3. 3. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 3 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Managing Time – 2 “It is very easy to be overwhelmed by the demands of home life and study to the point when study becomes a burden. To avoid this situation, it is important that prospective students work out in advance what their home commitments and relaxation needs are, so that they can work out a good balance between home leisure and future study”. Neville, Colin (2002) Part-time Study in Higher Education, West Yorkshire Higher Education Collaborative Guidance Project.
  4. 4. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 4 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Managing Time – 3 There are only 24 hours in a day and 7 days in a week no matter who or where you are!! • This time can be divided into two categories: − essential time: eating, sleeping, dressing, food shopping, etc. − serviceable time: the remaining time • Making efficient and effective use of serviceable time is the essence of time management • Time management should be approached from a fundamental analysis, a process involving three stages…..
  5. 5. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 5 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Managing Time – 4 A three-stage approach to managing serviceable time: Adapt the way you do things 2 Analyse what you are doing 1 Decide what you want to do 3 Improve your efficiency Delegate Dump Delay Do Adapted from: Dawson, Christian W. (2005), “Projects in Computing and Information Systems: A Students Guide”, Harlow, Prentice-Hall
  6. 6. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 6 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Managing Time – 5 Deciding what you want to do • Identify and prioritise goals (here we focus on short-term goals, i.e., the duration of this course) • Categorise goals (Ferner 1980): − work goals; for part-time students, this includes both job and study-related goals − family goals; family and home commitments − community goals; commitments to the community in which you take an active role − self goals; personal leisure time achievements • Be specific and identify how your goals will be achieved. Ferner J.D. (1980) Successful Time Management, New York, Wiley
  7. 7. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 7 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Managing Time – 6 Analysing what you are doing Identifying what you are currently doing and determining whether you are spending your time efficiently. • Achieved through two activities: − identify how you spend your time − categorise the time identified according to Ferner’s list • Time logs are a popular technique for identifying time usage. They record: − activities performed during the day − how long is spent on each activity − how efficient you were at performing the activity − how this time usage may be improved
  8. 8. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 8 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Managing Time – 7 Time logs • Range from a simple hand-drawn table to dedicated software packages such as ‘RescueTime’, see; http://www.rescuetime.com/ • At the very least the log should include headings such as: Start Time; Finish Time; Activity; Activity Category; Effectiveness; Improvements • Make daily entries for at least one week before analysing the log • Compare your log with the goals previously identified • Identify at what time of day and week you work best • Categorise your use of serviceable time into two components; − important/unimportant − urgent/non-urgent
  9. 9. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 9 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Managing Time – 8 Time logs (contd) Categories of serviceable time: • Important activities – personally important, based upon your own goals • Unimportant activities – those that will not affect your goals • Urgent activities – those that must be done immediately • Non-urgent activities – those that can be delayed without serious consequence
  10. 10. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 10 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Managing Time – 9 Improving the way you do things What you can’t dump, delay. What you can’t delay, delegate. What you can’t dump or delay or delegate, do. (Turla and Hawkins, 1985) Two approaches to improving your efficiency (Covey, Merrill et al. 1994): 1. Use this table to take appropriate action: 2. Plan on both a daily and weekly basis how to best use your time and deal effectively with any problems that arise. Activity Categories Important Unimportant Urgent Do Delegate Non-urgent Delay Dump
  11. 11. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 11 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Managing Time – 10 Planning: first set your priorities according to the categories of serviceable time. • High Priority: must do - urgent and important • Medium priority: should do – important but non-urgent (yet) • Low priority: nice to do – unimportant and non-urgent • Scheduled: low/medium/high priority scheduled activities – e.g., meetings Source: Covey, S., R., R. Merrill, A., et al. (1994). First Things First: Coping with the ever-decreasing demands of the workplace.
  12. 12. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 12 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Managing Time – 11 Weekly Planning: • Try to do last thing on a Friday or first thing on Monday • Focus on those high priority activities that need to be completed by the end of the week • Then, and only then, schedule in medium priority work • Also, allow time to deal with high or medium priority scheduled activities
  13. 13. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 13 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Managing Time – 12 Having finalised the weekly plan, turn your attention to planning your daily activities: • List all the things you must do including scheduled activities • Identify activities that may be factored in if time allows • Allow some free time for relaxation • Be prepared to deal with unexpected events
  14. 14. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 14 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Managing Time – 13 Dealing with the unexpected Gaining time – small periods of time gained because of some unexpected event, e.g., transport delays. Have a task that you can do easily and quickly. Incomplete tasks – don’t start something unless you are sure of finishing it. Interruptions – try to work where you will not be interrupted, and learn to say no! Perfectionism – perfectionists always have a backlog of work. Aim to do a good, competent piece of work, not a perfect one. The law of diminishing returns applies here!
  15. 15. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 15 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Managing Time – 14 Dealing with the unexpected (contd) • Procrastination: putting off until tomorrow what you can or should do today. May be due to: − loss of motivation − task appears insurmountable − need to obtain advice but don’t want to trouble someone or nervous of the response • Overcoming procrastination: perform at least one task a day that you don’t like. • Losing things: develop a system of managing paperwork and keeping everything up-to-date.
