Research, Development, Challenges
Assistant Professor, UCD, El Jadida
Research Member of “Equipe Innovation on Digital and Enterprise
Architectures”, ENSIAS, UM5R, Rabat
firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com or social networks
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The main aim of this presentation is to introduce the fundamental concepts of the
Internet of Things and its applications and architecture models;
Discussing semantic technologies, service oriented solutions and networking
technologies that enable the integration of Internet of Things data and services into the
cyber world (i.e. the Internet and the Web).
Questions, questions, questions …
Intel IoT -- What Does The Internet of Things Mean?
Cisco - How the Internet of Things Will Change Everything--Including Ourselves
IBM – Internet of Things
Dr. John Barrett at TEDxCIT – The Internet of Things
Growing IoT Services and Application
Why should I learn about IoT?
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IoT: Key Open Issues
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Apollo 11 Command Module (1965) had
64 kilobytes of memory
operated at 0.043MHz.
An iPhone 5s has a CPU running at speeds of up to 1.3GHz
and has 512MB to 1GB of memory
Cray-1 (1975) produced 80 million Floating point operations per second (FLOPS)
10 years later, Cray-2 produced 1.9G FLOPS.
An iPhone 5s produces 76.8 GFLOPS – nearly a thousand times more .
Cray-2 used 200-kilowatt power.
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More memory and more storage
"Moore's law" over the history of computing, the number of transistors in a
dense integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years.
Global Data Generation
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Everyday around 20 quintillion (10^18) bytes of data are produced
This data includes textual content (unstructured, semi-structured,
structured) to multimedia content (images, video and audio), on a
variety of platforms (enterprise, social media, and sensors).
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Emerging Challenges for IT
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# devices >> # users, and growing fast volume of data (and network
Innovation pressure: analysis, command and control, cost
Skill pressure: data science, new platforms
Security and privacy threats
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• More nodes, more connections, IPv6,
• Any TIME, Any PLACE + Any THING
• M2M, IoT
o Billions of interconnected devices,
o Everybody connected.
• Smart networks
• Data-centric and content-oriented
• Context-aware (autonomous) systems
How are the networks changing?
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Sensor devices are becoming widely available
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More “Things” are being connected
People Connecting to Things
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Things Connecting to Things
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- Complex and heterogeneous
resources and networks
“Thing” connected to the internet
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A “Disruptive” Technology
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US National Intelligence Council (NIC) consider Internet of Things as one of
the 6 ‘‘Disruptive Civil Technologies”
IEEE ranks IoT #1 in the list of “Top Trends for 2013” (Winter 2012):
“The Internet of Things is more than just the newest buzzword. The IoT
promises to be the most disruptive technological revolution since the advent of
the World Wide Web. Projections indicate that up to 100 billion uniquely
identifiable objects will be connected to the Internet by 2020, but human
understanding of the underlying technologies has not kept pace. This creates a
fundamental challenge to researchers, with enormous technical,
socioeconomic, political, and even spiritual consequences”
Internet of Things: Visions
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Term introduced by the Auto-ID Labs (K. Ashton, 1999): linking RFID-
based supply chain and Internet
UN (2005): “A new era of ubiquity is coming where humans may
become the minority as generators and receivers of trafﬁc and changes
brought about by the Internet will be dwarfed by those prompted by the
networking of everyday objects”
ITU: ‘‘From anytime, anyplace connectivity for anyone, we will now have
connectivity for anything”
EU: ‘‘Things having identities and virtual personalities operating in smart
spaces using intelligent interfaces to connect and communicate within
social, environmental, and user contexts”
Internet of Things: Visions
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EU: ‘‘Things having identities and virtual personalities operating in smart
spaces using intelligent interfaces to connect and communicate within
social, environmental, and user contexts”
US National Intelligence Council: ‘‘By 2025 Internet nodes may reside in
everyday things – food packages, furniture, paper documents, and more”
Target applications: no limit:
• industry/manufacturing (cf. German Industry 4.0 initiative)
• social networking…
Intensive standardization and R&D activity
Internet of Things: Definition (1)
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CERP-IoT: « The Internet of Things (IoT) is […] a dynamic global network infrastructure with self
configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where
physical and virtual ‘things’ have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use
intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network.
