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IoT : Research, Development, Challenges


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IoT: Research, Development, Challenges

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IoT : Research, Development, Challenges

  1. 1. IoT Research, Development, Challenges Youssef BADDI Assistant Professor, UCD, El Jadida Research Member of “Equipe Innovation on Digital and Enterprise Architectures”, ENSIAS, UM5R, Rabat or social networks
  2. 2. Presentation Aims The Power of PowerPoint | 2 The main aim of this presentation is to introduce the fundamental concepts of the Internet of Things and its applications and architecture models; Discussing semantic technologies, service oriented solutions and networking technologies that enable the integration of Internet of Things data and services into the cyber world (i.e. the Internet and the Web). Questions, questions, questions …
  3. 3. Sources and links  of-things       ddos-attack.html
  4. 4. Videos Intel IoT -- What Does The Internet of Things Mean?  Cisco - How the Internet of Things Will Change Everything--Including Ourselves  IBM – Internet of Things  Dr. John Barrett at TEDxCIT – The Internet of Things 
  5. 5. Business trend Emerging technologies Growing IoT Services and Application Why should I learn about IoT? The Power of PowerPoint | 5
  6. 6. 01 02 03 04 05 06 Outline Overview IoT Characteristics IoT Components IoT architecture IoT: Key Open Issues Conclusion The Power of PowerPoint | 6
  7. 7. Overview
  8. 8. The Power of PowerPoint | 8 Internet of Things : a new space for innovation ?
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10.  Apollo 11 Command Module (1965) had 64 kilobytes of memory  operated at 0.043MHz.  An iPhone 5s has a CPU running at speeds of up to 1.3GHz  and has 512MB to 1GB of memory  Cray-1 (1975) produced 80 million Floating point operations per second (FLOPS) 10 years later, Cray-2 produced 1.9G FLOPS.  An iPhone 5s produces 76.8 GFLOPS – nearly a thousand times more .  Cray-2 used 200-kilowatt power.
  11. 11. Devices characteristics The Power of PowerPoint | 11  Smaller size  More Powerful  More memory and more storage  "Moore's law" over the history of computing, the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years.
  12. 12. Global Data Generation The Power of PowerPoint | 12  Everyday around 20 quintillion (10^18) bytes of data are produced (Source:  This data includes textual content (unstructured, semi-structured, structured) to multimedia content (images, video and audio), on a variety of platforms (enterprise, social media, and sensors).
  13. 13. Data Generation The Power of PowerPoint | 13
  14. 14. Data Generation The Power of PowerPoint | 14
  15. 15. Emerging Challenges for IT The Power of PowerPoint | 15  # devices >> # users, and growing fast volume of data (and network traffic)  Innovation pressure: analysis, command and control, cost  Skill pressure: data science, new platforms  IT/OT collaboration  Security and privacy threats  Emerging standards  New competitors
  16. 16. The Power of PowerPoint | 16
  17. 17. Sensors The Power of PowerPoint | 17
  18. 18. Cyber-Physical-Social Data 18  Extensions • More nodes, more connections, IPv6, 6LowPan,... • Any TIME, Any PLACE + Any THING • M2M, IoT o Billions of interconnected devices, o Everybody connected.  Expansions • Broadband  Enhancements • Smart networks • Data-centric and content-oriented networking • Context-aware (autonomous) systems How are the networks changing?