  16. 16. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 16 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Assessment – 1 Agenda • Introduction • Written Coursework − essays − report − planning − writing up • Sustained Revision − exam preparation − revision techniques − coping with anxiety
  17. 17. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 17 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Assessment – 2 Individual modules are usually assessed through examinations and coursework. Coursework assignments and examination questions may take the form of an essay or report. • An academic essay demonstrates both your knowledge of a topic and your skills related to academic writing • A report is a structured document written for a particular purpose and aimed at a specific audience. It should provide clear and concise information written in a formal, academic style
  18. 18. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 18 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Written Coursework – 1 Essay Structure The objective is to produce a structure to your work that conveys the main points in your argument. • Title: A statement of the problem/issue and process • Introduction: should be brief and direct and contain a general idea of your understanding of the question • Main body: development of your argument and line of reasoning • Conclusion: sum up the main ideas and state any conclusions you have come to and recommendations for further investigation • Bibliography: a list of books and other sources used
  19. 19. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 19 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Written Coursework – 2 Essay Types There are two types, each having two categories: 1. Descriptive • Description: provide information on a topic without commenting on it. This category is unlikely to be required in higher education. − Instruction words: define, describe, outline, explain, list, delineate, trace, state, summarise, present. • Discussion: give the main points on the topic, examine them and consider the implications. − Instruction words: analyse, explore, discuss, comment, illustrate, account for, interpret, review, explain, consider, debate, show how and examine.
  20. 20. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 20 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Written Coursework – 3 Essay Types (contd) 2. Judgemental • Evaluation: choose material to develop a line of thought or argument. Both sides of the argument are usually required. − Instruction words: criticise, evaluate, critically evaluate, justify, comment on, interpret. • Comparison: find similarities or/and differences between different viewpoints, evidence or facts. Comparative essays can require description, discussion or evaluation. − Instruction words: compare, contrast, differentiate, distinguish, debate.
  21. 21. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 21 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Written Coursework – 4 Report Structure Reports usually have a standardised format based on the following model: • Title Page - the title or subject of the report, who the report is for, the writer’s name and date of submission • Table of Contents - details all sections and sub-sections of the report with page numbers • Executive Summary - summarises the main points and findings • Introduction - the scope and background to the work
  22. 22. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 22 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Written Coursework – 5 Report Structure (contd) • Main Body of the Report - information is presented, explanations provided and questions answered • Conclusion - draw together key points made in the report; nothing new should appear here • Recommendations - one or more practical proposals and may offer solutions to problems investigated in the report • Bibliography - list of sources you consulted when writing the report • Appendices- relevant information which is too lengthy or detailed to include in the report itself
  23. 23. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 23 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Written Coursework – 6 Before you start Regardless of the module or lecturer, you should aim to develop two basic habits when doing assignments: • Read the assignment carefully and start working on it reasonably early • Ask the lecturer questions if you are unclear about anything relating to the assignment
  24. 24. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 24 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Planning – 1 Planning Your Assignment The process of writing an assignment can be broken down into three phases: • Analysis of the question asked. Reflection on the issues raised and gathering raw material. • Draw up a plan of the assignment (this may well include writing out in advance a provisional conclusion). • Writing the assignment. This should, as far as possible, follow a coherent plan established beforehand.
  25. 25. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 25 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Planning – 2 Phase 1a - Analysis of the question asked and reflections on the issues • Initially, aim to understand the question and identify key phrases • Identify the various issues raised - whether explicitly or implicitly • Think about your overall answer - this will become the conclusion to your assignment • Be sure that you are answering the question asked, rather than a question which you would have liked to be asked The results of your reflections and brainstorming in this phase should ultimately form the introduction to your assignment.
  26. 26. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 26 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Planning – 3 Phase 1b - Gathering raw material • Think about the types of evidence required to support any arguments you make, such as quotes, tables, paraphrasing of other people's work • Indulge in a certain amount of free association, allowing anything concerning the subject to rise up from the depths of your memory: − firstly, it is much better to have too much material and reject what you do not need − secondly, one thing can suggest or recall another which may turn out to be more useful
  27. 27. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 27 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Planning – 4 Phase 2 - Sketching out a plan; the purpose • Enables you to write more quickly, and to concentrate on developing a more fluent style • Assists in focusing your thoughts on the assignment question • Provides an opportunity to think through and develop your arguments • Helps in avoiding repetition and confusion • Indicates when you are ready to begin writing up
  28. 28. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 28 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Planning – 5 Phase 2 - Sketching out a plan (contd) • Start with the conclusion so that you know what you are aiming at • Arguments: list all the aspects of the question which support your conclusion • Consider counter-arguments to show why your reasoning is more relevant than other possible ways of thinking
  29. 29. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 29 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Planning – 6 Phase 2 - Sketching out a plan (contd) • Structure: develop a logical structure to your work such that each section deals with a different aspect of the question • Each section of the essay, each paragraph of your text, should make the argument move forward • Add ‘flesh’: by adding to each section some of the raw material mentioned in Phase 1b
  30. 30. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 30 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Writing Up – 1 Phase 3 - Writing the assignment Produce an initial draft and carefully read it through asking yourself the following questions: • The question – have I answered it? • Have I read the work critically? • Have I written in an objective style? • Is there a good balance between discussion and factual detail? • Does my evidence support the general arguments? • Are the references correct, and is the bibliography accurate? • Could the writing style be improved? • Has anything important been left out? • Does the conclusion show how I have answered the question?
