An Electronic Ticketing System based on Near Field Communication for Concerts,Museums, etc.”.Main report

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An Electronic Ticketing System based on Near Field Communication for Concerts,Museums, etc.”.Main report

  1. 1. [1] 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 What is NFC? Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short wave radio communication technology that is capable of both securely reading from and writing to other radio communications media, such as contactless smartcards, RFID tags or other NFC enabled devices. NFC devices can operate in two modes:  Passive: An NFC device can operate passively, acting much like a contactless card.  Active : An NFC device can operate actively, searching out other devices with which to talk to, acting much like a contactless terminal. Near Field Communication (NFC) is a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically requiring a distance of 4cm or less. NFC operates at 13.56 MHz and at rates ranging from 106 Kbit/s to 848 Kbit/s. NFC communication always involves an initiator and a target: the initiator actively generates an RF field that can power a passive target. This enables NFC targets to take very simple form factors such as tags, stickers, key fobs, or cards that do not require batteries. NFC peer-to-peer communication is also possible, where both devices are powered. Near Field Communication (NFC) is a wireless connectivity technology that enables convenient short-range communication between electronic devices. NFC offers the ultimate in convenience for connecting all types of consumer devices and enables rapid and easy communications. NFC technology makes life easier and more convenient for consumers around the world by making it simpler to make transactions, exchange digital content, and connect electronic devices with a touch. NFC creates a new and universal interface to existing devices through simple touch interaction. NFC bridges gaps between existing technologies and devices to enable new applications/services (enabling connections from real to virtual, connections to physical/real world). NFC is able to replace the pairing of Bluetooth-enabled devices, or the configuration of a Wi-Fi network through PINs and keys, by simply touching the two devices to be paired or connected to the network, or by touching the device to a tag.
  2. 2. [2] NFC represents a converging evolution of existing contactless standards toward the goal of global interoperability. The NFC Forum takes both a structural and a pragmatic approach to give maximum assurance that this goal can be met. Card emulation: the NFC device behaves like an existing contactless card Reader mode: the NFC device is active and reads a passive RFID tag, for example for interactive advertising Peer to Peer mode: two NFC devices communicating together and exchanging information. Fig.1.1.1 NFC Goal
  3. 3. [3] 1.2 Key Benefits of NFC NFC provides a range of benefits, such as: Intuitive: NFC interactions require no more than a simple touch Versatile: NFC is ideally suited to the broadest range of industries, environments, and uses Open and standards-based: The underlying layers of NFC technology follow universally implemented ISO, ECMA, and ETSI standards Technology-enabling: NFC facilitates fast and simple setup of wireless technologies, such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, etc.) Inherently secure: NFC transmissions are short range (from a touch to a few centimeters) Interoperable: NFC works with existing contactless card technologies Security-ready: NFC has built-in capabilities to support secure applications. 1.3 Applications of NFC NFC applications can be split into four basic categories. Touch and Go Applications such as access control or transport/event ticketing, where the user only needs to bring the device storing the ticket or access code close to the reader. Also, for simple data capture applications, such as picking up an Internet URL from a smart label on a poster. Touch and Confirm Applications such as mobile payment where the user has to confirm the interaction by entering a password or just accepting the transaction. Touch and Connect Linking two NFC-enabled devices to enable peer to peer transfer of data such as downloading music, exchanging images or synchronizing address books. Touch and Explore NFC devices may offer more than one possible function. The consumer will be able to explore a device‟s capabilities to find out which services are offered.
  4. 4. [4] 2. LITERATURE SURVEY NFC is a short range wireless technology that allows contactless communications to take place between two devices. Based on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology), NFC can be applied in a number of areas, whether it‟s paying for goods and services, ticketing, electronic keys or information sharing between devices. The potential services enabled by NFC a making it attractive technology for both business and consumers. NFC enabled devices to communicate and exchange data over a small simple touch to 4cm distance, simplifying tasks such as paying to use public transport by using data stores securely on the device to authenticate and authorize payment without the user needing to take any additional step such as paring devices. NFC enabled devise only allows us to conduct small scale transactions. It has major advantage in both security and usability. As the technology is “based on pre-existing contactless payment and ticketing standards that are used on a daily basis by millions of people using their devices worldwide”, NFC‟s future adoption success is heightened despite the non-linear nature of development often found in technology today and, specifically, in regards to wireless technology (“NFC Forum”). The NFC Forum (www.nfc-forum.org), formed in 2004 “to advance the use of Near Field Communication technology by developing specifications, ensuring interoperability among devices and services, and educating the market about NFC technology”, has helped to ensure NFC standards for “not only the „contactless‟ operating environment, such as the physical requirements of the antennas, but also the format of the data to be transferred and the data rates for that transfer” (“NFC Forum”). Acknowledged by the “ISO/IEC (International Organization for Standardization / International Electromechnical Commission), ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute), and ECMA (European association for standardizing information and communication systems)”, “NFC Forum compliant devices”, including the operating modes discussed, support and are built on pre-existing contactless smart cart standards (the ISO/IEC 18092 NFC IP-1 and ISO/IEC 14443) (“NFC Forum”). In order for adoption to proliferate, standards will become increasingly important as NFC applications evolve and will need to garner unified support from a number of NFC players including device manufacturers, mobile operators, retailers, and more. According to our research, based on a survey by Sybase 365, “30% of respondents said a lack of industry coordination is the main problem holding back wider adoption of the technology”.
