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Wdf222 cep ii

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Wdf222 cep ii

  1. 1. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Web Design and Fundamentals WDF222 By D.Balaganesh D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  2. 2. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Network • Network one computer connected to more then one computer is called Network D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  3. 3. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Advantages of networking • • • • • • • • Connectivity and Communication Data Sharing Hardware Sharing Internet Access Internet Access Sharing Data Security and Management Performance Enhancement and Balancing Entertainment D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  4. 4. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Network Credit Hours • Network: A set of devices (nodes) connected by communication links • Node: Computer, printer, or any device capable of sending and/or receiving data • To be considered effective and efficient, a network must meet a number of criteria D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  5. 5. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Type of Connection D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  6. 6. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Type of Connection • Point-to-point – Dedicated link between two devices – The entire capacity of the channel is reserved – Ex) Microwave link, TV remote control • Multipoint – More than two devices share a single link – Capacity of the channel is either • Spatially shared: Devices can use the link simultaneously • Timeshare: Users take turns D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  7. 7. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Physical Topology D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  8. 8. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Mesh Topology • Dedicated point-to-point link to every other nodes • A mesh network with n nodes has n(n-1)/2 links. A node has n-1 I/O ports (links) • Advantages: No traffic problems, robust, security, easy fault identification & isolation • Disadvantages: Difficult installation/reconfiguration, space, cost D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  9. 9. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Star Topology • • • • Dedicated point-to-point link only to a central controller, called a hub Hub acts as an exchange: No direct traffic between devices Advantages: Less expensive, robust Disadvantages: dependency of the whole on one single point, the hub D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  10. 10. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Bus Topology • • • • • One long cable that links all nodes tap, drop line, cable end limit on the # of devices, distance between nodes Advantages: Easy installation, cheap Disadvantages: Difficult reconfiguration, no fault isolation, a fault or break in the bus stops all transmission D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  11. 11. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Ring Topology • • • • Dedicated point-to-point link only with the two nodes on each sides One direction, repeater Advantages: Easy reconfiguration, fault isolation Disadvantage: Unidirectional traffic, a break in the ring cab disable the entire network D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  12. 12. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Hybrid Topology • • Example: Main star topology with each branch connecting several stations in a bus topology To share the advantages from various topologies D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  13. 13. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Categories of Networks D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  14. 14. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code LAN • • • • Usually privately owned A network for a single office, building, or campus a few Km Common LAN topologies: bus, ring, star An isolated LAN connecting 12 computers to a hub in a closet D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  15. 15. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code MAN • Designed to extend to an entire city • Cable TV network, a company’s connected LANs • Owned by a private or a public company D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  16. 16. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours WAN • Long distance transmission, e.g., a country, a continent, the world • Enterprise network: A WAN that is owned and used by one company D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  17. 17. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Network Vs Internet Internet Network of network is called Internet D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  18. 18. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals • • • • • • • • Code Credit Hours Internet programming language Internet E-mail SMS(short message service) Social networking sites Websites Blog - Share your life's stories, videos and photos VOIP - Voice over Internet Protocol Podcast - type of digital media consisting of an episodic series of audio, video, PDF • Rss(Really simple Syndication) - TechNet provides RSS feeds for its security bulletins, advisories, magazine features, and other security-related alerts for IT professionals. D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  19. 19. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours The Internet • Internet is a network of interconnected computers that is now global • Internet born in 1969 - called ARPANET • 1969 ARPANET was connection of computers at UCLA, Stanford, UCSB, Univ. of Utah D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  20. 20. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network • In 1969, the U.S. Defence Department funded a project to develop a network, which can withstand the bombing. Basically the idea was to develop a very secure network which can work even after a nuclear attack. This project was known as ARPANET. D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  21. 21. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Internet Connections Various technologies available to connect a home computer to the Internet Phone modem converts computer data into an analog audio signal for transfer over a telephone line, and then a modem at the destination converts it back again into data Digital subscriber line (DSL) uses regular copper phone lines to transfer digital data to and from the phone company’s central office Cable modem uses the same line that your cable TV signals come in on to transfer the data back and forth D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  22. 22. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  23. 23. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Internet Connections Broadband A connection in which transfer speeds are faster than 768 kilobits per second – DSL connections and cable modems are broadband connections – The speed for downloads (getting data from the Internet to your home computer) may not be the same as uploads (sending data from your home D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College computer to the Internet)