  31. 31. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 31 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Writing Up – 2 Phase 3 - Writing the assignment (contd) • Continue to edit your draft until you are satisfied that it meets the requirements • Proof read the final draft looking for spelling errors and, if using a spell checker, incorrect words that are spelt correctly, e.g., ‘their’ and ‘there’ • It is a good idea to work backwards word by word to avoid skim-reading • Be aware of mistakes that you make regularly and check for them
  32. 32. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 32 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Sustained Revision – 1 Preparation for exams • The best way to increase confidence and reduce anxiety is to be well prepared, so start your revision in good time • Reflect on the ideas in the ‘Time-Management’ unit • Your aim is to get to grips with important aspects of your subject: − divide the material into topics, themes or ideas that you can learn separately − link them together − look out for particular techniques or processes that you need to know
  33. 33. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 33 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Sustained Revision – 2 Preparation for exams (contd) • Active revision is better than passive revision: − Make notes during your reading − Summarise your notes − Attempt questions • remember course material • plan your answer • write your answer • check your answer • Try to develop a positive frame of mind about exams, they offer an opportunity to show what you can do!
  34. 34. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 34 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Sustained Revision – 3 Revision Techniques • Index cards, mind maps and notes − Use to record key points − Incorporate pictures, colour, highlighting • Learning posters and visual material − Use pattern, colour, symbols and drawings − Cover key points and topics − Develop diagrams for your course if relevant − Pin them up where you’ll see them often • Key words, phrases, themes or concepts − Use the course introductions, summaries, key questions to discover what’s key in each block − Use two or three sentences to define, add course examples and diagram if relevant
  35. 35. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 35 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Sustained Revision – 4 Revision Techniques (contd) • Summary tables or grids − Compare or evaluate competing theories or key people • Teach someone − Teach a topic to a fellow student or a friend − Thinking it through is effective revision − Fill in the gaps in your knowledge as you identify them • Reinforce your memory − As you end a revision session, review key points − Review again regularly Source: The Open University, http://www.open.ac.uk/skillsforstudy/documents/revision-techniques.rtf
  36. 36. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 36 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Sustained Revision – 5 Coping with anxiety Anxiety is normal and inevitable at exam time. If you become very anxious, try one of the following: • Relaxation: anything that helps you to relax • Distraction: anything which takes your mind off your anxieties, for example, TV, cinema, a good novel, sport or exercise • Think positively: concentrate on what you have learned rather than how little you know, how you will fail, etc.
  37. 37. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 37 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 1 Agenda • Introduction − Oral communication − The presentation process • Aims and objectives • The audience • Structure • The script • Visual aids • Rehearsing • The venue • Delivery
  38. 38. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 38 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 2 “Clarity of oral communication and well- developed interpersonal skills, when interacting in a group or one-to-one, are attributes that make us more successful students, professionals and all round communicators”. LearnHigher: Oral Communication Homepage, Brunel University http://www.brunel.ac.uk/learnhigher/oral-com-index.shtml
  39. 39. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 39 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 3 Oral Communication • The objective of oral communication is: − not the transmission but the reception; − to make the message understood and remembered. • The presentation must be geared to the audience, not the speaker • The main challenge with this objective is the people to whom you are talking • The average human being has a very short attention span and many other things to think about • Your job is to reach through this mental fog and to hold their attention long enough to make your point
  40. 40. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 40 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 4 The Presentation Process • Setting your aims and objectives • Researching your audience • Choosing a presentation structure • Preparing the scripts • Preparing visual aids • Rehearsing • Preparing the venue • Delivering the presentation
  41. 41. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 41 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 5 Aims and Objectives: • Be clear about the purpose of your presentation to help you decide what to include or omit, and what approach to use: − if to inform or explain, have a logical order and use examples and analogies − if to persuade, be convincing, use evidence and show enthusiasm • Consider also your audience's objectives: − why do they want to listen to your presentation? − what are they hoping to gain from listening to you?
  42. 42. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 42 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 6 The Audience: Knowing your audience helps you to correctly pitch your presentation. Ask yourself the following questions: • Who are they? • What are their reasons for attending? • How many are likely to be present? • What sort of people – age, education, status? • What do they already know about the subject? • What are their likely attitudes/biases? With answers to these questions you can now decide on the content of your presentation knowing that it will be of interest to the audience.
