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Zero Discharge Willow Wastewater Evapotranspiration Systems - Billeberga, Sweden April 19th. 2013

From the first known ”unknown” system in 1991/1992 to best known practice in 2013 Recommended by Authorities in Denmark for Highest Demands

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Zero Discharge Willow Wastewater Evapotranspiration Systems - Billeberga, Sweden April 19th. 2013

  1. 1. Willow Evapotranspiraton System MARJATTA Tappernøje BillebergaBilleberga 19 april 201319 april 2013 From the frstFrom the frst knownknown ”unknown” system”unknown” system in 1991/1992 toin 1991/1992 to best knownbest known practce in 2013practce in 2013 Recommended byRecommended by Authorites inAuthorites in Denmark forDenmark for Highest DemandsHighest Demands Zero Discharge SanitatonZero Discharge Sanitaton
  2. 2. EnköpingEnköping
  3. 3. Reduced costs using WW & SludgeReduced costs using WW & Sludge applicaton to EWSRPapplicaton to EWSRP • Reduces Demand for Chemical FertlizersReduces Demand for Chemical Fertlizers • By far Most Important Public or Private CostBy far Most Important Public or Private Cost Reducton - Allocatng utrient Removal to EWSRPReducton - Allocatng utrient Removal to EWSRP • Cost kg Conventonal -Removal Ofen 10 TimesCost kg Conventonal -Removal Ofen 10 Times Higher than kg price of Chemical FertlizerHigher than kg price of Chemical Fertlizer • Primary Cost Reducton Potental related toPrimary Cost Reducton Potental related to EstablishmentEstablishment
  4. 4. Enköping Municipality, Central WW TreatmentEnköping Municipality, Central WW Treatment Plant, Central Heatng Plant and Five FarmersPlant, Central Heatng Plant and Five Farmers •SystemSystem improving Closing Local utrient Loop from WWTPimproving Closing Local utrient Loop from WWTP and Single Households to EWSRPand Single Households to EWSRP • ew Thinking ( ew Paradigm) about Interacton Betweenew Thinking ( ew Paradigm) about Interacton Between Wastewater Handling, Agriculture and Energy Producton toWastewater Handling, Agriculture and Energy Producton to Local CHPLocal CHP •Good Co-Operaton with Local Farmers Recycling utrientsGood Co-Operaton with Local Farmers Recycling utrients from Wastewater Streams to Cultvated Soilfrom Wastewater Streams to Cultvated Soil •Environmental AdvantagesEnvironmental Advantages •Economical Advantages Distributed Between Municipality,Economical Advantages Distributed Between Municipality, Energy Company and Local FarmersEnergy Company and Local Farmers
  5. 5. • Estmated investments to establishEstmated investments to establish conventonal -Removal Euro 3.32 mill.conventonal -Removal Euro 3.32 mill. • Running costs landfll disposing of sludge.Running costs landfll disposing of sludge. • Enköping CHP supported full scale trialsEnköping CHP supported full scale trials growing energy willow in agriculture.growing energy willow in agriculture. • Expenditures deponatng ashes.Expenditures deponatng ashes. • Inspiraton from EU Willow/WastewaterInspiraton from EU Willow/Wastewater /Sludge - Project and from People Involved/Sludge - Project and from People Involved to Combine -removal and Growing Energyto Combine -removal and Growing Energy Willow.Willow. • ””Right” Decision Makers and FarmersRight” Decision Makers and Farmers
  6. 6. • Central Wastewater Treatment Plant built 1968.Central Wastewater Treatment Plant built 1968. • 22.000 personer connected.22.000 personer connected. • 10.000 m3 Wastewater/d10.000 m3 Wastewater/d • EU-directvv Demanding Municipality to reduceEU-directvv Demanding Municipality to reduce -outlet from Central Wastewater Plant-outlet from Central Wastewater Plant • County Demandv Only 42 – 45 t/ /year is allowedCounty Demandv Only 42 – 45 t/ /year is allowed to reach Baltc Sea through Enköping stream andto reach Baltc Sea through Enköping stream and the lake Mälaren.the lake Mälaren. • Municipality Calculatonv 50% reducton of -Municipality Calculatonv 50% reducton of - outlet from 120 t/ /y to 60 t/ /y in combinatonoutlet from 120 t/ /y to 60 t/ /y in combinaton with processes in stream and lake will fulfllwith processes in stream and lake will fulfll demands.demands.