  5. 5. [5] Research also suggests, standards implemented “around mobile payments have seen better adoption rates”, specifically in European markets. With the support of the NFC Forum and NFC industry providers, NFC standards would allow the technology to “become a global standard on cell phones” and increase adoption. NFC technology is promising because it presents the next evolution of convenient payment with added layer of security. NFC tag can be tapped against the NFC payment terminals instead of swiped which eliminates the demerit of credit card that someone could skim your data via the magnetic strip. This flexibility and wide application of the technology means NFC has the potential to be integrated to create virtually any kind of connected device. NFC semi-conductor provider Inside Contactless is one company at the heart of driving the use of NFC in secure, fast and reliable transactions in payment, access control, transport and electronic identification. Inside's solutions can be found in smart cards, key fobs, mobile phones, handheld devices, PC peripherals. NFC is currently used in contexts such as mobile payments or convenient public ticketing; the true potential of technology has until now remained unexplored.
  6. 6. [6] 2.1 Challenges for the mass adoption of NFC Despite there being over four billion mobile phones and one billion smart cards in use worldwide, NFC has still to achieve its full potential of mass market rollout. However, while significant barriers to growth still remain, the mobile industry is working together to address them and move NFC from the pilot stage to full scale commercial roll-outs. Indeed, industry analysts Juniper Research estimate that by 2014, one in every six mobile customers will own an NFC-enabled device, allowing them to conduct small-scale transactions using their mobile phones. Collaboration between different players from distinct sectors of the mobile ecosystem is required in order to make NFC a part of our everyday lives. Key partnerships need to include mobile operators, device manufacturers, banks, services providers and other trusted third parties. These partnerships are coming to fruition in the form of new NFC devices and services, such as a project with Banka Koper, MasterCard Europe and Mobitel in Slovenia in which subscribers could use contactless payment services using MasterCard PayPass technology, providing a quick, simple and safe way of paying for products and services by a simple tap of a payment device on the payment reader connected to a POS-terminal.
  7. 7. [7] 2.2How secure is NFC Technology? In the near future, your technological world might be overtaken by near field. No, not the corn field that's across the road. We're talking about near-field communication (NFC), which gadget manufacturers, retailers and many other organizations hope will bring powerful new features to smartphones and much more. NFC is a type of radio communication standard, much like Bluetooth, WiFi and other networking technologies. It's different in that it operates at very slow speeds and only at a short range of just a few centimeters. You can see our detailed rundown on it in How Near Field Communication Works.NFC isn't a newfangled technology, but it's just now beginning to filter into mainstream products like smartphones. With an NFC chip and antenna, you can use your smartphone to make contactless payments at NFC retail terminals, parking meters, taxis and many other places. What's more, with NFC, you can bump smartphones to exchange information with friends or business colleagues, or use your phone to read smart tags. Smart tags are tiny, read-only chips that can appear in informational posters and identification documents, such as corporate badges or passports. You can even use NFC to connect to secure networks without having to enter complex authorization codes. For instance, you may be able to tap an NFC tablet to a wireless router and after the NFC chip confirms your identity, your tablet is cleared to connect to the much faster WiFi signal so that you can get to work. Ultimately, NFC makes it a whole lot easier to perform a huge range of digitized tasks. But with that kind of power in such a tiny chip, is this technology really secure? Many experts say NFC really is fundamentally secure by virtue of its extremely short range. In order to snag your NFC signal, a hacker would need to be very close to you. Uncomfortably close. In other words, you'd know they were there. And unless it was a very intimate friend of yours, you'd likely not be happy about it.There's more to the physical aspects of NFC that make it troublesome for even determined hackers.
  8. 8. [8] 2.3Security Risks of NFC With this new contactless technology set to become an important part of our lives, people have some valid and understandable security concerns. When using new technologies, the best way to protect yourself against potential pitfalls is to know the risks associated with them. One of the most common concerns with NFC technology is that of eavesdropping. Eavesdropping occurs when a third party intercepts the signal sent between two devices. If that third party intercepted a data transmission between a smartphone and a credit card reader then, in theory, they would have access to that personal credit card information. They might also pick up other personal information passed between two smartphones. Another security concern is data manipulation or corruption. This occurs when a third party intercepts the signal being sent, alters it, and sends it on its way. The information the receiving party gets may be corrupt or modified. The attacker may or may not want to steal the information. In some cases, the attacker simply wants to prevent the correct information from getting through. This is often known as a denial of service attack. Finally, the last of the security comes in the form of viruses. While smartphone viruses are currently few and far between, they are growing. Security companies have pointed out that when smartphones provide little financial gain for hackers, they are targeted less. NFC technology would allow users to store valuable bank account and credit card information on their smartphones, thus making them a target.