  19. 19. Cyber-Physical-Social Data The Power of PowerPoint | 19 Programmable devices Off-the-shelf gadgets/tools Sensor devices are becoming widely available
  20. 20. Cyber-Physical-Social Data The Power of PowerPoint | 20 Home/daily-life devices Business and Public infrastructure Health-care … More “Things” are being connected
  21. 21. People Connecting to Things The Power of PowerPoint | 21 Motion sensor Motion sensor Motion sensor ECG sensor Internet
  22. 22. Things Connecting to Things The Power of PowerPoint | 22 - Complex and heterogeneous resources and networks
  23. 23. “Thing” connected to the internet The Power of PowerPoint | 23
  24. 24. 24 IOT
  25. 25. A “Disruptive” Technology The Power of PowerPoint | 25  US National Intelligence Council (NIC) consider Internet of Things as one of the 6 ‘‘Disruptive Civil Technologies” (April 2008)  IEEE ranks IoT #1 in the list of “Top Trends for 2013” (Winter 2012): “The Internet of Things is more than just the newest buzzword. The IoT promises to be the most disruptive technological revolution since the advent of the World Wide Web. Projections indicate that up to 100 billion uniquely identifiable objects will be connected to the Internet by 2020, but human understanding of the underlying technologies has not kept pace. This creates a fundamental challenge to researchers, with enormous technical, socioeconomic, political, and even spiritual consequences”
  26. 26. Internet of Things: Visions The Power of PowerPoint | 26  Term introduced by the Auto-ID Labs (K. Ashton, 1999): linking RFID- based supply chain and Internet  UN (2005): “A new era of ubiquity is coming where humans may become the minority as generators and receivers of traffic and changes brought about by the Internet will be dwarfed by those prompted by the networking of everyday objects”  ITU: ‘‘From anytime, anyplace connectivity for anyone, we will now have connectivity for anything”  EU: ‘‘Things having identities and virtual personalities operating in smart spaces using intelligent interfaces to connect and communicate within social, environmental, and user contexts”
  27. 27. Internet of Things: Visions The Power of PowerPoint | 27  EU: ‘‘Things having identities and virtual personalities operating in smart spaces using intelligent interfaces to connect and communicate within social, environmental, and user contexts”  US National Intelligence Council: ‘‘By 2025 Internet nodes may reside in everyday things – food packages, furniture, paper documents, and more”  Target applications: no limit: • logistics • industry/manufacturing (cf. German Industry 4.0 initiative) • health • domotics • ITS • social networking…  Intensive standardization and R&D activity
  28. 28. Internet of Things: Definition (1) The Power of PowerPoint | 28 CERP-IoT: « The Internet of Things (IoT) is […] a dynamic global network infrastructure with self configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual ‘things’ have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network. In the IoT, ‘things’ are expected to become active participants in business, information and social processes where they are enabled to interact and communicate among themselves and with the environment by exchanging data and information ‘sensed’ about the environment, while reacting autonomously to the ‘real/physical world’s events »
  29. 29. Internet of Things: Definition (2) The Power of PowerPoint | 29  The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to- computer interaction.
  30. 30. Internet of Things: Definition (3) The Power of PowerPoint | 30  According to Wikipedia, IoT refers to the interconnection of uniquely identifiable embedded computing-like devices within the existing Internet infrastructure. Typically, IoT is expected to offer advanced connectivity of devices, systems, and services that goes beyond machine-to-machine communications (M2M) and covers a variety of protocols, domains, and applications. The interconnection of these embedded devices (including smart objects), is expected to usher in automation in nearly all fields, while also enabling advanced applications like a Smart Grid.
  31. 31. Internet of Things: Definition (4) The Power of PowerPoint | 31  Things, in the IoT, can refer to a wide variety of devices such as heart monitoring implants, bio-chip transponders on farm animals, automobiles with built-in sensors, or field operation devices that assist fire-fighters in search and rescue. Current market examples include smart thermostat systems and washer/dryers that utilize WiFi for remote monitoring.
  32. 32. Internet of Things: Definition (5) The Power of PowerPoint | 32  Due to the ubiquitous nature of connected objects in the IoT, an unprecedented number of devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. According to Gartner, there will be nearly 26 billion devices on the Internet of Things by 2020. ABI Research estimates that more than 30 billion devices will be wirelessly connected to the IoT by 2020. Per a recent survey and study done by Pew Research Internet Project, a large majority of the technology experts and engaged Internet users who responded. 83% agreed with the notion that the Internet/Cloud of Things and embedded and wearable computing will have widespread and beneficial effects by 2025. It is, as such, clear that the IoT will consist of a very large number of devices being connected to the Internet.
