skeletal system


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  • Osteoblasts Osteoblasts are responsible for building new bone and lie at the centre of bone physiology. Their functions include the synthesis of collagen and the control of mineralisation. Osteoclasts Osteoclasts are specialised cells that resorb bone. They work by sealing off an area of bone surface then, when activated, they pump out hydrogen ions to produce a very acid environment, which dissolves the hydroxyapatite. Osteocytes Bone adapts to applied forces by growing stronger in order to withstand them; it is known that exercise can help to improve bone strength. Osteocytes are thought to be part of the cellular feed-back mechanism which directs bone to form in the places where it is most needed. They lie within mineralised bone and it is thought that they may detect mechanical deformation and mediate the response of the osteoblasts.
  • skeletal system

    1. 1. • Support- framework that supports bodyand cradles its soft organs• Protection- for delicate organs, heart,lungs, brain• Movement- bones act as levers for muscles• Mineral storage- calcium & phosphate• Blood cell formation- hematopoiesis
    2. 2. • Long Bones- metacarples,metatarsals, phelangies, humerus,ulna, radius, tibia, fibula• Short Bones- carpals, tarsals• Flat Bones- rib, scapula, skull, sternum• Irregular Bones- vertebrae, some facialbones• Sesamoid- patella
    3. 3. DistalepiphysisProximalepiphysisdiaphysisyellow marrowepiphyseal lineperiosteumcompact bonespongy boneEndosteumhyaline cartilageSharpey’s fibers
    4. 4. Posterior View
    5. 5. • Warm and moisten air• Lighten the skull• Enhance voice resonanceFrontal SinusEthmoid SinusSphenoid SinusMaxillary Sinus
    6. 6. Cervical Vertebrae(7)Thoracic Vertebrae(12)Lumbar Vertberae(5)SacrumCoccyxThe Vertebral Column
    7. 7. Cervical Vertebrae
    8. 8. SternumTrue Ribs (7)False Ribs (3)Floating Ribs (2)The Thoracic Cage
    9. 9. Sacrum & Coccyx
    10. 10. Bones of the Pectoral Girdle
    11. 11. HumerusUlnaRadius8 Carpals14 Phalanges5 Metacarpals
    12. 12. Pelvis
    13. 13. IschiumIliumAcetabulumPubisIschiumObturatorforamenPelvis (lateral view)
    14. 14. Male Pelvic Girdle Female Pelvic Girdle
    15. 15. PatellaThe Lower Limb(Legs)FemurTibiaFibula5 Metatarsals14 Phalanges7 Tarsals
    16. 16. metatarsalsphelangiestarsalsmetatarsalsphelangiestarsals
    17. 17. Immovable JointsImmovable Joints(synarthrosis)(synarthrosis)suturesuturepubis symphisispubis symphisis
    18. 18. Slightly Movable JointSlightly Movable Joint(ampharthrosis)(ampharthrosis)
    19. 19. femurligamentspelvis(diarthrosis)- freely moveable
    20. 20. femurpelvishyalinecartilage synovialcavityjointcapsule
    21. 21. AbductionExtensionRotationFlexionAdductionSynovial Joint Movement
    22. 22. 275 bones275 bones12 weeks (6-912 weeks (6-9inches long)inches long)
    23. 23. cartilagecalcifiedcartilageboneepiphysealplateepiphyseallineEndochondral Ossification2oossificationcenterFetus: 1st2 monthsAdultChildhoodJust beforebirth
    24. 24. OsteoblastOsteocyteOsteoclastEats boneBuilds new boneMature bone cell
    25. 25. Bone Repair:1. Electrical stimulation of the fracture site:• Increases speed and completeness of healing• The e- stimulation inhibits PTH and slow osteoclastsdown from reabsorbing bone2. Ultrasound treatment:• Daily treatments reduce healing time of broken bonesby 25-35%3. Free vascular fibular graft technique:• Transplant fibula in arm• Gives good blood supply not available in othertreatments4. Bone substitutes:• Crushed bone from cadaver- but risk of HIV andhepatitis• Sea bone- coral• Artificial bone- ceramic
    26. 26. hematomacallus bony callusboneremodeling
    27. 27. Diseases of the Skeletal System:Osteoporosis- bone reabsorptionoutpaces bone deposit; bonesbecome lighter and fracture easierFactors:• age, gender (more in women)• estrogen and testosterone decrease• insufficient exercise (or too much)• diet poor in Ca++and protein• abnormal vitamin D receptors• smoking
    28. 28. OsteoporosisOsteoporosis29 40 84 92
    29. 29. Rickets- vitamin D deficiencyOsteomalacia- soft bones, inadequatemineralization in bones, lack of vitamin DPagets Disease- spotty weakening in thebones, excessive and abnormal boneremodelingRheumatoid arthritis- autoimmunereactionDiseases of the Skeletal System:
    30. 30. INQUIRY What is a fontanel?2. How many bones in the adult skeleton?3. What is the difference between the appendicularand axial skeleton?4. What is a meniscus?5. Demonstrate adduction.6. Weight bearing vertebrae are called?7. What does an osteoclast do?Extra Credit: 1-page reaction paper on bipedalismand problems associated with our human frame.Attach article. Turn in 1-week from today.