  9. 9. [9] 2.4Preventing Security Risks with NFC Despite the risks, NFC technology is valuable for the convenience it offers consumers. One person can access all their payment information and make purchases on several different credit or debit cards all with the wave of a smartphone. To protect users against these security risks, several measures have been taken. Users can also take their own precautions to protect their personal information. First, the design of NFC discourages security issues. While they can still occur, it is typically more challenging to steal credit card information through this type of data transfer. The person stealing the info would need to be very close to the smartphone sending it since the signal does not carry very far. Secure channels are used for sending sensitive information, making them hard to access. In the event that a hacker did make it past these security measures to steal the information, the information itself is encrypted. Encryptions prove very difficult to crack and the information would likely be useless to the hacker. For users to reduce their risks of having their information, or even their physical smartphone itself, stolen and used to make purchases they did not authorize, they should password protect their smartphones and install anti-virus software. The anti-virus software protects against viruses and other attacks from malicious programs that the user may accidently download onto the smartphone. Having a password on the smartphone protects it in the event of a physical theft. The thief cannot unlock the phone and therefore cannot use it to make NFC payments. NFC allows the user to make payments and share information with friends. It can even act as a subway or concert ticket. NFC is very similar to Bluetooth but offers faster and easier connections between smartphones. The NFC Forum does not offer protection against eavesdropping attacks, making it even more important for consumers and businesses to take preventative security measures.
  10. 10. [10] 3. OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT NFC is a short range wireless technology that makes use of interacting electromagnetic radio fields. It is meant for application where physical touch, or close to it, is required in order to maintain security.In a practical scenario, a tag with NFC technology when brought in close physical contact with a device reader would result in a payment being made without a need of using cash or a credit card for that matter. The technology is prevalent in Japan but is still making in inroads in other countries across the world. With the technology such as e-commerce becoming popular in India, more and more people are seeing the need to have easier means of making transactions. While e-commerce reduces the need of making physical visits when looking to buy products, in-store payments to NFC could be the end results of the physical visit as well.NFC can make us lives easier as it offers many uses in our everyday life. NFC is pegged to be the technology of the future to make payments through NFC enabled devices. Besides that it can also be used pay for ticketing in public places such as museums, concerts, theatres, metros etc. The most well-known use of NFC is for contactless payments. Customers can tap their NFC tags over card reader to make a purchase without fumbling through credit and debit cards or counting out cash. Not only does this save time, but it also reduces the chances of losing a credit card that comes with carrying multiple cards around.We can even use NFC to connect to secure networks without having to enter complex authorization codes. For instance, we may be able to tap an NFC tag to a wireless reader and after the NFC tag confirms our identity, our tag is cleared to connect to the much faster Wi-Fi signal so that we can get to work. The use of NFC tag brings power consumption down to new levels: from low power to zero power, for example when waking up a device through NFC with no stand-by current. Or when communicating with a device which is completely switched off (or does not even have a battery inserted), where you can read diagnostic information or write configuration settings to the unpowered device. As our project is electronic ticketing system based on NFC for theatres, museums or concerts etc. in which the ticket charges will be deducted from the NFC tag, automatically by tapping the tag to the NFC tag reader due to which the door gets open itself for entrance.
  11. 11. [11] 4. LIST OF COMPONENTS REQUIRED 1. EM-18 Module Reader (RFID Module) & NFC Tags 2. PIC 16f73 Microcontroller 3. AT 24C16 (2- Wire Serial EEPROM) 4. 16x2 Alphanumeric LCD 5. Crystal Oscillator 6. Key-pad 7. 555- Timer IC 8. L293DNE (Motor Driver IC) 9. Voltage Regulator 10. Relay 11. Power Supply 12. Sliding Door 13. Bulb
  12. 12. [12] 5.DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPONENTS 5.1 EM-18 MODULE READER (RFID READER) & NFC Tag EM -18 Module Reader or RFID Module Reader, is also called as interrogators. They convert radio waves returned from the NFC tag into a form that can be passed on to Controllers, which can make use of it. NFC tags and readers have to be tuned to the same frequency in order to communicate. NFC systems use many different frequencies, but the most common and widely used & supported by our Reader is 13.56 MHz. Fig.5.1.1 RFID Module An NFC system consists of two separate components: a tag and a reader. Tags are analogous to barcode labels, and come in different shapes and sizes. The tag contains an antenna connected to a small microchip. The reader, or scanner, functions similarly to a barcode scanner; however, while a barcode scanner uses a laser beam to scan the barcode, an RFID scanner uses electromagnetic waves. To transmit these waves, the scanner uses an antenna that transmits a signal, communicating with the tags antenna. The tags antenna receives data from the scanner and transmits its particular chip information to the scanner. Fig. 5.1.2A NFC Tag
  13. 13. [13] 5.2PIC 16f73 Microcontroller PIC 16f73device is available only in 28-pins package. Features of Microcontroller: KEY FEATURES: High performance RISC CPU Up to 8K X 14 words of Flash Memory, up to 38 X 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) Processor read access to program memory High speed CMOS FLASH technology Wide Operating device voltage range: 2V- 5.5V Fully static design High source current: 25 mA Low power Consumption Direct, indirect and relative addressing modes Power-on Reset (POR) Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) Operating Frequency DC-20 MHZ Flash Program Memory 4 K Data Memory (bytes) 192 I/O Ports Ports A, B, C Interrupts 11 Timer 3 8-bit Analog-to-Digital Module 5 Input Channels Instruction Sets 35 Instructions