In the IoT, ‘things’ are expected to become active participants in business, information
and social processes where they are enabled to interact and communicate among
themselves and with the environment by exchanging data and information ‘sensed’
about the environment, while reacting autonomously to the ‘real/physical world’s
Internet of Things: Definition (2)
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The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing
devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people
that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data
over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-
Internet of Things: Definition (3)
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According to Wikipedia, IoT refers to the interconnection of uniquely
identifiable embedded computing-like devices within the
existing Internet infrastructure. Typically, IoT is expected to offer
advanced connectivity of devices, systems, and services that goes
beyond machine-to-machine communications (M2M) and covers a
variety of protocols, domains, and applications. The interconnection of
these embedded devices (including smart objects), is expected to usher
in automation in nearly all fields, while also enabling advanced
applications like a Smart Grid.
Internet of Things: Definition (4)
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Things, in the IoT, can refer to a wide variety of devices such as heart
monitoring implants, bio-chip transponders on farm animals,
automobiles with built-in sensors, or field operation devices that assist
fire-fighters in search and rescue. Current market examples
include smart thermostat systems and washer/dryers that utilize WiFi for
Internet of Things: Definition (5)
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Due to the ubiquitous nature of connected objects in the IoT, an unprecedented
number of devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. According to Gartner,
there will be nearly 26 billion devices on the Internet of Things by 2020. ABI
Research estimates that more than 30 billion devices will be wirelessly connected to
the IoT by 2020. Per a recent survey and study done by Pew Research Internet
Project, a large majority of the technology experts and engaged Internet users who
responded. 83% agreed with the notion that the Internet/Cloud of Things and
embedded and wearable computing will have widespread and beneficial effects by
2025. It is, as such, clear that the IoT will consist of a very large number of devices
being connected to the Internet.
Internet of Things: Definition (6)
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‘The Internet of Things’ is a concept originally coined and introduced by MIT, Auto-ID
Center and intimately linked to RFID and electronic product code (EPC)
“… all about physical items talking to each other..”
Like RFID it is a concept that has attracted much rhetoric,
misconception and confusion as to what it means and its
implications in a social context
Internet of Things: Definition (7)
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Extending the current Internet and providing connection, communication, and inter-
networking between devices and physical objects, or "Things," is a growing trend that is
often referred to as the Internet of Things.
“The technologies and solutions that enable integration of real world data and services
into the current information networking technologies are often described under the
umbrella term of the Internet of Things (IoT)”
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Formally : a network of networks which
enables to identify digital entities and
whether they are inanimate (including plants) or animate
(animals and human beings) – directly and without
ambiguity, via standardized electronic identification systems
and wireless mobile devices, and thus make it possible to
retrieve, store, transfer and process data relating to them,
without discontinuity between the physical and virtual
worlds” (Benghozi, Bureau, Massit-Folléa, 2008)
Conceptually : new identities for objects
“Things having identities and virtual personalities operating
in smart spaces using intelligent interfaces to connect and
communicate within social, environmental, and user
contexts” (working group Eposs)
Technically : an extension of the Internet
naming system and reveals a convergence of digital
identifiers in the sense that it is possible to identify digital
information (URL website addresses for instance) and
physical elements (like a pallet in a warehouse, or a sheep
in a herd) in a standardized way
From the user point: a new space for
IoT = the future of the internet ?