  33. 33. Internet of Things: Definition (6) The Power of PowerPoint | 33 ‘The Internet of Things’ is a concept originally coined and introduced by MIT, Auto-ID Center and intimately linked to RFID and electronic product code (EPC) “… all about physical items talking to each other..” Like RFID it is a concept that has attracted much rhetoric, misconception and confusion as to what it means and its implications in a social context
  34. 34. Internet of Things: Definition (7) The Power of PowerPoint | 34 Extending the current Internet and providing connection, communication, and inter- networking between devices and physical objects, or "Things," is a growing trend that is often referred to as the Internet of Things. “The technologies and solutions that enable integration of real world data and services into the current information networking technologies are often described under the umbrella term of the Internet of Things (IoT)”
  35. 35. The Power of PowerPoint | 35  Formally : a network of networks which enables to identify digital entities and physical objects  whether they are inanimate (including plants) or animate (animals and human beings) – directly and without ambiguity, via standardized electronic identification systems and wireless mobile devices, and thus make it possible to retrieve, store, transfer and process data relating to them, without discontinuity between the physical and virtual worlds” (Benghozi, Bureau, Massit-Folléa, 2008)  Conceptually : new identities for objects  “Things having identities and virtual personalities operating in smart spaces using intelligent interfaces to connect and communicate within social, environmental, and user contexts” (working group Eposs)  Technically : an extension of the Internet  naming system and reveals a convergence of digital identifiers in the sense that it is possible to identify digital information (URL website addresses for instance) and physical elements (like a pallet in a warehouse, or a sheep in a herd) in a standardized way  From the user point: a new space for innovative services
  36. 36. IoT = the future of the internet ? The Power of PowerPoint | 36 R&D programs all over the world • Europe (ambiant intelligence), Japon (ubiquituous computing) China… Complementary technological paths : • Convergence and discontinuities : 1.0 ≈ 2.0 ≈ 3.0 • From bar code to multiple electronic identification devices • From early B2B to massive applications (animals, health…) Major socio-technico-economic trends • From product to services • From fixed to mobile technologies • Physical and virtual worlds • Complex and unstable technological choices and standards • Attractive technologies : but unknown and badly accepted Conflicting visions and various questions at stake : • consistency, sustainability and (low) cost • Portfolio of technologies, networks and applications • Incentive and support for innovation for economic growth • To implement pervasive but non intrusive systems
  37. 37. Types of devices The Power of PowerPoint | 37 Automobiles Locks Lights Routers Security Cameras Refrigerators Wearable Technology/Implanted Devices (Apple Watch) Thermostats Home Assistants (Amazon Eco, Google Home) Things
  38. 38. Overview The Power of PowerPoint | 38 What is a thing?  We distinguish two classes of things • Things that are computers equipped with communication interfaces. • Things that are not computers, but who are associated with computers equipped with communication interfaces. What is the identifier of a thing?  They are several proposals: • A serial number, such as an EPC code. • An IP address. • Other, for example a fix hash value, or adhoc naming scheme. Authentication  Is there a need/way to authenticate a thing? In other words is it possible and needed to prove the identity of a thing.
  39. 39. Overview The Power of PowerPoint | 39  Identity Protection  Things can be used to track people or objects, which are identified by a set of things. Identity protection enforces privacy by hiding things identities thanks to cryptographic means.  Communication Protocol  A thing communicates with the Internet network by various interfaces  Via MAC (OSI2) radio protocols, as defined by EPCGLOBAL  Thanks the IP protocol, in that case the thing is an IP node, and is natively plugged in the Internet Cloud.  Other, for example the Host Identity Protocol  Things to Things communications  In some cases, things communicate with other things. If identity protection is required, the associated infrastructure is complex from a cryptographic or physical point of view, because classical routing techniques can't be used.
  40. 40. The application domains of the IoT The Power of PowerPoint | 40 Logistics Energy savings Security and safety Industrial….
  41. 41. Logistics The Power of PowerPoint | 41  The first commercial application of a forerunner of the IoT, the RFID is in the area of logistics  There are many quantitative advantages in using RFID technology in supply-chain management:  the movement of goods can be tracked in real- time,  shelf space can be managed more effectively  inventory control is improved  the amount of human involvement in the supply chain management is reduced considerably.
  42. 42. Energy savings The Power of PowerPoint | 42  Already today, embedded systems contribute to energy savings in many different sectors of our economy and our life.  increased fuel efficiency of automotive engines,  improved energy-efficiency of household appliances,  reduced loss in energy conversion  The future: of IoT devices opens many new opportunities for energy savings:  Smart buildings: individual climate and lighting control in residential buildings  Smart grids: reduced energy loss in transmission by the installation of smart grids,  Smart meters: better coordination of energy supply and energy demand  Other energy savings:  Physical meetings replaced by virtual meetings  delivery of information goods such as the daily paper, music, and videos by the Internet
  43. 43. Security and safety The Power of PowerPoint | 43  Automated IoT based access control systems to buildings and homes  IoT-based surveillance of public places  Smart passports and IoT based identifications (e.g., a smart key to access a hotel room or a smart ski lift ticket)  Car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure communication will alert the driver of dangerous traffic scenarios
  44. 44. Industrial The Power of PowerPoint | 44  computerized observation and monitoring of industrial equipment • reduces maintenance cost • improves the safety in the plant  A smart object can monitor its own operation and call for preventive or spontaneous maintenance in case a part wears out or a physical fault is diagnosed  Automated fault-diagnosis and simple maintenance are absolutely essential prerequisites for the wide deployment of the IoT technology in the domain of ambient intelligence.