  43. 43. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 43 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 7 The Structure: To be truly effective, a presentation must be more than the sum of its parts. Achieving that means having the right parts in the right order. A clear structure will: • allow the audience to understand your main themes • give the feeling that it has been a worthwhile experience However, the structure must not obstruct the main message. A too complex structure will distract the audience. The simplest structure is the ‘beginning-middle-end’ format.
  44. 44. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 44 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 8 The Beginning: • Arguably, the most important part of the presentation • A poor start will adversely impact on the presenter’s credibility • Once this happens it is difficult to recover • It is therefore essential to plan your beginning carefully • There are five main elements ….
  45. 45. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 45 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 9 • Get the attention of the audience − You only have a limited time and every minute is precious to you so, from the beginning, make sure they pay attention. • Establish a theme − State your main objective to start the audience thinking about the subject matter of your presentation. • Present a structure − Explain briefly how the presentation will proceed so the audience will know what to expect. • Create a rapport − If you can win the audience over in the first minute, you will keep them for the remainder. • Administration − Announce any administrative details so the audience is prepared for subsequent activities (lunch!).
  46. 46. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 46 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 10 The Middle: • This section should add detail to the objectives stated at the start • Here you will clarify your subject and develop your arguments in a logical fashion • Use anecdotes and real examples to highlight your points • Use visual aids to help clarify difficult points • This also breaks up the presentation and allows the audience to concentrate on something other than the speaker
  47. 47. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 47 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 11 The End: • The final impression you make is the one the audience will remember • Don’t tell the audience that it is going to be a summary - they will simply switch off • As with the beginning, it is necessary first to get their attention, which may have wandered. Do this by either: − changing the pace of your delivery, or − displaying a new visual aid, or − introducing a concluding idea. But do not introduce new information • Plan your last few sentences with extreme care • Conclude with a review of the main points of your presentation • Thank the audience and, if appropriate, invite questions
  48. 48. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 48 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 12 Visual Aids Visual aids significantly improve the interest of a presentation. However, it is important not to overwhelm your audience. Points to bear in mind include: • Use visuals for: − complex interrelated ideas − persuasive communication − points you want the audience to remember • Words can be given visual impact by means of: − Underlining, boxes and circles − bullets − careful layout − use of space • Don't overcomplicate - the audience must understand every aid you use by the time you have finished with it
  49. 49. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 49 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 13 The Script: If preparing for your first presentation it may be helpful to write out the whole script. This has the following benefits: • It helps judge whether the presentation matches the time you have been given; • It is a good way to get your creative thinking going; • It enables you to experiment with the types of spoken word you plan to use; • It is a useful way of interacting with the presentation content and committing it to memory.
  50. 50. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 50 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 14 The Script (contd): • A script which is read aloud loses the conversational tone of natural speech • Use your script to rehearse, and for reassurance • Learn what you are going to say by exploring various different ways of saying it • Practice presenting to yourself or to friends or family • Create brief notes or cards, to remind yourself of the main headings
  51. 51. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 51 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 15 Rehearsing • Rehearsals are important for the following reasons: − help you to overcome nerves and boost your confidence − you improve your knowledge of the subject matter − help you to decide on appropriate words and phrases − enable you to adjust the presentation to fit the time allowed • Rehearse before an audience if possible - one person is often enough • Ask for feedback on: − clarity of your voice − legibility of your visual aids − technical terms and jargon which may need further explanation • Think about questions that may be asked and prepare your answers
  52. 52. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 52 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 16 The Venue Your presentation can be influenced by the location and seating arrangement. Familiarise yourself with the room in advance and check the following: • the audience can sit together and will clearly see and hear you • sit in the audience space to get an idea of the lines of sight • adjust the lighting so that your visual aids will be seen • make sure you are able to communicate effectively from your position • listen for external noises that may disrupt your presentation • ensure you have all the equipment you need • practice using any unfamiliar equipment or get help from a technician • adjust the room temperature if necessary
  53. 53. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 53 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 17 Mehrabian's communications model: • statistic for the effectiveness of spoken communications: Words that are spoken 7% The way that the words are said 38%Facial expression 55% Adapted from Mehrabian, Albert, and Ferris, Susan R. “Inference of Attitudes from Nonverbal Communication in Two Channels,” Journal of Consulting Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 3, June 1967, pp. 248-258
  54. 54. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 54 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 18 Body Language • Mehrabian’s theory is particularly useful in explaining the importance of meaning, as distinct from words, i.e.: • A significant amount of information is transmitted by non- verbal communication. • Without seeing and hearing non-verbals, it is easier to misunderstand the words. • When we are unsure about words and when we trust the other person less, we pay more attention to what we hear and see.