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R&D programs all over the world
• Europe (ambiant intelligence), Japon (ubiquituous computing)
Complementary technological paths :
• Convergence and discontinuities : 1.0 ≈ 2.0 ≈ 3.0
• From bar code to multiple electronic identification devices
• From early B2B to massive applications (animals, health…)
Major socio-technico-economic trends
• From product to services
• From fixed to mobile technologies
• Physical and virtual worlds
• Complex and unstable technological choices and standards
• Attractive technologies : but unknown and badly accepted
Conflicting visions and various questions at stake :
• consistency, sustainability and (low) cost
• Portfolio of technologies, networks and applications
• Incentive and support for innovation for economic growth
• To implement pervasive but non intrusive systems
Types of devices
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Wearable Technology/Implanted Devices
Home Assistants (Amazon Eco,
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What is a thing?
We distinguish two classes of things
• Things that are computers equipped with communication interfaces.
• Things that are not computers, but who are associated with computers equipped with communication
What is the identifier of a thing?
They are several proposals:
• A serial number, such as an EPC code.
• An IP address.
• Other, for example a fix hash value, or adhoc naming scheme.
Is there a need/way to authenticate a thing? In other words is it possible and
needed to prove the identity of a thing.
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Things can be used to track people or objects, which are identified by a set of
things. Identity protection enforces privacy by hiding things identities thanks to
A thing communicates with the Internet network by various interfaces
Via MAC (OSI2) radio protocols, as defined by EPCGLOBAL
Thanks the IP protocol, in that case the thing is an IP node, and is natively plugged in
the Internet Cloud.
Other, for example the Host Identity Protocol
Things to Things communications
In some cases, things communicate with other things. If identity protection is
required, the associated infrastructure is complex from a cryptographic or physical
point of view, because classical routing techniques can't be used.
The application domains of the IoT
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Security and safety
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The first commercial application of a
forerunner of the IoT, the RFID is in the area
There are many quantitative advantages in
using RFID technology in supply-chain
the movement of goods can be tracked in real-
shelf space can be managed more effectively
inventory control is improved
the amount of human involvement in the supply
chain management is reduced considerably.
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Already today, embedded systems contribute to energy savings in many
different sectors of our economy and our life.
increased fuel efficiency of automotive engines,
improved energy-efficiency of household appliances,
reduced loss in energy conversion
The future: of IoT devices opens many new opportunities for energy
Smart buildings: individual climate and lighting control in residential buildings
Smart grids: reduced energy loss in transmission by the installation of smart grids,
Smart meters: better coordination of energy supply and energy demand
Other energy savings:
Physical meetings replaced by virtual meetings
delivery of information goods such as the daily paper, music, and videos by the
Security and safety
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Automated IoT based access control systems to buildings and homes
IoT-based surveillance of public places
Smart passports and IoT based identifications (e.g., a smart key to access a hotel
room or a smart ski lift ticket)
Car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure communication will alert the driver of
dangerous traffic scenarios
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computerized observation and monitoring of industrial
• reduces maintenance cost
• improves the safety in the plant
A smart object can monitor its own operation and call for
preventive or spontaneous maintenance in case a part wears
out or a physical fault is diagnosed
Automated fault-diagnosis and simple maintenance are
absolutely essential prerequisites for the wide deployment of
the IoT technology in the domain of ambient intelligence.
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The wide deployment of IoT technology in the medical domain is
• Health monitoring (heart rate, blood pressure, etc.)
• precise control of drug delivery by a smart implant
Body area networks that are part of the clothing can monitor the
behavior of impaired persons and send out alarm messages if an
emergency is developing.
Smart labels on drugs can help a patient to take the right medication at
the right time and enforce drug compliance.