  14. 14. [14] Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator Programmable code-protection Power saving SLEEP mode Selectable oscillator options Low-power, high-speed CMOS FLASH/EEPROM technology Fully static design In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) via two pins Single 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming capability In-Circuit Debugging via two pins Processor read/write access to program memory Wide operating voltage range: 2.0V to 5.5V High Sink/Source Current: 25 mA Commercial and Industrial temperature ranges Low-power consumption: - < 2 mA typical @ 5V, 4 MHz - 20 mA typical @ 3V, 32 kHz - < 1 mA typical standby current
  15. 15. [15] 5.3AT 24C16 (2- Wire Serial EEPROM) A two wire serial EEPROM (AT24C16) is used in the circuit to retain the password. Data stored remains in the memory even after power failure, as the memory ensures reading of the last saved setting by the microcontroller. The length of this IC is 16 * 1024 = 16384 bit. When divide by 8 to get result in byte that is 2048 bytes. It can retain data more than ten years using just two I/O lines (SCL (serial clock) and SDA (serial data)). The micro controller can read & write the bytes corresponding to the data requires being stored. The AT24C16 provides 16384 bits of serialelectrically erasable and programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) organized as2048 words of 8 bits each. The device is optimized for use in manyindustrial and commercial applications where low-power and low-voltage operationare essential. The AT24C16 is available in space-saving 8-lead PDIP,8-lead JEDEC SOIC, 8-lead MAP, 5-lead SOT23, 8-lead TSSOP, and 8-ball dBGA2 packages and is accessed via a Two- wire serial interface.In addition, the entire family is available in 2.7V (2.7V to 5.5V) and 1.8V (1.8V to5.5V) versions. Features: • Low-voltage and Standard-voltage Operation – 2.7 (VCC = 2.7V to 5.5V) – 1.8 (VCC = 1.8V to 5.5V) • Internally Organized 128 x 8 (1K), 256 x 8 (2K), 512 x 8 (4K), 1024 x 8 (8K) or 2048 x 8 (16K) • Two-wire Serial Interface • Bidirectional Data Transfer Protocol • 100 kHz (1.8V) and 400 kHz (2.7V, 5V) Compatibility • Write Protect Pin for Hardware Data Protection • 8-byte Page (1K, 2K), 16-byte Page (4K, 8K, 16K) Write Modes • Partial Page Writes Allowed • Self-timed Write Cycle (5 ms max) • High-reliability – Endurance: 1 Million Write Cycles – Data Retention: 100 Years
  16. 16. [16] MEMORY ORGANISATION: AT24C16 SERIAL EEPROM: Internally organized with 128 pages of 16 byteseach, the 16K requires an 11-bit data word address for random word addressing. DEVICE OPERATION: CLOCK and DATA TRANSITIONS: The SDA pin is normally pulled high with an external device. Data on the SDA pin may change only during SCL low time periods. Data changes during SCL high periods will indicate a start or stop condition as defined below. START CONDITION: A high-to-low transition of SDA with SCL high is a start condition which must precede any other command. STOP CONDITION: A low-to-high transition of SDA with SCL high is a stop condition. After a read sequence, the stop command will place the EEPROM in a standby power mode. ACKNOWLEDGE: All addresses and data words are serially transmitted to and from the EEPROM in 8-bit words. The EEPROM sends a zero to acknowledge that it has received each word. This happens during the ninth clock cycle. STANDBY MODE: The AT24C16 features a low-power standby mode which is enabled: (a) upon power-up and (b) after the receipt of the STOP bit and the completion of any internal operations. MEMORY RESET: After an interruption in protocol, power loss or system reset, any 2- wire part can be reset by following these steps: 1. Clock up to 9 cycles. 2. Look for SDA high in each cycle while SCL is high. 3. Create a start condition.
  17. 17. [17] 5.416x2 Alphanumeric LCD A 16 * 2 line LCD module is used to display the status and error message, which is send by microcontroller. LCD is connected on Port-C. Pin-3 of LCD is used to control the contrast by using preset or fixed value resistor. In this LCD, we can show 16 characters in 1st line & 16 characters in 2nd line. Total 32 characters can be displayed including space. Fig. 5.4.1 16X2 Alphanumeric LCD
  18. 18. [18] 5.5Crystal Oscillator A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digitalintegrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator circuits incorporating them became known as crystal oscillators, but other piezoelectric materials including polycrystalline ceramics are used in similar circuits.Quartz crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to tens of megahertz. When a crystal of quartz is properly cut and mounted, it can be made to distort in an electric field by applying a voltage to an electrode near or on the crystal. This property is known as piezoelectricity. When the field is removed, the quartz will generate an electric field as it returns to its previous shape, and this can generate a voltage. The result is that a quartz crystal behaves like a circuit composed of an inductor, capacitor and resistor, with a precise resonant frequency. Fig. 5.5.1 Crystal oscillator
  19. 19. [19] 5.6Key-pad The 12 key matrix keyboards comprise 12 tactile push button switches arranged in four rows & three columns as shown in figure. Data is entered via this keypad. Fig. 5.6.1 Keypad Port-B of the microcontroller is bi-directional I/O port. Three lines of port-b are used as scan lines and four lines for Port B are used as the input-sense lines. This configuration needs 10K pull-ups resistors as output drives from shorting together when two keys of the same row are inadvertently pressed simultaneously. In the circuit we are not adding these resistors because we are using internal pull-up resistors of microcontroller. In the scanning routine, all the scan lines are made low and it is checked whether all the keys are in released state. When a key is pressed, one of the sense lines becomes low. Now each scan line is made low while keeping the remaining scan lines in high state. After making a scan line low, the status of the sense line is read. If any of these sense lines is found low, it means that a key at the intersection of the current scan line and the low sense line has been pressed. If no key is found to be pressed, the next scan line is made low and again scan lines are checked for low state. This way all the twelve keys are checked for any pressed key by the microcontroller. Since mechanical tactile switches keys are used, pressing of a single key may be considered by the microcontroller as pressing of many keys due to the bouncing of the keys. To avoid this, the controller is made to wait up to a denounce delay of 50 ms during the pressing or releasing of a key. Within this denounce delay, all the bounces get settled out, thus denounce the key.