  45. 45. Medical The Power of PowerPoint | 45  The wide deployment of IoT technology in the medical domain is anticipated. • Health monitoring (heart rate, blood pressure, etc.) • precise control of drug delivery by a smart implant  Body area networks that are part of the clothing can monitor the behavior of impaired persons and send out alarm messages if an emergency is developing.  Smart labels on drugs can help a patient to take the right medication at the right time and enforce drug compliance.  Example: A heart pacemaker can transmit important data via a Bluetooth link to a mobile phone that is carried in the shirt pocket. The mobile phone can analyze the data and call a doctor in case an emergency develops.
  46. 46. IoT Characteristics
  47. 47. Future Networks The Power of PowerPoint | 47
  48. 48. IoT Characteristics Alia insolens consulatu at mea, vix in nonumy equidem utroque. Erat accusata nec ne, an ignota doming dolorum has. Tritani suscipit te mel. Our Goal Fierent volutpat dissentiet an qui. Tale vide inciderint vis te. Ad nec animal discere. Our Mission
  49. 49. IoT Characteristics The Power of PowerPoint | 49 Ambient intelligence AMI refers to electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people (Wikipedia) the independent & intelligent entities will act in full interoperability & will be able to auto-organize themselves depending on the context, circumstances or environment
  50. 50. IoT Characteristics The Power of PowerPoint | 50 Event Driven: is to disgn the scheme dependign in the need Flexible strucrure: means thats handreds and thousands of nodes will be disable and will be set to run
  51. 51. IoT Characteristics The Power of PowerPoint | 51 Complex access technology:  Means that there’s several kinds of media such as vehicle stone that they need different access technologies Semantic Sharing :  Is the machine can rend and send by themselves. No need to tell human beings
  52. 52. IoT Components
  53. 53. IoT Components 53
  54. 54. The Global Internet of Things 54 Be part of the sweeping convergence of technologies, markets, applications, and the Internet through the IEEE Future Directions Internet of Things (IoT) Initiative
  55. 55. The Power of PowerPoint | 55
  56. 56. Communication Technologies for IoT The Power of PowerPoint | 56 1. Bluetooth 2. Zigbee 3. Z-Wave 4. NFC (Near-Field Communication) 5. RFID 6. WiFi 7. 2G/3G/LTE 8. Wibro/Mobile WiMax 9. PLC (Power Line Communication) 10.Ethernet 11.What else?
  57. 57. Internet of Things Module The Power of PowerPoint | 57
  58. 58. Topics The Power of PowerPoint | 58 Cyber-Physical systems, smart devices, sensors and actuators Key applications, protocols and architectures Networks and Communications (Wireless Multi-hop Networks (WMN), Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET), Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)) Reliability, Security, Privacy and Trust issues and solutions Software platforms and services Intelligent Data Processing and Semantic technologies Connecting things to the Web Applications, system models, Standards, and Physical-Cyber-Social systems
  59. 59. The Power of PowerPoint | 59 Communication Technologies for IoT.  IoT connects people and things via the Internet  Uses IT analytics, cloud computing, smart devices and apps  Built on cloud computing and networks of data-gathering sensors  Delivers mobile, virtual and immediate connection  Makes everything “smart”
  60. 60. Naming and identification The Power of PowerPoint | 60  A well-thought-out naming architecture in order to be able to identify a smart object and to establish an access path to the object is essential.  Isolated Objects. The following three different object names have to be distinguished when we refer to the simple case of an isolated object:  Unique object identifier (UID) refers to the physical identity of a specific object.  The Electronic Product Code (EPC) of the RFID community is such a UID.  Object type name refers to a class of objects that ideally have the same properties.  Object role name. In a given use context, an object plays a specific role that is denoted by the object role name.
  61. 61. Composite object naming The Power of PowerPoint | 61 Composite Objects. Whenever a number of objects are integrated to form a composite object, a new whole, i.e., new object is created that has an emerging identity that goes beyond the identities of the constituent objects. The composite object resembles a new concept (see Sect. 2.2.1) that requires a new name.