  55. 55. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 55 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 19 Body Language Dos and Don’ts Do: • Stand up straight and face the audience head-on • Use your hands to emphasise and reinforce your points • Vary your gestures and positioning • Nod your head occasionally and smile to emphasise what you are saying • Aim to make eye contact with all members of the audience Don’t: • Put your hand or your notes over your mouth • Stand stationary or hide behind equipment/furniture • Constantly rub your nose, ear, chin etc. • Play with jewellery, your hair, and /or coins and keys in your pockets • Cross your arms or legs • Speak to your notes or to the screen or flip chart, with your head turned away from the audience
  56. 56. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 56 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 20 Vocal Here are three important aspects of your voice to be aware of and to develop: Volume • It is essential that everyone can hear what you are saying • Do a sound check before you start • Ask the audience if they can hear you once you begin • Arrange to use a microphone if necessary Pace • Aim to speak at an even pace that is comfortable to listen to • Emphasise the importance of key points by deliberately pausing at them Tone • Modulate your tone to emphasise key words • Use tone to convey enthusiasm for your topic • Do not deliver in a monotone!
  57. 57. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 57 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 21 Interacting with the audience Research has shown that people make up their minds what they think about you within the first minute, so if you give the wrong impression at first it will be hard to overcome this. • At the start, greet the audience and tell them who you are • Try asking them a question at the beginning of your presentation and get a show of hands. This has three main benefits: − It allows you to gauge the audience's opinion and/or understanding of the topic − It encourages the audience to actively engage with your topic rather than remain passive − It shows the audience that you are interested in their opinion
  58. 58. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 58 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Effective Presentations – 22 Interacting with the audience (contd) • Maintain eye contact with the audience but don't fix on an individual – it can be intimidating. • In larger rooms, pitch your presentation towards the back of the audience. • Check if the audience is still with you by asking: − “Does that make sense?” or − “Is that clear?” • Keep an eye on the audience's body language. Know when to stop. • Even if the time available to you is brief, leave a few minutes for people to ask questions. • Prepare some points for discussion to use in case there are no questions.
  59. 59. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 59 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Listening Skills – 1 Agenda • Introduction • Hearing • Listening • Active Listening • Effective Listening
  60. 60. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 60 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Listening Skills – 2 “Learn how to listen and you will prosper even from those who talk badly”. Plutarch (A.D. 46 - 120). Greek biographer and philosopher “ The reason history repeats itself is because no-one was listening the first time”. Anonymous “Listening involves being ‘on the lookout for signals and willing to spend time needed to listen and build understanding, deliberately holding back our own thoughts, which would divert or compete with the other’s”.(Torrington 1991) Torrington, D. (1991) Management Face to Face, London: Prentice Hall
  61. 61. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 61 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Listening Skills – 3 Parker and Weathers (1985) report the following breakdown of communication activities in a learning situation: • Listening: 45% • Talking: 30% • Reading: 16% • Writing: 9% Weathers, Janet L. and John R Parker (1985). The Student Success Workbook. La Crescenta CA: Student Success
  62. 62. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 62 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Listening Skills – 4 Much of the material of this course will be imparted by verbal communication – by your lecturer, colleagues, and those you contact for information to complete assignments. NOTE: hearing what is said is not the same as listening to what is said
  63. 63. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 63 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Listening Skills – 5 Hearing: To perceive or apprehend by the ear Contextually: • Simply receiving the words which can become only ‘sounds’. • Not trying to understand or get below the surface. • Giving only peremptory attention. • Not absorbing feelings or taking in any new information.
  64. 64. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 64 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Listening Skills – 6 Listening: to hear something with thoughtful attention. Contextually: • To really key in to what the person is saying and not saying. • To look for the meaning and the feelings behind what is being said. • To go beyond the words. • To give all your attention.
  65. 65. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 65 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Listening Skills – 7 Listening: • Is a cognitive act; • Requires you to pay attention and … • Think about and mentally process what you hear. To benefit from your investment in this course it is necessary to engage in active and effective listening.
  66. 66. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 66 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Listening Skills – 8 What is Active Listening? It ensures that you not only listen to the other person but also that the other person knows that you are listening to what he/she is saying. Generally, there are five elements: • Pay attention − The speaker should have your undivided attention • Show that you are listening − Use body language, verbal encouragers and gestures to convey your attention
  67. 67. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 67 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Listening Skills – 9 What is Active Listening? (contd) • Provide feedback − Reflect on what is being said and ask questions • Defer judgment − Set aside your own views or opinions until after the speaker has finished • Respond appropriately − You add nothing by attacking the speaker or otherwise putting him/her down
  68. 68. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 68 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Listening Skills – 10 What is Effective Listening? (classroom) Technique Poor listeners Effective listeners 1 Choose to find the subject useful Dismiss lectures as dull and irrelevant Choose to listen to discover new knowledge 2 Concentrate on the words and message Notice faults in a lecturer’s appearance or delivery Endeavour to pick every professor’s brain for self-gain 3 React slowly and thoughtfully to things you may not agree with Stop listening to the lecturer and start listening to themselves Keep conclusions tentative whilst getting more information 4 Identify the fundamental concepts on which the lecture is based Listen only for facts Grab key ideas and use them as anchor points for the entire lecture 5 Adopt an appropriate note- taking system Attempt to outline everything and become frustrated when they cannot see the major points Adjust their note-taking to the lecturer's organisational pattern
  69. 69. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 69 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Listening Skills – 11 What is Effective Listening? (classroom contd) Technique Poor listeners Effective listeners 6 Stay attentive Let their minds wander Remain focused and actively try to absorb material 7 Aggressively tackle new material When encountering a tough topic, they stop absorbing and let things bounce off them Despite the difficulty, they find a challenge in grasping the meaning of what is being said 8 Dot get put off by emotionally charged ‘buzz’ words that trigger negative responses Reject what is being said on the basis of a few words Disregard to the emotional aspects in order to get to the substance of a lecture 9 Get to know the professor personally See professors as talking heads Like to pick up interesting facts about professors
  70. 70. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 70 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Listening Skills – 12 What is Effective Listening? (classroom contd) Technique Poor listeners Effective listeners 10 Be aware of and use the differential* between the speed of speaking and that of thinking Drift back and forth between a lecture and thoughts about other things Use thinking/speaking differential in three ways: 1. Try to anticipate the next point 2. Evaluate the lecturer’s evidence 3. Periodically summarise the lecture to themselves Source: Howard Culbertson, Southern Nazarene University, Bethany, OK. http://home.snu.edu/~HCULBERT/listen.htm * Thoughts are about four times as fast as speech. With practice, while you are listening you will also be able to think about what you are hearing, really understand it, and give feedback.