  20. 20. [20] 5.7555- Timer IC The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an oscillator, and as a flip- flop element. BLOCK DIAGRAM: Fig. 5.7.1 Block dig.of 555-IC SPECIFICATIONS: Supply voltage 4.5-15 V Supply current 3-6 mA Output Current 200 mA Maximum power dissipation 600 mW Power consumption 300 mW Operating Temperature 0 to 70 °C
  21. 21. [21] PIN DIAGRAM: Fig. 5.7.2 Pin dig.of 555-IC PIN Description: PIN NAME DESCRIPTION 1 GND Ground reference voltage, low level (0V) 2 TRIG The OUT pin goes high and a timing interval starts when this input falls below ½ of CTRL voltage (which is typically 1/3 of Vcc, when CTRL is open) 3 OUT This output is driven to approximately 1.7V below +Vcc or GND. 4 RESET A timing interval may be reset by driving this input to GND, but the timing does not begin again until RESET rises above approximately 0.7 volts. Overrides TRIG which overrides THR. 5 CTRL Provides "control" access to the internal voltage divider (by default, 2/3 VCC). 6 THR The timing (OUT high) interval ends when the voltage at THR is greater than that at CTRL. 7 DIS Open collector output which may discharge a capacitor between intervals. In phase with output. 8 Vcc Positive supply voltage, which is usually between 3 and 15 V depending on the variation.
  22. 22. [22] Modes The 555 has three operating modes: 1) Monostable mode 2) Bistable mode 3) Astable mode Monostable mode: In this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot" pulse generator. Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bouncefree switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) and so on. Fig. 5.7.3 Circuit Dig of monostable mode Astable (free-running) mode: The 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation and so on. The 555 can be used as a simple ADC, converting an analog value to a pulse length. E.g. selecting a thermistor as timing resistor allows the use of the 555 in a temperature sensor: the period of the output pulse is determined by the temperature. The use of a microprocessor based circuit can then convert the pulse period to temperature, linearize it and even provide calibration means.
  23. 23. [23] Fig. 5.7.4 Circuit Dig of Astable mode Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: The 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bounce-free latched switches. Fig. 5.7.5 Circuit Dig. of Bistable mode
  24. 24. [24] 5.8L293DNE (Motor Driver IC) The L293DNE Quadruple H-Driver used to control two bidirectional motor when hooked up to a microcontroller but here we are using only one motor. The L293DNE has 16 pins. If we are just driving a single motor we can ignore 5 of those pins (9-11, 14-15). Pin 16 powers the logic of the controller and should always be set to +5V. Pin 8 provides power for motor. Our motor power source should have its positive node connected to pin 8, and ground connected to the grounds of pins 4, 5, 12, and 13. Grounds for our logic control source should also be connected to the same pins. Fig.5.8.1(a) Fig. 5.8.1(b)Pin dig. of motor driver
  25. 25. [25] The motor will be connected to pins 3 and 6. The basic idea is that when power is supplied to pin 2, pin 3 will become positive and pin 6 will become ground for the motor. When power is supplied to pin 7, pin 6 will become positive and pin 3 will become ground. Depending on which control pin (2 or 7) we have powered, the polarity of the circuit that‟s going through the motor will change. If neither 2 nor 7 are powered, there will be no circuit going through pin 3 and 6 and the motor will not be powered. Motor is turned ON and OFF by pin 1 and 9 respectively. The L293DNE is that while we can add a voltage to pin 2 or 7 to turn the motor ON in either direction, the other pin must be connected to ground to work. This means that if pin 7 has a +5V but pin 2 is not connected into the circuit, the motor will not work. The circuit for pin 7 is completed by pin 2 (and vice versa), not the grounds coming from pins 4, 5, 12 or 13.
