Hal Report


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Hal Report

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  2. 2. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Certificate......................................................................................................................... 3 Acknowledgement.............................................................................................................4 Abstract.............................................................................................................................5 Chapter-1 About Hindustan Aeronautics Limited..............................................................................6 Chapter- 2 SU-30...............................................................................................................................10 Chapter-3 Electronic flight instrument system..................................................................................12 Chapter-4 Full Authority Digital Electronics Control (FADEC)......................................................18 Chapter-5 LASAR.............................................................................................................................24 CONCLUSION................................................................................................................25
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  4. 4. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It gives me an immense pleasure to present the report of the Project undertaken by me during summer training. I owe special debt of gratitude to Mr. S. P. Singh, Sr. Manager (Training) at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Lucknow for his constant support and guidance throughout the course of my work. His sincerity, thoroughness and perseverance have been a constant source of inspiration for me. It is only his cognizant efforts that my endeavours have seen light of the day. I also take the opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of all the staff members at HAL for their full support and assistance during the development of the project. I am also very thankful to my HOD and faculty members Er. M.L. Guar Sir & Er. Dilip Rathor Sir who have suggested me to do the training from HAL.
  5. 5. 5 ABSTRACT This project is a study of some of the major electronic control systems that are used in various aircrafts today. The main topics of concern in this project are: 1. SU-30. 2. Electronic flight instrumentation system 3. Full Authority Digital Electronics Control (FADEC) 4. Limited Authority Spark Advance Regulator The control systems are used to keep a tab on the working of various parts in the aircraft depending on either their software or implementations. Engine operating parameters such as fuel flow, stator vane position, bleed valve position, and others are computed from this data and applied as appropriate. Engineering processes must be used to design, manufacture, install and maintain the sensors which measure and report flight and engine parameters to the control system itself. They have varied usage in different instruments, mechanical systems and electrical systems as well.
  6. 6. 6 CHAPTER 1 ABOUT HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS LIMITED Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) came into existence on 1st October 1964. The Company was formed by the merger of Hindustan Aircraft Limited with Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur. The Company traces its roots to the pioneering efforts of an industrialist with extraordinary vision, the late Seth Walchand Hirachand, who set up Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in association with the erstwhile princely State of Mysore in December 1940. The Government of India became a shareholder in March 1941 and took over the Management in 1942. Today, HAL has 19 Production Units and 10 Research & Design Centres in 8 locations in India. The Company has an impressive product track record - 15 types of Aircraft/Helicopters manufactured with in-house R & D and 14 types produced under license. HAL has manufactured over 3658 Aircraft/Helicopters, 4178 Engines, Upgraded 272 Aircraft and overhauled over 9643
  7. 7. 7 Aircraft and 29775 Engines. HAL has been successful in numerous R & D programs developed for both Defence and Civil Aviation sectors. HAL has made substantial progress in its current projects: • Advanced Light Helicopter – Weapon System Integration (ALH-WSI) • Tejas - Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) • Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) • Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) • Various military and civil upgrades. Dhruv was delivered to the Indian Army, Navy, Air Force and the Coast Guard in March 2002, in the very first year of its production, a unique achievement. HAL has played a significant role for India's space programs by participating in the manufacture of structures for Satellite Launch Vehicles like • PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) • GSLV (Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) • IRS (Indian Remote Satellite) • INSAT (Indian National Satellite)