Example: A heart pacemaker can transmit important data via a
Bluetooth link to a mobile phone that is carried in the shirt pocket. The
mobile phone can analyze the data and call a doctor in case an
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AMI refers to electronic environments that are sensitive
and responsive to the presence of people (Wikipedia)
the independent & intelligent entities will act in full
interoperability & will be able to auto-organize themselves
depending on the context, circumstances or environment
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Event Driven: is to disgn the scheme dependign in the
Flexible strucrure: means thats handreds and thousands
of nodes will be disable and will be set to run
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Complex access technology:
Means that there’s several kinds of media such as vehicle stone that
they need different access technologies
Semantic Sharing :
Is the machine can rend and send by themselves. No need to tell
Communication Technologies for IoT
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4. NFC (Near-Field Communication)
8. Wibro/Mobile WiMax
9. PLC (Power Line Communication)
Internet of Things Module
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Cyber-Physical systems, smart devices, sensors and actuators
Key applications, protocols and architectures
Networks and Communications (Wireless Multi-hop Networks (WMN), Mobile Ad-hoc
Networks (MANET), Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN))
Reliability, Security, Privacy and Trust issues and solutions
Software platforms and services
Intelligent Data Processing and Semantic technologies
Connecting things to the Web
Applications, system models, Standards, and Physical-Cyber-Social systems
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Communication Technologies for
IoT connects people and things via the Internet
Uses IT analytics, cloud computing, smart devices and apps
Built on cloud computing and networks of data-gathering
Delivers mobile, virtual and immediate connection
Makes everything “smart”
Naming and identification
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A well-thought-out naming architecture in order to be able to identify a
smart object and to establish an access path to the object is essential.
Isolated Objects. The following three different object names have to be
distinguished when we refer to the simple case of an isolated object:
Unique object identifier (UID) refers to the physical identity of a specific object.
The Electronic Product Code (EPC) of the RFID community is such a UID.
Object type name refers to a class of objects that ideally have the same
Object role name. In a given use context, an object plays a specific role that is
denoted by the object role name.
Composite object naming
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Composite Objects. Whenever a number of objects are integrated to form
a composite object, a new whole, i.e., new object is created that has an
emerging identity that goes beyond the identities of the constituent objects.
The composite object resembles a new concept (see Sect. 2.2.1) that
requires a new name.
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Architecture for Open IoT Services
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What are the major components of IoT?
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Communication between servers or server
Data Analytics Engines
Apps (iOS, Android, Web)
(some kind of layered architecture)
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(passive, active) RFID tags
see discussion above
embed the TCP/IP stack into the devices (TinyTCP, mIP, IwIP…)?
object and service discovery
object and service cataloging
Intelligence and Collaboration
Security and Privacy
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Ultimate goal: unique/universal Id for naming and addressing individual
objects i.e., to attach an ego to each object, condition to develop ego-
centric applications (cf. Jacob and the Angel (Genesis))
Naming is difficult!
ONS: Object Name Service
• basically, RFID tag/EPC code → URI of a description file (Object Code Mapping
Service-Direct Search (OCMS-DS)
• more complex Object Code Mapping Service-Reverse Search (OCMS-DS):
description → EPC code(s)
Addressing is difficult!
stupid but tricky issue: RFID addresses are different from IPv6 addresses
(64-96 bits vs 128 bits)
addressing moving objects is even more difficult
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From host2host to object2object
TCP is not adapted
designed for long-lasting connections while objects (like tags or sensors)
exchange small pieces of data => handshake + congestion
control/retransmit/recovery + flow control + buffering procedures too complex
Very heterogeneous networks and traffic
Quality of service?
Security and Privacy (1/3)
A definitive threat for privacy!
A security nightmare!
IoT = a kind of unsupervised mobile/pervasive grids whose end-
components are resource limited tiny objects = a security nightmare
memory segments of tags are protected by (short) password
Man in the Middle attacks
cryptographic techniques too CPU-intensive for low energy objects
multiple administrative domains
Security and Privacy (2/3)
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all your life can will be traced => possible monitoring, mining, analysis
connection possible with Linked Open Data => worsen the threats
open air connections => possibility of eavesdropping
not only your digital life but also your “analogical” life
you cannot even know what is sensed about you, when it is sensed, etc. Sensors do not
ask for permission (cf. video surveillance)
no “forget option”
Security and Privacy (3/3)
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Basic approach (e.g. EEXCESS EU project, W3C P3P (Platform for Privacy
user defined policy
integration of reputation and trust mechanisms (cf. course on security and privacy)
cryptographic techniques are too complex
IoT vs cloud computing
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Smart objects that have access to the Internet can take advantage of services that
are offered by the cloud
The division of work between a smart object and the cloud will be determined, to a
considerable degree, by privacy and energy considerations
If the energy required to execute a task locally is larger than the energy required to
send the task parameters to a server in the cloud, then the task is a candidate for
However, there are other aspects that influence the decision about work distribution:
autonomy of the smart object, response time, reliability, and security.