  26. 26. [26] 5.9Voltage Regulator LM7805 is 3-Pin fixed linear voltage regulator ICs. The voltage source in a circuit may have fluctuations and would not give the fixed voltage output. Thevoltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant value.LM7805 provides +5V regulated power supply. Fig.5.9.1 Circuit dig of voltage regulator Pin Description: Pin No Function Name 1 Input voltage (5V-18V) Input 2 Ground (0V) Ground 3 Regulated output; 5V (4.8V-5.2V) Output
  27. 27. [27] 5.10 Relay A Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT) one relay is connected on port A. Port A is 6 bit wide. The relay require 12 volt at a current of 50 mA, which cannot be provided by microcontroller. So the relay driver NPN transistor is added. The relay is used to glow the bulb at the same time when the gate will open. Normally, the relay remains off. As soon as microcontroller output goes high, the relay will operate via NPN transistor to glow the bulb. Fig. 5.10.1 Circuit dig. of relay 5.10 Power Supply Two supply voltage required for this project. A DC or AC 12 V mains adaptor is connected. It regulates 5V dc for microcontroller, serial EEPROM & LCD. Unregulated 12 V DC is used by buzzer & relay.
  28. 28. [28] 6 WORKING PRINCIPLE 6.1 How NFC System Works? A Near Field Communication System has three parts: A Scanning Antenna. A Transceiver with a decoder to interpret the data. A Transponder - the NFC tag - that has been programmed with information. The scanning antenna puts out radio-frequency signals in a relatively short range. The RF radiation does two things: It provides a means of communicating with the transponder (the NFC Tag) and It provides the NFC tag with the energy to communicate (in the case of passive NFC tags). Fig. 6.1.1 Working of NFC
  29. 29. [29] This is an absolutely key part of the technology; NFC tags do not need to contain batteries, and can therefore remain usable for very long periods of time (maybe decades). The scanning antennas can be permanently affixed to a surface; handheld antennas are also available. They can take whatever shape we need, for example, we could build them into a door frame to accept data from persons or objects passing through. When an NFC tag passes through the field of the scanning antenna, it detects the activation signal from the antenna. That "wakes up" the NFC chip, and it transmits the information on its microchip to be picked up by the scanning antenna. A simple NFC system consists of a RFID module reader and a NFC tag. And, inside of each sophisticated tags there then consists of a radio transmitter and radio receiver. This enables a RFID module reader and a NFC tag communicates each other through a specified radio frequency. There are three main roles a RFID module reader plays other than signaling NFC tag to transmit desired information back to the RFID module reader. Firstly, a RFID module reader has the responsibility of keeping NFC tags powered up. Secondly, a RFID reader demodulates incoming signals from the NFC tag down. This process slows the incoming signals down enough so that the RFID module reader is able to process the signals. Finally, after the incoming signals are slowed down, RFID module reader then has the responsibility of decoding the incoming signals into the words people can interpret. Both a RFID module reader and a NFC tag can be easily made into almost any desired shape and size. 6.2 HOW TAG WORKS?
  30. 30. [30] The microchip stores the unique ID and incorporates the necessary logic circuitry for functioning of the tag. It has an internal EEPROM to store the unique ID. As we have already seen there are two important components of a NFC tag – A microchip and a coil (antenna). The antenna receives power and RF signals from the EM-18 Module Reader or RFID module reader and sends those signals to the chip. The chip receives those signals, computes them and sends back the data to RFID module reader. We can figure out the precise working of a NFC tag through this diagram. Fig. 6.2.1 working of NFC tag. To recognize the identity of an NFC tag, RFID module reader sends radio signals which is captured by the coil (working as antenna) for the tag. The coil receives these signals as alternating current and passes to the chip. The chip extracts both the power and the information from this alternating current. By communicating with the non-volatile memory of the chip that stores unique id as well as other information, it sends back the required signal to the antenna which is then transmitted to the RFID module reader. 7. WORKING OF THE PROJECT
  31. 31. [31] We have four NFC tag for using. Now we have to inform our circuit to which card we are going to use.On board there is one button, which have 2 different modes. 1. Learn Mode 2. Play Mode Learn Mode: When learn mode is selected and then device will inform to tap your card. As you tap card NFC tag ID will display on LCD & it will store in location-1, now it will again inform to swap next card & id will display on LCD & store in location-2, this loop run 4 times to read all 4 cards.As you tap all 4 cards one by one, device will inform you that all 4 slots have been full. Now your device is ready to use. Play Mode: When play mode is selected then device will tell you tap card, as you tap card, it will read tag ID & compare this ID within our database. If ID found in our database then amount will be charged & one sliding door will open for 5 second & one lamp will on for 5 second, as time completed, lamp goes off & sliding door will closed. If ID is not matched in our database then “UNKNOWN CARD” message will appear. If card does not have any balance then it will prompt for recharging card or quit option. When an NFC tag comes in this range, the reader detects it and sends a unique code of the tag serially. This serial code, consisting of 12 bytes, is received by the microcontroller. This code is the ID for the user and is stored as an array in the microcontroller. If the ID is matched with this code stored in array of microcontroller, the user is granted access though the electronic ticketing system.