  8. 8. 8 Apart from these, other major diversification projects are manufacture & overhaul of Industrial Marine Gas Turbine and manufacture of Composites. HAL has formed the following Joint Ventures (JVs): • BAeHAL Software Limited • Indo-Russian Aviation Limited (IRAL) • Snecma-HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd • SAMTEL-HAL Display System Limited • HALBIT Avionics Pvt Ltd • HAL-Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd • INFOTECH-HAL Ltd • TATA-HAL Technologies Ltd • HATSOFF Helicopter Training Pvt Ltd • International Aerospace Manufacturing Pvt Ltd • Multi Role Transport Aircraft Ltd Several Co-production and Joint Ventures with international participation are under consideration. HAL's supplies / services are mainly to Indian Defence Services, Coast Guard and Border Security Force. Transport Aircraft and Helicopters have also been supplied to Airlines as well as State Governments of India. The Company has also achieved a foothold in export in more than 30 countries, having demonstrated its quality and price competitiveness. HAL was conferred NAVRATNA status by the Government of India on
  9. 9. 9 22nd June 2007. The Company scaled new heights in the Financial Year 2010-11 with Turnover of Rs.13, 116 Crores and PBT of Rs 2,841 Crores. HAL Services
  10. 10. 10 CHAPTER 2 SU-30
  11. 11. 11 The Su-30 two-seat fighter-bomber is intended to defeat aerial, ground, sea and surface targets, including small and moving ones, while conducting autonomous and group combat actions by day and night, in any weather and in conditions of enemy's jamming, fire and information opposition, as well as to conduct aerial reconnaissance. The Su-30 multirole aircraft combines the properties of an air superiority fighter, an air-defence suppression aircraft, and a strike aircraft. It can equally defeat diverse aerial, ground, and sea targets. All stages of its flight, including low-altitude nap-of-earth flying, as well as solo and group combat employment against aerial and ground targets are automated. The Su-30 weapons complement enables its crew to deliver a preventive attack against any aerial targets, including stealth ones, effectively fight against air superiority fighters, electronic warfare and airborne early warning aircraft, and flying command posts, neutralize air-defence weapon control systems when performing en-route flight to a target, and deliver standoff attacks against ground and surface targets. The Su-30 is developed from the Su-27 air superiority fighter with due account for the combat use of the Su-24 front-line bomber and its modifications, the Su-25 close-support aircraft and its modified versions, as well as advanced weapons and the most up-to-date technologies. For the first time in the world practice for aircraft of this class, the cockpit is made as an armored all-welded titanium capsule. It can be refuelled from the 11-78 (П-78М) flying tanker or other aircraft equipped with unified fuel dispensing units. The powerful multimode enhanced-definition phased-array radar enables it to detect small- size ground targets and simultaneously track while scan several aerial targets. The radar features a ground-mapping mode and ensures nap-of-earth flying. The weapon control system ensures automatic missile launch with preset intervals and in assigned sequence. The Su-30 is equipped with a navigation complex incorporating a laser gyro-based inertial navigation system combined with a satellite navigation system receiver, and radio navigation facilities. The automatic flight control system makes it possible to perform a planned-route flight and return to a preprogrammed airfield in the manual, automatic or director flight modes, including a prelanding maneuver, landing approach down to an altitude of 50 m and repeated approach for landing. The aircraft is equipped with a powerful automated ECM system with provision for its further upgrading. The multifunctional control consoles are a core of the avionics control system intended to detect launch of missiles by an attacker by referring to their thermal radiation, and a chaff/hot decoy dispenser intended to set up passive jamming. Its high flight performance, advanced avionics, powerful ECM
  12. 12. 12 system, and diverse weapon options make the Su-30 the world's most powerful new- generation fighter-bomber. Owing to multihour flights with air refueling, the Su-30 is capable of loitering over wide areas and executing deterrence missions, quickly ferrying to areas, which pose a threat. Engineering solutions invested in the design configuration of the Su-30 open up wide potentialities for developing the entire family of advanced modifications of this aircraft at customer's request. CHAPTER 3 ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT SYSTEM An electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) is a flight deck instrument display system in which the display technology used is electronic rather than electromechanical. EFIS normally consists of a primary flight display (PFD), multi-function display (MFD) and engine indicating and crew alerting system (EICAS) display. Although cathode ray tube (CRT) displays were used at first, liquid crystal displays (LCD) are now more common. The complex electromechanical attitude director indicator (ADI) and horizontal situation indicator (HSI) were the first candidates for replacement by EFIS. However, there are now few flight deck instruments for which no electronic display is available. OVERVIEW EFIS installations vary greatly. A light aircraft might be equipped with one display unit, on which are displayed flight and navigation data. A wide-body aircraft is likely to have six or more display units. Typical EFIS displays and controls can be seen at this B737 technical information web site. An EFIS installation will have the following components:  Displays
