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German unification

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German unification

  1. 1. GERMAN UNIFICATION THE EFFECTS OF NATIONALISM ON THE UNIFICATION
  2. 2. CONTEXT  KeyWords  TermsAboutGermany  Intruduction  German Nationalism  Prior to Unification  What role did nationalism play in the unification of Germany?  The dilemma faced by the Frankfurt Assembly over the Identification of a German union.  Who was Otto von Bismarc? What role did he play in Prussian government ?  Realpolitik  1864 – War with Denmark  Austro-Prussian War (1866)  Franco- Prussian War (1870-1871)  The German Empire
  3. 3. KEY WORDS  State: A political system with sovereignty.  Nation: A group of people with a common idendity, often built upon common language, history, race, culture or by occupying the same territory.  Nation-State: A political system in which a group of people who have sovereign political authority also share a common identity.  Ethnicity: It is the common identity of a group that may be based on physical traits, languages, culture , or history but also may be based on a subjective belief in those common traits.  Political Culture: The attitudes, beliefs and values of the people in a country.
  4. 4. TERMS ABOUT GERMANY  Volkgeist: German for ‘ spirit of the people’; racist cannotations  Lebensraum: German for ‘living space’ for entire nation.  Matternichian System: Conrived conservative system that tried to restore pre-Napoleon European monarchy and stability.  Reich: German for empire  Realpolitic: Politics of realism
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION  Nation States saw a major resurgence during the post industrial revolution period of the 1860’s and 1870’s.  The key factor in this, inspired by the Revolution in France and Napoleonic age was the feeling of nationalism.  The nation of Germany will use these sentiments to forge its own unification, not so much independence.  The movements will be lead by fierce nationalist Chief Minister Otto Von Bismarck.
  6. 6.  German nationalism slowly began to rise in the early 1800’s.  Germany was divided into a number of small states and desired unification within them. Their goalwas to become completely independent.
  7. 7. Prior to Unification  Before the process of German unification, German speaking people lived in small, separate states, as well as in the Austrian Hapsburg Empire, and in Prussia.  When Napoleon began his invasions throughout Europe in 1807, many territorial changes throughout the German states were made.
  8. 8. What role did nationalism play in the unification of Germany?  Nationalism experienced a reawakening at the turn of the nineteenth century as a result of Napoleonic occupation. Germans began to create stories, myths, legends and music that defined Germans. This gave them a strong sense of pride and helped to develop a sense of culture and nationalism.
  9. 9. The dilemma faced by the Frankfurt Assembly over the İdentification of a German union.  The Frankfurt Assembly sought to unify the German states but it was not supported by the general public. Politically, the Frankfurt Assembly was not very powerful. It was dependent on the people who were to be conquered or absorbed. Another problem surrounded the question of which areas to include in a unified Germany.
  10. 10.  The supporters of “Greater Germany” wanted to include Austria, Bohemia, and all of Prussia. It would be led by the Austrian Hapsburg monarchy. The supporters of “Little Germany” wanted to exclude Austria because they were too culturally diverse. Prussia would lead “Little Germany’’
  11. 11.  He was a Junker (aristocracy) who was appointed prime minister of Prussia in 1862. He was a conservative, Protestant and an intellectual. He was a Prussian, rejected German nationalism and wanted to strengthen Prussia. Who was Otto von Bismarc? What role did he play in Prussian government ?
  12. 12.  Otto von Bismarck is known as the founder of the German Empire.  He was Prussia's prime minister from 1862 to 1873 and was Germany’s first chancellor from 1871 to 1890.  He led the Germans to victory in the Austro-Prussian war of 1866 and in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870.
  13. 13.  King Wilhelm I appoints Bismarck as Prime Minister of Prussia.  Parliament refused to approve budget until their army reforms were approved by the king.  Bismarck and government continue to collect taxes and fund the army as before.  Sought a government that would be parliamentary but at the same time allow authoritarian policies.  Solution of crisis: – Liberals wanted German unity and freedom.
  14. 14. Realpolitik  The politics of reality.  The term used to describe tough power politics with no room for idealism.  With realpolitik as his style, Bismarck would become one of the commanding figures of German history.
  15. 15. 1864 – War with Denmark  Danish king rules over Schleswig and Holstein as duke. – These provinces were ethnically German  Denmark annexes Schleswig into the country – Nationalist sentiment in German states outraged.
  16. 16. Results of War  After brief fight, Denmark gave territory to Austria, Prussia.  Prussia controlled Schleswig, Austria controlled Holstein.  Austria now held small bit of territory inside Prussia.  Bismarck knew to unite Germany, war with Austria inevitable.
  17. 17. Austro-Prussian War (1866)  The Seven Weeks War.  Border tension stirred up by Bismarck.  Prussia’s superior training and equipment humiliated Austria.  Austrian Army destroyed at the Battle of Königgrätz.
  18. 18. Franco- Prussian War (1870-1871)  All German states joined in a war against France.  Overwhelming German victory.  Results of War:  French Empire collapses  Third Republic declared  France loses Alsace-Lorraine  France pays Germany 5,000,000,000 francs  France accepts an army of occupation
  19. 19.  January 18, 1871  Wilhelm I proclaimed Kaiser (Emperor) of the Germans at Versailles.  German’s called their empire the Second Reich. The German Empire
  20. 20. So…What was the First Reich?  The definition of Reich is "German State", in this definition the word "German" is not related to what is today the Country of Germany, but the Germanic Lands.  The First Reich, was also known as The Holy Roman Empire (a continuation of the Roman Empire in Europe), that started in the lands ruled by Charlemagne (Germany, Austria, Slovenia, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Czech Republic, eastern France, Northern Italy and western Poland), with a period beginning in the 9th century and finishing in the 19th century.
  21. 21.  The Second Reich, was in the areas known as Prussia and Brandenburg, from 1871 to 1919, they fell with the ending of World War I. During this Reich the "Iron Chancellor" Otto Von Bismarck united Germany, and set the roots for World War I. The Second Reich, also known as The German Empire, was ruled by the Hohenzollern dynasty
  22. 22. The Third Reich (1933-1945), Nazi Germany  Hitler called it the Third Reich because he thought that under his leadership Germany could reunite the old Holy Roman Empire, bringing Germany back to its glorious days. This Reich was terminated with the fall of Germany at the end of World War II.
  23. 23. How did the balance of power shift with German Unification?  German unification was the single most important political development in Europe between 1848-1914.  It transformed the balance of economic, military and international power.  1815 the Congress of Vienna had created 5 great powers in Europe.  Britain, France, Russia, Prussia, and Austria they were nearly equal in strength.  By 1871, Britain and Germany were clearly the most powerful militarily and economically.
  24. 24. SEDAT YÜZÜCÜ 232009043

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