  32. 32. [32] Fig. 7.1 Block Diagram of the working project 8. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF PROJECT
  33. 33. [33] Advantages: It provides convenience in making payments through NFC enabled devices eliminates the use of counting out the cash & credit/debit cards. It saves time for processing paper tickets. It provides high security transactions. It is more secure as no one can steal or scalp. Simple to install. NFC does not require line of sight. The reader can communicate with the tag via radio waves. NFC is really fundamentally secure by virtue of its extremely short range in order to snag your NFC signal, a hacker would need to be very close to you. Disadvantages: Poor read rate can occur if the reader and receiver are not properly aligned. In cases when multiple tags and readers are at work simultaneously, double charges may occur. NFC technology that ultimately that allows each user to be identified by a central database. This infrastructure will certainly be under attack by hacker. Interference has been observed if devices such as forklifts and walkie-talkies are in the vicinity of the ticket counter. 9. APPLICATIONS
  34. 34. [34] The applications of our project could include: Electronic money Concert/ event ticketing Travel cards Identity documents Mobile commerce Electronic keys: replacements for physical car keys, house/office keys, hotel room keys, etc. NFC can be used to configure and initiate other wireless network connections such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or Ultra-wideband. NFC technology has the power to bring new simplicity and convenience to many aspects of a typical person's daily life, as this example illustrates: 7:30 - Eric gets on a train to go to his office, using his NFC-enabled phone to tap a reader and easily open the turnstile.
  35. 35. [35] 7:32 - He sees a poster announcing a free concert that evening. He touches his NFC- enabled phone to the N-Mark on the poster, which transfers the detailed information onto his phone. He reserves seats for the concert with his mobile phone, using mobile communications (e.g., SMS, internet, packet-based connections), and the complimentary tickets are sent to his mobile phone. He sends a text message to his wife to invite her to the concert and dinner. 8:15 - When he arrives at his office, Eric touches his NFC-enabled phone to the office gate to unlock the security mechanism. Noon - At lunch time, he pays for his meal using one of the credit cards stored in his phone. 13:00 - After lunch, Eric visits the office of his new business partner for a meeting. Those attending the meeting exchange electronic business cards, stored in their NFC-enabled phones, by touching their phones together. 18:00 - Eric meets his wife and they go to the concert venue. He touches his NFC- enabled phone to a turnstile at the entrance to the venue, their reservations are confirmed, and they are admitted. 20:00 - After the concert, they visit a shopping center, where they make a few purchases and have dinner, using their NFC-enabled phones to pay for everything. 22:00 - When they arrive home, Eric realizes that he left his NFC-enabled phone on the train. He immediately calls the mobile network operator and makes a request to disable all active NFC services in the phone. If his phone is later found and returned to him, he will be able to reactivate these services.
  36. 36. [36] 10.CONCLUSION NFC is a very short range technology which is backward compatible with the RFID infrastructure because of its very short range it is inherently secured from most types of remote attacks. The procedure ofestablishing communication is very familiar to human‟s natural way of doing things, you want something tocommunicate, touch it together. This makes it much more user friendly than the older data transfer methodsof searching then establishing a connection. This will make it much less daunting and much more accessiblefor novice users the whole process feels like devices recognize each other by touch. As the possibility to store more data on the devices increases, so will the requirementsfor more complex applications. With any digital transaction, there will always be people who try tomanipulate, disrupt or misuse the data that is transmitted and so users will no doubt initially be wary aboutthe security of their personal data that is stored on the NFC devices. Privacy and security will always be aconcern for users where personal and sensitive data are involved. We will have to rely on the applicationdevelopers and handset manufacturers, to ensure that any transaction carried out via a NFC-enabled device isas secure as possible. NFC-enabled devices have great potential. The fact that they are much quicker andeasier to learn and use than the normal screen-based interfaces that are currently used on mobile devices,should make them more attractive to those who are less technical and so potentially could reach a wider user base. Using them for paying for a car parking ticket on exit or for door entry systems in the near futureseems almost inevitable. The potential for NFC applications and products is broad and deep, peer-to-peer communications developing payment system applications, or creating the chips that will enable upcoming NFC- based products. NFC technology makes sense for service providers and device manufacturers for many reasons, including: Reduced cost of electronic issuance. Multi-issue ticketing operators, such as mass transport operators and event ticketing operators, can achieve remarkable cost reductions using NFC-based electronic ticketing. Security-sensitive airlines have already moved to
  37. 37. [37] "e-ticketing" in order to reduce costs, and several are now allowing passengers to use their NFC-enabled devices instead of paper boarding passes. Increased revenue from interactive services. Mobile network operators and content providers earn revenue when users choose to use value-added services. NFC can be used to surround the consumer with advertisements and can place valuable information within easy reach. NFC-enabled devices drive consumption of rich media content. NFC will fuel the market for advanced personal devices that consumers use to purchase, play, store, and share rich media content. Consumer preference for NFC-enabled services. Users may have no choice about which ticket they use for a service, but they typically can choose how they pay. Convenience is a strong differentiator, and more convenient payment is driving adoption of contactless and NFC technology. Innovative applications possible only via NFC technology. NFC technology is inspiring inventors and entrepreneurs to develop creative products and services that would not be feasible otherwise, such as social media, fitness and health, and cloud-based use cases, resulting in brand new markets.