  13. 13. 13  Controls  Data processors DISPLAY UNITS PRIMARY FLIGHT DISPLAY: On the flight deck, the display units are the most obvious parts of an EFIS system, and are the features which give rise to the name "glass cockpit". The display unit taking the place of the ADI is called the primary flight display (PFD). If a separate display replaces the HSI, it is called the navigation display. The PFD displays all information critical to flight, including calibrated airspeed, altitude, heading, attitude, vertical speed and yaw. The PFD is designed to improve a pilot's situational awareness by integrating this information into a single display instead of six different analog instruments, reducing the amount of time necessary to monitor the instruments. PFDs also increase situational awareness by alerting the aircrew to unusual or potentially hazardous conditions — for example, low airspeed and high rate of descent— by changing the color or shape of the display or by providing audio alerts. 1. The names Electronic Attitude Director Indicator and Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator are used by some manufacturers. However, a simulated ADI is only the centerpiece of the PFD. Additional information is both superimposed on and arranged around this graphic. 2. Multi-function displays can render a separate navigation display unnecessary. Another option is to use one large screen to show both the PFD and navigation display.
  14. 14. 14 3. The PFD and navigation display (and multi-function display, where fitted) are often physically identical. The information displayed is determined by the system interfaces where the display units are fitted. Thus, spares holding is simplified: the one display unit can be fitted in any position. 4. LCD units generate less heat than CRTs; an advantage in a congested instrument panel. They are also lighter, and occupy a lower volume. Multi-function display (MFD) / navigation display (ND): The MFD (multi-function display) displays navigational and weather information from multiple systems. MFDs are most frequently designed as "chart-centric", where the aircrew can overlay different information over a map or chart. Examples of MFD overlay information include the aircraft's current route plan, weather information from either on-board radar or lightning detection sensors or ground-based sensors, e.g., NEXRAD, restricted airspace and aircraft traffic. The MFD can also be used to view other non-overlay type of data (e.g., current route plan) and calculated overlay-type data, e.g., the glide radius of the aircraft, given current location over terrain, winds, and aircraft speed and altitude. MFDs can also display information about aircraft systems, such as fuel and electrical systems (see EICAS, below). As with the PFD, the MFD can change the color or shape of the data to alert the aircrew to hazardous situations. Engine indications and crew alerting system (EICAS) / electronic centralized aircraft monitoring (ECAM): EICAS (Engine Indications and Crew Alerting System) displays information about the aircraft's systems, including its fuel, electrical and propulsion systems (engines). EICAS displays are often designed to mimic traditional round gauges while also supplying
  15. 15. 15 digital readouts of the parameters. EICAS improves situational awareness by allowing the aircrew to view complex information in a graphical format and also by alerting the crew to unusual or hazardous situations. For example, if an engine begins to lose oil pressure, the EICAS might sound an alert, switch the display to the page with the oil system information and outline the low oil pressure data with a red box. Unlike traditional round gauges, many levels of warnings and alarms can be set. Proper care must be taken when designing EICAS to ensure that the aircrew are always provided with the most important information and not overloaded with warnings or alarms. ECAM is a similar system used by Airbus, which in addition to providing EICAS functions also recommend remedial action. CONTROL PANEL: The pilots are provided with controls, with which they select display range and mode (for example, map or compass rose) and enter data (such as selected heading). Where inputs by the pilot are used by other equipment, data buses broadcast the pilot's selections so that the pilot only needs to enter the selection once. For example, the pilot selects the desired level-off altitude on a control unit. The EFIS repeats this selected altitude on the PFD and by comparing it with the actual altitude (from the air data computer) generates an altitude error display. This same altitude selection is used by the automatic flight control system to level off, and by the altitude alerting system to provide appropriate warnings. DATA PROCESSORS: The EFIS visual display is produced by the symbol generator. This receives data inputs from the pilot, signals from sensors, and EFIS format selections made by the pilot. The symbol generator can go by other names, such as display processing computer, display electronics unit, etc. The symbol generator does more than generate symbols. It has (at the least) monitoring facilities, a graphics generator and a display driver. Inputs from sensors and controls