  71. 71. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 71 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Taking Notes – 1 Agenda • Introduction • Pre-lecture preparation • Taking notes during lectures • Post-lecture revision and additions
  72. 72. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 72 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Taking Notes – 2 Few people realise how quickly memory fades. A University of Texas study on memory has shown that, without review, 47% of what a person has just learned is forgotten in the first twenty minutes and 62% is forgotten after the first day. Therefore, having good lecture notes to review can determine how well you are able to perform in your studies.
  73. 73. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 73 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Taking Notes – 3 Why is note-taking important? Good lecture notes record the meaning of the lecture, its general direction and points for further study. In particular they will: • guide your study and review for assessments • assist comprehension and later recall of content • act as a check for understanding • improve your ability to organise • improve your active listening skills • give you the confidence to feel more in control of your studies
  74. 74. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 74 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Taking Notes – 4 Making effective use of pre-lecture notes You have been issued with copies of these visuals as lecture notes. Make use of them in the following way: • Go through them carefully before the lecture and highlight important information – use supporting textbooks as your guide. • Ask yourself questions: − What is the topic mainly about? − How does this fit into the previous work? − What do I think the focus of the lecture will be about?
  75. 75. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 75 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Taking Notes – 5 Making effective use of pre-lecture notes • Annotate them with your own comments or questions • Highlight key terminology (put a definition alongside if necessary) • Scan them into your computer and customise the layout so that you can add your own notes during the lecture
  76. 76. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 76 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Taking Notes – 6 How to take notes in lectures • Sit where you will maintain attention throughout the lecture • Watch and listen for verbal and non-verbal cues from the lecturer • Use a suitable form of organising your notes. See: http://www.muskingum.edu/~cal/database/general/notetaking3.html • Use effective note-taking techniques: − Listen and note key points and supporting details − Become familiar with the organisational pattern of the lecture − Focus on understanding key ideas − Do not try to take down every word
  77. 77. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 77 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Taking Notes – 7 Recording lectures IMPORTANT: First attain the lecturer’s permission • Recording can be useful because it achieves two things at once: − you have a record of the lecture if memory overload and keeping up is a problem; − you can use it at a later date for revision purposes. • You can always record and take down notes as a back-up. • A disadvantage with recording is the time involved in transcribing the lecture into your own notes.
  78. 78. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 78 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Taking Notes – 8 Identifying what is important Lecturers usually give clues to what is important to take down. The more common clues are: • Material written on the board • Repetition • Emphasis, which can be judged by: − the tone of voice and gesture − the amount of time spent on points and the number of examples he or she uses
  79. 79. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 79 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Taking Notes – 9 Identifying what is important (contd) • Word signals, for example: − "There are two points of view on . . . “ − "The third reason is . . . “ − " In conclusion . . . " • Summaries given at the end of the lecture. • Reviews given at the beginning of the lecture.
  80. 80. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 80 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Taking Notes – 10 Using notes after the lecture • Revise your lecture notes • Read through the suggested reading material for the topic • Make additional notes and summaries of important ideas • Prepare tutorial material • Ask questions in tutorials on information not understood from the lectures • Find opportunities to talk about the subject with other students • Meet with the tutor during consultation times for clarification
  81. 81. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 81 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 1 Agenda • Introduction • Becoming team players • Team constitution and roles • Setting ground rules and guidelines • Team progression, tasking and planning • Peer assessment
  82. 82. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 82 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 2 What is a team? A team is a group of individuals working together to achieve a common goal. In particular: • the task is split into parts appropriate to each individual's talents • team members are mutually accountable for completing the task • cooperation is essential to the overall success of the group • generate positive synergy through coordination of effort Given this definition, ‘group’, is regarded as a generic term and ‘team’ as task specific. Therefore, in order for teams to work well, they need to understand how people work in groups.