  62. 62. IoT Architecture
  63. 63. IoT Architecture The Power of PowerPoint | 63
  64. 64. Architecture for Open IoT Services The Power of PowerPoint | 64
  65. 65. IoT Architecture The Power of PowerPoint | 65
  66. 66. 01 02 03 04 05 What are the major components of IoT? The Power of PowerPoint | 66 Sensors/Actuators Communication between servers or server platforms Server/Middleware Platforms Data Analytics Engines Apps (iOS, Android, Web)
  67. 67. Technological Components (some kind of layered architecture) The Power of PowerPoint | 67  Identification (“sensing”)  (passive, active) RFID tags  sensor networks  Communication  see discussion above  interface object/network  embed the TCP/IP stack into the devices (TinyTCP, mIP, IwIP…)?  Integration  object and service discovery  object and service cataloging  service composition/orchestration  Intelligence and Collaboration  Security and Privacy
  68. 68. Identification (“sensing”) The Power of PowerPoint | 68  Ultimate goal: unique/universal Id for naming and addressing individual objects i.e., to attach an ego to each object, condition to develop ego- centric applications (cf. Jacob and the Angel (Genesis))  Naming is difficult!  ONS: Object Name Service • basically, RFID tag/EPC code → URI of a description file (Object Code Mapping Service-Direct Search (OCMS-DS) • more complex Object Code Mapping Service-Reverse Search (OCMS-DS): description → EPC code(s)  Addressing is difficult!  stupid but tricky issue: RFID addresses are different from IPv6 addresses (64-96 bits vs 128 bits)  addressing moving objects is even more difficult
  69. 69. Communication The Power of PowerPoint | 69  From host2host to object2object  TCP is not adapted  designed for long-lasting connections while objects (like tags or sensors) exchange small pieces of data => handshake + congestion control/retransmit/recovery + flow control + buffering procedures too complex  Very heterogeneous networks and traffic  Scalability?  Quality of service?
  70. 70. Security and Privacy (1/3) 70 A definitive threat for privacy! A security nightmare! Security  IoT = a kind of unsupervised mobile/pervasive grids whose end- components are resource limited tiny objects = a security nightmare  memory segments of tags are protected by (short) password  physical attacks  Man in the Middle attacks  cryptographic techniques too CPU-intensive for low energy objects  multiple administrative domains
  71. 71. Security and Privacy (2/3) The Power of PowerPoint | 71 Privacy  all your life can will be traced => possible monitoring, mining, analysis  connection possible with Linked Open Data => worsen the threats  open air connections => possibility of eavesdropping  not only your digital life but also your “analogical” life  you cannot even know what is sensed about you, when it is sensed, etc. Sensors do not ask for permission (cf. video surveillance)  no “forget option”
  72. 72. Security and Privacy (3/3) The Power of PowerPoint | 72 Privacy (cont’d)  Basic approach (e.g. EEXCESS EU project, W3C P3P (Platform for Privacy Preference)  user defined policy  privacy proxy  negotiation protocol  anonymization/pseudomization  integration of reputation and trust mechanisms (cf. course on security and privacy)  Issues  cryptographic techniques are too complex  scalability
  73. 73. IoT vs cloud computing The Power of PowerPoint | 73 Smart objects that have access to the Internet can take advantage of services that are offered by the cloud The division of work between a smart object and the cloud will be determined, to a considerable degree, by privacy and energy considerations If the energy required to execute a task locally is larger than the energy required to send the task parameters to a server in the cloud, then the task is a candidate for remote processing. However, there are other aspects that influence the decision about work distribution: autonomy of the smart object, response time, reliability, and security.
  74. 74. What is IoT: Internet of Tags The Power of PowerPoint | 74 RFID WSN
  75. 75. RFID Tags The Power of PowerPoint | 75  Developed to automate the process of object identification  electronic tags (called RFID tags) can be read from a small distance by an RFID reader  An RFID reader does not require a direct line-of-sight to the RFID tag.  The RFID tag stores the unique Electronic Product Code (EPC) of the attached object.
  76. 76. The Power of PowerPoint | 76 RFID Tag dimensions  Since an RFID tag has to be attached to every object, the cost of an RFID tag is a major issue.  RFID tags come in various shapes and sizes and continue to decrease in size  RFID tags are implantable and implants have been approved in humans as well as animals.