What is IoT: Internet of Tags
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Developed to automate the process of
electronic tags (called RFID tags) can be
read from a small distance by an RFID
An RFID reader does not require a direct
line-of-sight to the RFID tag.
The RFID tag stores the unique
Electronic Product Code (EPC) of the
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RFID Tag dimensions
Since an RFID tag has to be attached to every object, the cost
of an RFID tag is a major issue.
RFID tags come in various shapes and sizes and continue to
decrease in size
RFID tags are implantable and implants have been approved
in humans as well as animals.
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The RFID reader can act as a gateway to the Internet and transmit the
object identity, together with the read-time and the object location (i.e., the
location of the reader) to a remote computer system that manages a large
It is thus possible to track objects in real-time
Applications: toll gates, hospitals and large organizations, public
transportation systems, tracking of animals, libraries
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a wireless communication controller
A set of sensor nodes that each contains
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A sensor node can acquire a variety of physical, chemical, or biological signals to
measure properties of its environment.
WSN node constraints
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They are powered either by a small battery or by energy harvested from
have limited computational power, a small memory, and constrained
Sensor nodes are resource constrained.
WSN deployment and operation
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a number (from few tens to millions) of sensor nodes are deployed, either
systematically or randomly, in a sensor field to form an ad hoc self-organizing
The WSN collects data about the targeted phenomenon and transmits the data via
an ad-hoc multi-hop communication channel to one or more base stations that can
be connected to the Internet.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)
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- The networks typically run Low Power Devices
- Consist of one or more sensors, could be different type of sensors (or actuators)
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The novelty of the IoT is not in the functional capability of a smart
Novelty exists in the expected size of billions or even trillions of
smart objects that bring about novel technical and societal issues
that are related to size.
authentic identification of a smart object,
autonomic management and self-organization of networks of smart
diagnostics and maintenance,
intrusion of privacy
Autonomous mobile robots and self-driving cars
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DDoS attack on DYN caused internet outages across the country
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Guaranteeing the safety and information security of IoT-based systems is
considered to be a difficult task.
Many smart objects will be protected from general Internet access by a tight
firewall to avoid that an adversary can acquire control of a smart object.
The IoT should extend the interoperability of the internet to the universe of
heterogeneous smart objects.
Iot must establish a uniform access pattern to things in the physical world.
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Many IOT devices are severely lacking in the security department. Most
lack basic security, and many utilize outdated firmware.
Human Error (use of default usernames and passwords). Allows hackers
to quickly and easily gain access to system.
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October 21, 2016 a large scale DDoS attack on DYN servers cause large
internet outages across the United States
Many of the devices in the botnet were IOT devices such as home routers
and security cameras
Access was gained through the use of default login credentials.
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Hackers use the classic approach when it comes to utilizing ransomware attacks
on IOT devices (I.E. Locking the device and requiring payment to unlock).
For many devices this isn’t a big issue because IOT data is usually stored in
the cloud and devices can easily be reset.
This can become an issue with medical IOT devices such as drug pumps and
Will typically be used for timed attacks when devices cannot be easily reset.
Internet of Things: Technologies and Issues
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Integration of multiple ICT technologies
identiﬁcation and tracking technologies
network protocols (cf. Future Internet
autonomic, pervasive and ubiquitous computing
AI, knowledge management, semantics
security/trust and privacy
low resources (=> revisit protocols and algorithms implemented in Internet
Social and legal issues in IoT
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But the life of the average citizen will also be affected by changing the
relation of power between those that have access to the acquired
information and can control the information and those that do not.
IoT devices can be hacked with significant dangers to safety and property