  16. 16. 16 arrive via data buses, and are checked for validity. The required computations are performed, and the graphics generator and display driver produce the inputs to the display units. MONITORING: Like personal computers, flight instrument systems need power-on-self-test facilities and continuous self-monitoring. Flight instrument systems, however, need additional monitoring capabilities:  Input validation — verify that each sensor is providing valid data  Data comparison — cross check inputs from duplicated sensors  Display monitoring — detect failures within the instrument system COMPARATOR MONITORING: With EFIS, the comparator function is as simple as ever. Is the roll data (bank angle) from sensor 1 the same as the roll data from sensor 2? If not, put a warning caption (such as CHECK ROLL) on both PFDs. Comparison monitors will give warnings for airspeeds, pitch, roll and altitude indications. The more advanced EFIS systems, more comparator monitors will be enabled. DISPLAY MONITORING:
  17. 17. 17 An EFIS display allows no easy re-transmission of what is shown on the display. What is required is a new approach to display monitoring that provides safety equivalent to that of the traditional system. One solution is to keep the display unit as simple as possible, so that it is unable to introduce errors. The display unit either works or does not work. A failure is always obvious, never insidious. Now the monitoring function can be shifted upstream to the output of the symbol generator. In this technique, each symbol generator contains two display monitoring channels. One channel, the internal, samples the output from its own symbol generator to the display unit and computes, for example, what roll attitude should produce that indication. This computed roll attitude is then compared with the roll attitude input to the symbol generator from the INS or AHRS. Any difference has probably been introduced by faulty processing, and triggers a warning on the relevant display. The external monitoring channel carries out the same check on the symbol generator on the other side of the flight deck: the Captain's symbol generator checks the First Officer's, the First Officer's checks the Captain's. Whichever symbol generator detects a fault puts up a warning on its own display. The external monitoring channel also checks sensor inputs (to the symbol generator) for reasonableness. A spurious input, such as a radio height greater than the radio altimeter's maximum, results in a warning.
  18. 18. 18 CHAPTER 4 Full Authority Digital Electronics Control (FADEC)
  19. 19. 19 Full Authority Digital Engine (or Electronics) Control (FADEC) is a system consisting of a digital computer, called an electronic engine controller (EEC) or engine control unit(ECU), and its related accessories that control all aspects of aircraft engine performance. FADECs have been produced for both piston engines and jet engines. FUNCTION:
  20. 20. 20 True full authority digital engine controls have no form of manual override available, placing full authority over the operating parameters of the engine in the hands of the computer. If a total FADEC failure occurs, the engine fails. If the engine is controlled digitally and electronically but allows for manual override, it is considered solely an EEC or ECU. An EEC, though a component of a FADEC, is not by itself FADEC. When standing alone, the EEC makes all of the decisions until the pilot wishes to intervene. FADEC works by receiving multiple input variables of the current flight condition including air density, throttle lever position, engine temperatures, engine pressures, and many other parameters. The inputs are received by the EEC and analyzed up to 70 times per second. Engine operating parameters such as fuel flow, stator vane position, bleed valve position, and others are computed from this data and applied as appropriate. FADEC also controls engine starting and restarting. The FADEC's basic purpose is to provide optimum engine efficiency for a given flight condition. FADEC not only provides for efficient engine operation, it also allows the manufacturer to program engine limitations and receive engine health and maintenance reports. For example, to avoid exceeding a certain engine temperature, the FADEC can be programmed to automatically take the necessary measures without pilot intervention.
  21. 21. 21 SAFETY: With the operation of the engines so heavily relying on automation, safety is a great concern. Redundancy is provided in the form of two or more, separate identical digital channels. Each channel may provide all engine functions without restriction. FADEC also monitors a variety of analog, digital and discrete data coming from the engine subsystems and related aircraft systems, providing for fault tolerant engine control.