  83. 83. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 83 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 3 Difference between team and group • Group: two or more individuals who interact with one another to accomplish a goal. • Team: a group who work intensively with each other to achieve a specific common goal. Group Team Goal Share information Collective performance Synergy Neutral Positive Accountability Individual Individual and mutual Skill Random and varied Complementary
  84. 84. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 84 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 4 Why work in teams? There are several good reasons: • Employers value abilities for functioning effectively in teams. − “In today's organisation, technical competence only gets you up to the starting line. High-performance relationship management is the critical skill which allows you to go the distance.” 1 • Research shows that we all learn effectively from each other. Hence, your teams should focus on helping each other to learn. • Teams are much more effective than individuals for work on complex projects. • Teamwork develops your interpersonal skills in coping with conflict. This aids your personal development and your non-work-related relationships. 1. Interpersonal Skills Laboratory [Online]. http://www.interpersonal-skills.com
  85. 85. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 85 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 5 Achieve Task Build team IndividualIndividual needsneeds Defining the task Making a plan Allocating work and resources Controlling quality and tempo of work Checking performance against plan Adjusting plan Attending to personal problems/issues Valuing individuals Recognising and using individual abilities Training/helping the individual Setting standards Maintaining discipline Building team spirit Encouraging, motivating, giving sense of purpose Appointing roles Ensuring communication within the group How Teams Function (Adair 1986) Achieving the task is the focus of academic projects. To do that effectively you will need: • to develop the group; • to take care of individuals within that group; • to identify team roles to make this happen. Adair, John (1986) Effective Team Building, Aldershot: Gower
  86. 86. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 86 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 6 Becoming Team Players Teams generally go through five stages of development: Forming (orientation) • A mixture of positive expectations and anxiety. • An energetic period, focusing on the task ahead. Storming (dissatisfaction/conflict) • A period of adjustment to how the team operates. • This stage needs to be carefully managed.
  87. 87. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 87 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 7 Becoming Team Players (contd) Norming (resolution/cooperation) • Settling down, resolution of differences and making adjustments. • Respect, harmony and trust are developing, giving all a sense of self esteem. Performing (productivity) • Team members feel confident, work well together, can speak openly. • Task is being achieved by joint effort. Adjourning (disengagement/dissolution) • Goals met, team no longer needed. • Termination of task behaviours. • Disengagement from relation-oriented behaviours.
  88. 88. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 88 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 8 Team Constitution A team comprises individuals with their own personalities, each person will contribute to the team in different ways and develop different roles. • Action Person: − Likes to get on with things. − Extrovert and may appear a bit bossy. • Thinker: − Works things out first. − Introvert and prefers to work alone first before acting. − Not a good communicator. • People Person: − Aware of how people are doing in the team. − Enjoys the company of other people. − Good communicator.
  89. 89. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 89 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 9 Team Roles • Coordinator/Leader: − Creates common purpose. − Provides communication and vision. − Clarifies objectives. − Ensures that everybody is involved, committed and motivated. − Coordinates the efforts of the team. − Ensures that decisions are made and the team makes progress. • Thinker: − Collects and analyses information. − Listens to what is being said and watches what is going on. − Is sometimes quiet before contributing ideas. − Thinks through the problem. − Sees solutions, anticipates problems.
  90. 90. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 90 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 10 Team Roles (contd) • Achiever: − Wants to succeed and strives for results. − Likes to progress towards the goal quickly. − Becomes impatient with delays. − Challenges assumptions and proposes improvements. − Has lots of enthusiasm. − Questions complacency. • Carer: − Is concerned that everybody is fitting in. − Contributes humour and builds bridges around the team. − Works to develop a team spirit. − Keen to get everyone to agree. − Watches out for feelings and attitudes. − Eases tension and fosters a positive spirit.
  91. 91. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 91 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 11 Team Roles (contd) • Doer: − Always wants to be active. − Prepared to get involved to help others. − Likes to see progress and adherence to plans. − Becomes bored with too much discussion. − Dislikes time wasting. − Works hard to finish the task.
  92. 92. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 92 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 12 Project Teams For some assignments, teamwork is a requirement of this course. You will therefore have to work at being a team as follows: • Get to know yourself and the individuals that make up your team (a tutorial will cover this). • Set ground rules. • Develop a team spirit - take time to be a team. • Analyse and understand the assignment given, develop a plan and get organised. • Maintain the team: reflect on your own contribution and how the team is working as you go through the forming-storming-norming- peforming stages – you will need to use the ground rules here.
  93. 93. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 93 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 13 Setting Ground Rules Two important first steps to creating effective teams are to set out a clear set of guidelines for team functioning and to have the members formulate a common set of expectations of one another. • Team Policies Statement: − provides guidance on effective team functioning − outlines different team roles − defines the responsibilities that go with each role − procedures for working on and submitting assignments − agrees strategies for dealing with uncooperative team members
  94. 94. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 94 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 14 Setting Ground Rules (contd) • Team Expectations Agreement - serves two purposes: − it unites the team with a common set of realistic expectations that the members generate and agree to honour − it serves as a ‘quasi legal document’ to prevent students from making invalid claims about what they were supposed to do. Research has shown that commitments made in public are less likely to be violated (Salacik & Pfeffer, 1978). Salacik, G. R., & Pfeffer, J. (1978). A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 224-253.