  77. 77. RFID Reader The Power of PowerPoint | 77 The RFID reader can act as a gateway to the Internet and transmit the object identity, together with the read-time and the object location (i.e., the location of the reader) to a remote computer system that manages a large database. It is thus possible to track objects in real-time Applications: toll gates, hospitals and large organizations, public transportation systems, tracking of animals, libraries
  78. 78. WSN The Power of PowerPoint | 78 a sensor a microcontroller a wireless communication controller A set of sensor nodes that each contains
  79. 79. WSN node The Power of PowerPoint | 79 A sensor node can acquire a variety of physical, chemical, or biological signals to measure properties of its environment.
  80. 80. WSN node constraints The Power of PowerPoint | 80 They are powered either by a small battery or by energy harvested from its environment, have limited computational power, a small memory, and constrained communication capabilities. Sensor nodes are resource constrained.
  81. 81. WSN deployment and operation The Power of PowerPoint | 81 a number (from few tens to millions) of sensor nodes are deployed, either systematically or randomly, in a sensor field to form an ad hoc self-organizing network The WSN collects data about the targeted phenomenon and transmits the data via an ad-hoc multi-hop communication channel to one or more base stations that can be connected to the Internet.
  82. 82. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) The Power of PowerPoint | 82 Sink node Gateway Core network e.g. Internet Gateway End-user Computer services - The networks typically run Low Power Devices - Consist of one or more sensors, could be different type of sensors (or actuators)
  83. 83. Key Open Issues of the IoT
  84. 84. IoT issues The Power of PowerPoint | 85 The novelty of the IoT is not in the functional capability of a smart object Novelty exists in the expected size of billions or even trillions of smart objects that bring about novel technical and societal issues that are related to size. issues are:  authentic identification of a smart object,  autonomic management and self-organization of networks of smart objects,  diagnostics and maintenance,  intrusion of privacy Safety issues  Autonomous mobile robots and self-driving cars
  85. 85. Threats The Power of PowerPoint | 86 internet integration Security Issues DDoS Attack DDoS attack on DYN caused internet outages across the country ( Physical/Real World Ransomeware ….
  86. 86. internet integration The Power of PowerPoint | 87  Guaranteeing the safety and information security of IoT-based systems is considered to be a difficult task.  Many smart objects will be protected from general Internet access by a tight firewall to avoid that an adversary can acquire control of a smart object.  The IoT should extend the interoperability of the internet to the universe of heterogeneous smart objects.  Iot must establish a uniform access pattern to things in the physical world.
  87. 87. Security Issues The Power of PowerPoint | 88 Many IOT devices are severely lacking in the security department. Most lack basic security, and many utilize outdated firmware. Human Error (use of default usernames and passwords). Allows hackers to quickly and easily gain access to system.
  88. 88. DDoS Attacks The Power of PowerPoint | 89 October 21, 2016 a large scale DDoS attack on DYN servers cause large internet outages across the United States Many of the devices in the botnet were IOT devices such as home routers and security cameras Access was gained through the use of default login credentials.
  89. 89. Ransomware The Power of PowerPoint | 90  Hackers use the classic approach when it comes to utilizing ransomware attacks on IOT devices (I.E. Locking the device and requiring payment to unlock).  For many devices this isn’t a big issue because IOT data is usually stored in the cloud and devices can easily be reset.  This can become an issue with medical IOT devices such as drug pumps and pacemakers.  Will typically be used for timed attacks when devices cannot be easily reset.
  90. 90. Internet of Things: Technologies and Issues The Power of PowerPoint | 91  Integration of multiple ICT technologies  identification and tracking technologies  sensor networks  network protocols (cf. Future Internet  autonomic, pervasive and ubiquitous computing  AI, knowledge management, semantics  Key issues:  interoperability  security/trust and privacy  low resources (=> revisit protocols and algorithms implemented in Internet and Web)  scalability
  91. 91. Social and legal issues in IoT The Power of PowerPoint | 92 But the life of the average citizen will also be affected by changing the relation of power between those that have access to the acquired information and can control the information and those that do not. IoT devices can be hacked with significant dangers to safety and property
  92. 92. Conclusion
  93. 93. Drivers and uncertainties The Power of PowerPoint | 94
  94. 94. The usability viewpoint The Power of PowerPoint | 95
  95. 95. THANK YOU FOR WATCHING! Any questions? The Power of PowerPoint – Font: Ubuntu font family Icons: Elegant Icon Font