  38. 38. [38] 11.FUTURE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT NFC technology provides simplicity and ease of use. Users hold NFC-enabled devices and tags in close proximity to each other to access services, interact with content, set up connections, make a payment, or present a ticket. Many corporations use contactless ID cards to control access to their facilities and networks. NFC technology can reduce the cost of card issuance and management. NFC-enabled devices can also simplify login to enterprise networks. As NFC technology penetrates throughout the office, we will see WLAN settings, printer IDs and building maps picked up by NFC-enabled devices, allowing mobile workers to work in any office location. NFC can also provide a convenient and affordable way to track, monitor and provide instructions to remote workers, such as field service representatives, home healthcare providers, maintenance workers and construction teams. NFC technology makes sense for service providers and device manufacturers for many reasons, including: Reduced cost of electronic issuance. Multi-issue ticketing operators, such as mass transport operators and event ticketing operators can achieve remarkable cost reductions using NFC-based electronic ticketing. Security-sensitive airlines have already moved to "e-ticketing" in order to reduce costs, and several are now allowing passengers to use their NFC-enabled devices instead of paper boarding passes. Increased revenue from interactive services. Mobile network operators and content providers earn revenue when users choose to use value-added services. NFC can be used to surround the consumer with advertisements and can place valuable information within easy reach. NFC-enabled devices drive consumption of rich media content. NFC will fuel the market for advanced personal devices that consumers use to purchase, play, store, and share rich media content.
  39. 39. [39] Consumer preference for NFC-enabled services. Users may have no choice about which ticket they use for a service, but they typically can choose how they pay. Convenience is a strong differentiator, and more convenient payment is driving adoption of contactless and NFC technology. Innovative applications possible only via NFC technology. NFC technology is inspiring inventors and entrepreneurs to develop creative products and services that would not be feasible otherwise, such as social media, fitness and health, and cloud-based use cases, resulting in brand new markets. 11.1 The NFC Forum Helps Build the Ecosystem The Forum‟s membership covers all parts of the NFC ecosystem. These companies share their development, application, and marketing expertise to develop the best possible solutions for advancing the use of NFC. All decisions are approved by the voting membership to ensure that a wide range of perspectives are included in order to build a firm and flexible foundation for all future NFC market growth. Fig. 11.1.1The NFC Ecosystem
  40. 40. [40] 11.2The 7 Most Creative Applications of NFC Technology 1. TecTiles Samsung has been one of the leaders of pushing NFC technologies in its devices and with the release of TecTiles, people can use their NFC-capable Samsung devices and programmable NFC tags to change settings, share contacts, make a call, tweet a status, update Linkedin, check in to Foursquare and more. The idea is simple and powerful. These programmable NFC tags can be stuck to your business card, business poster, check-in location and more, and can be made to do any number of actions on a user‟s phone via the TecTiles app. Once the user taps a phone to a tag, the app takes over and launches a website, checks the user in or any other action that was programmed. 2. NFC Task Launcher While TecTiles is a pretty great app, it only works with Samsung devices. If you want the ability to launch tasks on other Android devices that support NFC, then NFC Task Launcher is the next best thing.
  41. 41. [41] With NFC Task Launcher you can create new task tags, switch tags (toggle things on and off), vCard tags for contact sharing, smart URL tags, text and URI tags (for emailing, SMS or phone calls). 3. Octopus Balance Reader Octopus cards, the rechargeable, NFC-powered smart card that can hold up to HK$1,000 are a great way to store money and pay for things (as long as you are in Hong Kong). With the free Android app, Octopus Balance Reader, users can tap their NFC-powered Android phone to their Octopus card, and quickly and easily retrieve the card‟s balance. What‟s even more interesting is that the Android phone can retrieve the balance of the card even when it doesn‟t have a network connection (like when you're underground). 4. Metro 24 If you are a world traveler and in need of public transportation maps, Metro 24 is one of the best apps on Android to support you. The app is full of useful features for traveling and with the addition of NFC support for the metro in Moscow, travelers can take advantage of built-in NFC to read tickets. 5. Timesheet NFC Add-On
  42. 42. [42] Timesheet for Android is a “simple project-based time tracking” app that allows you to track time of a project or task, add breaks, create notes for a task and even export all of your time data to Excel or XML format. Timesheet is cool and everything, but with its new NFC add-on, Timesheet users can easily start and stop project time by using an NFC tag. This is a unique way to enable yourself or employees to clock in and out at certain times and places. 6. Touchnote Some of the best uses of NFC include taking advantage of your current physical location to do specific tasks on your device. What if you could pull up your work‟s daily task list by touching an NFC tag at work, or a list of your errands by touching your car‟s dashboard? With Evernote and Touchanote, users can assign and simply open any linked Evernote note by touching a programmed NFC tag wherever they are. 7. File Expert File Expert may be one of the most popular apps for managing and sharing files on your Android device, and with a new NFC capabilities, users can now tap their phones and instantly transfer files. The above article has been independently produced by Mashable. The views and opinions expressed herein by Mashable do not necessarily represent the views of Samsung USA, Samsung Electronics America Inc., or any of its parents/affiliates as well as any other individual employee thereof.
  43. 43. [43] 12.REFERENCES NFC Forum. (2011). About NFC. Retrieved 04 10, 2011, from NFC Forum: http://www.nfc-forum.org NFC World. (2011). About NFC. Retrieved 04 10, 2011, from NFC World: http://www.nfc-world.com Near Field Communication- Wikipedia. NFC Forum. Bluetooth Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC. NFC Forum. [Online] October18, 2011.http://www.nfc-forum.org/resources/AppDocs/NFCForum.

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