  95. 95. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 95 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 15 Team Expectations Agreement - Guidelines What do working agreements look like? Hackmann (2002) suggests that only two sets of working agreements are fundamentally necessary in a team: • All team members to keep scanning the environment for signs that mean the team needs to change its approach to the task. • A basic list of key ‘dos’ and ‘don’ts’, for example (not exhaustive): − preparation for and attendance at group meetings; − making sure everyone understands all the solutions; − communicating frankly but with respect when conflicts arise, etc. Each team member should sign the sheet, indicating acceptance of these expectations and intention to fulfill them. Hackmann R L (2002) Leading Teams. Harvard Business School Press.
  96. 96. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 96 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 16 Understand the task and develop a plan Overview: • As a team, analyse the task you have to do. • Ensure each team member understands what has to be done. • Keep notes on the team’s progress and performance.
  97. 97. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 97 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 17 Understand the task and develop a plan (contd) • Create a plan so you can clearly see each team member’s contributions. The plan should include: − a title for the project; − a list of team members; − clear statement of goals, the tasks to be completed, and by whom; − list of sub-tasks (with names); − the deadline for submission; − a time frame for each task (your milestones); − presentation format (how the group should prepare material). • Be prepared to adjust your plan as the team develops.
  98. 98. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 98 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Working in Teams – 18 Maintaining the team It is important to be alert to how the team is progressing. To ensure the team is at its most effective the following should be in place. • Procedures for: − communicating − monitoring progress − addressing problems (with tasks or people) • Regular checks on timing. • Ensuring you are all working towards the plan. • Agreed schedules on meeting times and venues.
  99. 99. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 99 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Peer Assessment – 1 Introduction • A ‘Frequently Asked Questions’ about teams is how team assignments can be graded. • Often, the same grade is given to each team member. • This conflicts with the principle of individual accountability in teams (Team Agreement). • It may also reward and even encourage ‘free riders’ by some team members. • It remains therefore, that determining individual grades for team assignments is a challenging task. • One approach to obtaining information that may be helpful is Peer Assessment.
  100. 100. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 100 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Peer Assessment – 2 Extract from the QAA Codes of Practice … students are likely to find it helpful to receive constructive comments on their work from a range of sources including teachers, personal tutors, peers and, where appropriate, practitioners. Examples of assessment that support student learning include: … the use of peer assessed activities during formal teaching sessions where students, either in pairs or groups, comment constructively on one another's work. This technique enables students to understand assessment criteria and deepens their learning in several ways, including: • learning from the way others have approached an assessment task (structure, content, analysis) • learning through assessing someone else's work, which encourages them to evaluate and benchmark their own performance and to improve it QAA Code of practice for the assurance of academic quality and standards in higher education Section 6: Assessment of students - September 2006
  101. 101. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 101 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Peer Assessment – 3 What is Peer Assessment? An innovative form of assessment where students are involved in the assessment of the work of other students. Students must have a clear understanding of what they are to look for in their peers' work. How may it be used? • There is general agreement that, given clear criteria, it is appropriate in formative assessment if performed in a cooperative rather than competitive context • There is less of a consensus of its value in summative assessment unless results are moderated by the tutor
  102. 102. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 102 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Peer Assessment – 4 Potential advantages for students: • receive critical appraisals of, and feedback on, their own work • engage positively with the assessment criteria • take responsibility for their own learning, developing them as autonomous learners • treating assessment as part of learning, so that mistakes become opportunities (for improvement) rather than failures • developing the transferable skills needed for lifelong learning, i.e.: − supporting group interaction − supporting group, self and peer reflection − aiding development of the skill of judgement − encouraging thorough rather than superficial learning
  103. 103. Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 103 © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Peer Assessment – 5 Principles of giving good feedback: Principle Reason why Be descriptive rather than evaluative [report what you see, rather than an opinion] If you just state what you see, it prevents the receiver from being defensive Be specific rather than general A rather vague comment is very difficult to use. If you take a concrete example of an issue it is much easier to deal with Be honest, but sensitive You are not there to give feedback to show how much you know – always think of the needs of the receiver. If it is too insensitive, it can be destructive Be constructive This means dealing with issues that the receiver can do something about Let receiver elicit some feedback Ask the receiver what they would like feedback on Be timely For feedback to be of use, it has to come at the right time Feedback must be clear It may be good for the receiver to note down and possibly rephrase it in their own way Source: http://www.studyskills.soton.ac.uk/studyguides/Working%20in%20Groups.doc
  104. 104. © NCC Education LimitedV1.0 Studying Effectively Lectures 1 and 2 - 104 Research in Information Technology Studying Effectively

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