  24. 24. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Data • Analog data – Voice – Images • Digital data – Text – Digitized voice or images D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  25. 25. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Modem D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  26. 26. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Analog Signaling amplitude (volts) 1 cycle • represented by sine waves phase difference time (sec) frequency (hertz) = cycles per second D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  27. 27. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Three Components of Data Communication • Data – Analog: Continuous value data (sound, light, temperature) – Digital: Discrete value (text, integers, symbols) • Signal – Analog: Continuously varying electromagnetic wave – Digital: Series of voltage pulses (square wave) • Transmission – Analog: Works the same for analog or digital signals – Digital: Used only with digital signals D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  28. 28. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Modem • Anlog • Digital • Modulation – Digital to analog conversion • Demodulation – Analog to Digital Conversion Modulation and D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College called Modem demodulation is
  29. 29. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Modem Internet Connections • Dial-up connection via modem (56K) • Cable modems – Network card and cable modem required – Always-on and 25 times faster than dial-up D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  30. 30. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals • Code Credit Hours Faster Internet Connections ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) – 64K or 128K – Always-on and expensive • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) – Up to 125 times faster than dialup • DSS (Digital Satellite Service) – 500K Need proximity to a telephone switching station D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  31. 31. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours ISP (Internet Service Provider) If you want to connect to the Internet, you need to subscribe via an Internet Service Provider. The ISP gives you a connection to the Internet either via your telephone line or via a special digital high speed line. An example of a popular ISP is AOL (America On-Line). D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  32. 32. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Internet Service Provider (ISP) • Provides internet access to businesses, • • • • • organizations and individuals Provides telecommunications equipment User ID and password required Connects you to backbone E-mail account monthly fee Should have local access telephone numbers D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  33. 33. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code SERVICES OF INTERNET • • • • WWW FTP Telnet E-mail D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  34. 34. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours What is the difference between the World Wide Web (WWW) and the Internet? WWW is the acronym for the World Wide Web. It is also commonly known as ‘The Web’. The WWW is hypertext based information retrieval tool • The World Wide Web (WWW) is just a small part of the Internet as a whole. • The Internet, relates to all the hardware and software involved, and as well as including the WWW, also includes FTP (File Transfer Protocol – more about this later), email and newsgroups. D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  35. 35. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals • • • • • Code World Wide Web Basics Files interconnected via hypertext Web pages make up a web site Home Page Links or hyperlinks Web servers D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  36. 36. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours FTP (File Transfer Protocol) File Transfer Protocol, is an Internet utility software used to upload and download files. It gives access to directories or folders on remote computers and allows software, data and text files to be transferred between different kinds of computers. • FTP is just a way of transferring data from one place to another over the Internet. If is often used for downloading large files from a web site. You do not really need to know anything about how it works, in most cases you willclick on a link within a web page, and your web browser (such as Microsoft Internet Explorer) will take care of the FTP transfer for you, all you have to decide is where to store the file which you wish to D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College download.
  37. 37. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours The basic objectives of FTP are • to give flexibility and promote sharing of computer programs, files and data • to transfer data reliably and more efficiently over network • to encourage implicit or indirect use of remote computers using Internet • to shield a user from variations in file storage systems among hosts D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  38. 38. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Telnet (Remote Computing) • Telnet (Remote Computing) Telnet or remote computing is telecommunication utility software, which uses available telecommunication facility and allows you to become a user on a remote computer. Once you gain access to the remote computer, you can use it for the intended purpose. The TELNET works in a very step by step procedure. The commands typed on the client computer are sent to the local Internet Service Provider (ISP), and then from the ISP to the remote computer that you have gained access. Most of the ISP provides facility to TELENET into your own account from another city and check your e-mail while you are traveling or away on business College D.Balaganesh Lincoln University Credit Hours
  39. 39. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours E-Mail (Electronic Mail) E-mail or Electronic mail is a paperless method of sending messages, notes or letters from one person to another or even many people at the same time via Internet. E-mail is very fast compared to the normal post. E-mail messages usually take only few seconds to arrive at their destination Features of E-mail: • One-to-one or one-to-many communications • Instant communications • Physical presence of recipient is not required • Most inexpensive mail services, 24-hours a day and seven days a week • Encourages informal communications D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  40. 40. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Voice Messaging Voice Messaging It is a new communication approach which is similar to electronic mail except that it is audio message rather than text messages that are processed. A sender speaks into a telephone rather than typing, giving the name of the recipient and the message. That sender's voice signal is then digitalised and stored. The system can then either deliver the message at a specified time in future or it can be retrieved from a database by the recipient. D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  41. 41. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours E-Commerce Electronic commerce or e-commerce as it is popularly known refers to the paperless exchange of business information using Electronic Data Interchange, Electronic mail, Electronic Bulletin Boards, Electronic Fund Transfer and other network based technologies. Electronic Commerce (EC) not only automates manual process and paper transactions, but it also helps organisations to move into a fully electronic environment and change the way they usually operate. D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  42. 42. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Internet Important Terms • • • • • • • HTTP URL Hyperlink Browser Cookies Internet cache SECURITY D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  43. 43. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. This is the language your web browser uses to request pages & graphics from the web server. You can see that your web browser is using the HTTP protocol when it is shown at the start of a web address such as http://www.yahoo.com D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  44. 44. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours URL (Uniform Resource Locator) • The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is just another name for a web address. • The URL consists of the name of the protocol (usually HTTP or FTP) followed by the address of the computer you want to connect to, e.g. a URL of “ftp://ftp.cdrom.com” would instruct your web browser to use the FTP protocol to connect to the computer called ftp.cdrom.com. D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  45. 45. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals • URLWorld Code Credit Hours Wide Web Basics – No spaces and Case sensitive – HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) – .htm or .html file extension http://www.cnn.com/showbiz/movies.htm Web protocol standard Web Folder server D.Balaganesh Lincoln Universityname College name Document name and filename extension
  46. 46. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Network Addresses Hostname A name made up of words separated by dots that uniquely identifies a computer on the Internet IP address An address made up of four one-byte numeric values separated by dots that uniquely identifies a computer on the Internet Is there a correspondence between the parts of a hostname and an IP address? D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  47. 47. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Host number Domain Name System The part of the IP address that specifies a particular host (machine) on the network Yes, but what is it? Domain name The part of a hostname that specifies a specific organization or group Top-level domain (TLD) The last section of a domain name that specifies the type of organization or its country of origin D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  48. 48. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Domain Name System matisse.csc.villanova.edu Computer name Domain name TLD D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  49. 49. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Domain Name System Figure 15.10 Top-level domains, including some relatively new ones D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  50. 50. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Domain Namethan the United States System Organizations based in countries other use a top-level domain that corresponds to their two-letter country codes Do you email someone in another country? Figure 15.11 Some of the top-level domain names based on country codes D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  51. 51. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Domain Name System Domain name system (DNS) A distributed system for managing hostname resolution Domain name server A computer that attempts to translate a hostname into an IP address Should the tables containing hostname/IP mappings be sorted or unsorted? Why? D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  52. 52. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Domain Name Addressing • Domain names can include any number of parts separated by periods, however most domain names currently in use have only three or four parts. • Domain names follow hierarchical model that you can follow from top to bottom if you read the name from the right to the left. • For example, the domain name gsb.uchicago.edu is the computer connected to the Internet at the Graduate School of Business (gsb), which is an academic unit of the University of Chicago (uchicago), which is an educational institution (edu). • No other computer on the Internet has the same domain name. D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  53. 53. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Uniform Resource Locators Credit Hours • The IP address and the domain name each identify a particular computer on the Internet. • However, they do not indicate where a Web page’s HTML document resides on that computer. • To identify a Web pages exact location, Web browsers rely on Uniform Resource Locator (URL). • URL is a four-part addressing scheme that tells the Web browser:  What transfer protocol to use for transporting the file  The domain name of the computer on which the file resides  The pathname of the folder or directory on the computer on which the file resides  The name of the file D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  54. 54. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Structure of a Uniform Resource Locators pathname protocol http://www.chicagosymphony.org/civicconcerts/index.htm Domain name http => Hypertext Transfer Protocol D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College filename
  55. 55. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Hyperlink A hyperlink is a piece of text (or a graphic) on a Web page, which when clicked on will automatically: - Take you to a different part of the same page - Take you to a different page within the Web site D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  56. 56. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours What is a web browser? Web browsing applications include ‘Internet Explorer’ (from Microsoft) and ‘Netscape Navigator/Communicator’. In both cases there are many different versions, and you will find that the later versions offer much more versatility as well as a better range of built-in features. The web browser allows you to view web pages D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  57. 57. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours • What are cookies? • Some web sites can store hidden information about you on your hard disk using cookies. This information is stored in small text file. Cookies can be useful, for instance, a site may store your preferences about a web site, so that when you re-visit the site your preferences can be accessed automatically. Cookies are used by some web sites to identify you; this saves you having to “log in” to the web site each time you visit. D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  58. 58. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours What is an Internet cache? Each time you display a web site within your web browser, a copy of the information (both text and pictures) is saved on your hard disk. The reason for this is that the next time you want to re-visit the site, the information is quickly loaded from the copy on your hard disk, rather than slowly from the actual Internet site. • As pictures are stored in the cache, if you are visiting a site which has many separate web pages, with say a company logo on each page, then all subsequent pages from that site will load a little faster as the logo graphics will load from the cache, not via the Internet D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  59. 59. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS • What is a digital certificate? • A digital certificate is used to encrypt information for secure transmission across the Internet. A digital certificate can be used to create a digital signature for an email, the signature guarantees the identity of sender, and it also ensures that the message cannot be tampered with in transit. A digital certificate can be purchased from a certificate authority such as www.verisign.com who will verify your identity. Digital certificates are used by Internet based shopping web sites to encrypt your credit card details so they cannot be intercepted as they travel the Internet. You can view the digital certificate for a secure web site by double clicking on the padlock in the web browser status bar, e.g. https://www.paypal.com D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  60. 60. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours • What is encryption? • Encryption is a means of 'scrambling' an email message. It is used to make a message more secure, so that only the intended recipient of the message will be able to read the message. There are many means of enabling this encryption, both via hardware and software. A famous encryption program is called PGP(Pretty Good Privacy) D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  61. 61. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours • What is a firewall? • A fire wall consists of software and hardware protection against invasion via the Internet. In most larger companies any connection to the Internet automatically goes through a firewall which would have been installed and customised by the companies technical IT team. In most cases you will be unaware of the firewall existence. D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  62. 62. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Modem Internet Connections • Dial-up connection via modem (56K) • Cable modems – Network card and cable modem required – Always-on and 25 times faster than dial-up D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  63. 63. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals • Code Credit Hours Faster Internet Connections ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) – 64K or 128K – Always-on and expensive • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) – Up to 125 times faster than dialup • DSS (Digital Satellite Service) – 500K Need proximity to a telephone switching station D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  64. 64. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Network Layer D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  65. 65. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Layered Model: Sending a Letter D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  66. 66. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals • Code Credit Hours OSI Model(Open Systems Interconnection) ISO is the organization. OSI is the model D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  67. 67. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals • Code Credit Hours Interaction between layers in the OSI model Layer and interface D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  68. 68. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Physical Layer • The physical layer is responsible for movements of individual bits from one hop (node) to the next • Mechanical and electrical specification, the procedures and functions D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  69. 69. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Physical Layer: Duties • Physical characteristics of interfaces and media • Representation of bits • Data rate • Synchronization of bits • Line configuration • Physical topology • Transmission mode D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  70. 70. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Data Link Layer • The data link layer is responsible for moving frames from one hop (node) to the next • Transform the physical layer to a reliable (error-free) link D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  71. 71. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Data Link Layer: Duties • • • • • Framing Physical addressing Flow control Error control Access control D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  72. 72. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Network Layer • The network layer is responsible for the delivery of packets from the source host to the destination host D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  73. 73. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals • Code Network Layer: Duties Logical addressing and routing D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  74. 74. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Transport Layer • The transport layer is responsible for delivery of a message from one process to another D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  75. 75. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Transport Layer: Duties • • • • • Service-point (port) addressing Segmentation and reassembly Connection control Flow control Error control D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  76. 76. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Reliable Process-to-Process Delivery of a Message D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  77. 77. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Session Layer • Session layer is responsible for dialog control and synchronization D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  78. 78. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Presentation Layer • Presentation layer is responsible for translation, compression, and encryption D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  79. 79. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Application Layer • Application layer is responsible for providing services to the user D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  80. 80. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours Application Layer: Services • • • • Network virtual terminal Mail services File transfer, access, and management Directory services D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  81. 81. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Summary of Layers D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  82. 82. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code OSI layer vs TCP/IP Layer Credit Hours TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE To divide the services required to perform a task, the Internet has created a set of rules called protocols. These allow different local and wide area networks, using different technologies, to be connected together and carry a message from one point to another. The set, or suite, of protocols that controls the Internet today is referred to as the TCP/IP protocol suite. The abbreviations (TCP and IP) will become clear as we explain different protocols. D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  83. 83. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals The original TCP/IP Code Credit Hours protocol suite was defined as having four layers: host-to-network (or link), internet (network), transport and application. The TCP/IP protocol suite D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College
  84. 84. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code TCP/IP and OSI Model D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  85. 85. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College Credit Hours
  86. 86. Subject Name Web Design and Fundamentals Code Credit Hours TCP/IP Protocol Suite • Host-to-network : Physical and data link layer – No specific protocol • Network layer – IP(Internet Protocl), ARP(Address Resolution Protocol), RARP(Reverse ARP), ICMP(Internet Control Message Protocol), IGMO(Internet Group Message Protocol) • Transport layer – TCP(Transmission Control Protocol), UDP(User Datagram Protocl), SCTP(Stream Control Transmission Protocol), • Application Layer – Combined session, presentation, and application layers D.Balaganesh Lincoln University College

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