  22. 22. 22 APPLICATIONS: A typical civilian transport aircraft flight may illustrate the function of a FADEC. The flight crew first enters flight data such as wind conditions, runway length, or cruise altitude, into the flight management system (FMS). The FMS uses this data to calculate power settings for different phases of the flight. At takeoff, the flight crew advances the throttle to a predetermined setting, or opts for an auto-throttle takeoff if available. The FADECs now apply the calculated takeoff thrust setting by sending an electronic signal to the engines;
  23. 23. 23 there is no direct linkage to open fuel flow. This procedure can be repeated for any other phase of flight. In flight, small changes in operation are constantly made to maintain efficiency. Maximum thrust is available for emergency situations if the throttle is advanced to full, but limitations can’t be exceeded; the flight crew has no means of manually overriding the FADEC. ADVANTAGES:  Better fuel efficiency  Automatic engine protection against out-of-tolerance operations  Safer as the multiple channel FADEC computer provides redundancy in case of failure
  24. 24. 24  Care-free engine handling, with guaranteed thrust settings  Ability to use single engine type for wide thrust requirements by just reprogramming the FADECs  Provides semi-automatic engine starting  Better systems integration with engine and aircraft systems  Can provide engine long-term health monitoring and diagnostics  Number of external and internal parameters used in the control processes increases by one order of magnitude  Reduces the number of parameters to be monitored by flight crews  Due to the high number of parameters monitored, the FADEC makes possible "Fault Tolerant Systems" (where a system can operate within required reliability and safety limitation with certain fault configurations)  Can support automatic aircraft and engine emergency responses (e.g. in case of aircraft stall, engines increase thrust automatically). DISADVANTAGES:  Full authority digital engine controls have no form of manual override available, placing full authority over the operating parameters of the engine in the hands of the computer. If a total FADEC failure occurs, the engine fails. In the event of a total FADEC failure, pilots have no way of manually controlling the engines for a restart, or to otherwise control the engine. As with any single point of failure, the risk can be mitigated with redundant FADECs.  High system complexity compared to hydro-mechanical, analogue or manual control systems  High system development and validation effort due to the complexity.
  25. 25. 25 REQUIREMENTS:  Engineering processes must be used to design, manufacture, install and maintain the sensors which measure and report flight and engine parameters to the control system itself.  Software engineering processes must be used in the design, implementation and testing of the software used in these safety-critical control systems. This requirement led to the development and use of specialized software such as SCADA.
  26. 26. 26 CHAPTER 5 Limited Authority Spark Advance Regulator LASAR, which stands for Limited Authority Spark Advance Regulator, is the first microprocessor based engine control system approved by the FAA for general aviation piston aircraft. With the system operating in its automatic mode, cylinder head temperature, manifold pressure, and engine speed (RPM) are monitored by the LASAR controller to establish and command the optimum ignition timing and spark energy to produce maximum torque from the engine. LASAR has an inherent mechanical magneto backup system that automatically assumes control if electrical power is interrupted or if the microprocessor detects a system fault. STC approval has been granted for most 320, 360 and 540 engines. Installation requires replacement of standard magnetos with LASAR magnetos, a LASAR Control Box, which is mounted to the firewall, a low-voltage control harness that carries the electronic signals between the system components. Specify exact aircraft and Engine Models for quotation or LASAR systems.
  27. 27. 27 CONCLUSION The FADEC, LASAR & ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT SYSTEM are the basic and very important electronics based control systems used in various aircrafts. Some of their components restrict their use to experimental aircraft and certain other aircraft categories depending on local regulations. Uncertified systems are found in Sport Pilot category aircraft, including factory built, microlight and ultralight aircraft. These systems can be fitted to certified aircraft in some cases as secondary or backup systems depending on local aviation authorities’ rules and regulations. The flexibility afforded by software modifications, minimises costs when new aircraft equipment and new regulations are introduced. Thus, these systems have varied and huge use in today’s aircrafts.