  7. 7. • Municipality Task Set Up (Queston/Demand)Municipality Task Set Up (Queston/Demand) • 50 % Reducton in -Outlet to Enköping Stream50 % Reducton in -Outlet to Enköping Stream Using Alternatves To Conventonal -removal onUsing Alternatves To Conventonal -removal on CWWTP.CWWTP. • Consultant Answer/SolutonConsultant Answer/Soluton • 30 t /y Removed by Fertlizing 80 ha Energy30 t /y Removed by Fertlizing 80 ha Energy Willow Plantaton at Local FarmWillow Plantaton at Local Farm • 20 t /y Removed by use of Stored & Hyginized20 t /y Removed by use of Stored & Hyginized Sludge from Septc & Black Water Tanks + SmallSludge from Septc & Black Water Tanks + Small WWTP on Local Energy Willow PlantatonsWWTP on Local Energy Willow Plantatons • 10 t/ /y Internal Reductons on CWWTP.10 t/ /y Internal Reductons on CWWTP.
  8. 8. • 15000 - 20000 m3 Dekantat & Reject Water < 1 %15000 - 20000 m3 Dekantat & Reject Water < 1 % of WW - about 25 % of - Up to 800 mg /lof WW - about 25 % of - Up to 800 mg /l • 3 Storage/Hyginizing Lagoons Without Outlet at3 Storage/Hyginizing Lagoons Without Outlet at Farm with EWSRP 200 -300 m from CWWTPFarm with EWSRP 200 -300 m from CWWTP • 2 x 5000 m3 + 1 x 20000 m32 x 5000 m3 + 1 x 20000 m3 • Mixed with 150000 – 200000 m3 M+B TreatedMixed with 150000 – 200000 m3 M+B Treated WW During Irrigaton.WW During Irrigaton. • 330 km Drip Irrigaton pipes on 75 ha willow area330 km Drip Irrigaton pipes on 75 ha willow area (divided in 6 parts/10 – 15 ha each)(divided in 6 parts/10 – 15 ha each) • Irrigaton in 5-Hours Shif/area on Days WithoutIrrigaton in 5-Hours Shif/area on Days Without Precipitaton During Growth Season (May-Sept.)Precipitaton During Growth Season (May-Sept.) • 300 mm/ha/y – 200-250 kg and 7-10 kg P300 mm/ha/y – 200-250 kg and 7-10 kg P
  9. 9. • Recipient, local stream, deloaded with 30 t /yRecipient, local stream, deloaded with 30 t /y and 1 t P/yand 1 t P/y • 1.500 t Sludge afer Biogas and Centrifuge1.500 t Sludge afer Biogas and Centrifuge Processing with DM 30% Stored at CWWTP.Processing with DM 30% Stored at CWWTP. • Mixing in spring with 1500 t Botow Ashes fromMixing in spring with 1500 t Botow Ashes from CHPCHP • Used as Fertlizer on EWSRPUsed as Fertlizer on EWSRP • Municipality paid all establishment expendituresMunicipality paid all establishment expenditures
  10. 10. • 4 local farms each with 2 Sludge Lagoons Without4 local farms each with 2 Sludge Lagoons Without Outlet 3500 m3/each established 2001Outlet 3500 m3/each established 2001 • 16000-17000 t Sludge (DM 2%)/y from 6007 Septc16000-17000 t Sludge (DM 2%)/y from 6007 Septc or Black Water Tanks + 3 small WWTP Pumpedor Black Water Tanks + 3 small WWTP Pumped Into LagoonsInto Lagoons • Sludge Hyginized for Minimum 8 MonthSludge Hyginized for Minimum 8 Month • Sludge Mixed with a propellar before Pumped andSludge Mixed with a propellar before Pumped and Distributed.Distributed. • Hyginized Sludge Distributed by Large DiametreHyginized Sludge Distributed by Large Diametre Hose rolled out raw by raw and drawn back duringHose rolled out raw by raw and drawn back during 5 hours.5 hours.
  11. 11. • Municipality CWWTPMunicipality CWWTP saves Euro 55276/ysaves Euro 55276/y • Sludge Deposit Euro 28/t Sludge AvoidedSludge Deposit Euro 28/t Sludge Avoided • Establishing Lagoons, Irrigaton System, Field RentEstablishing Lagoons, Irrigaton System, Field Rent and Farmer Work paid by Municipalityand Farmer Work paid by Municipality • Energy Willow Plantatons utrient DemandEnergy Willow Plantatons utrient Demand covered 50-100% from WW and Sludgecovered 50-100% from WW and Sludge • Energy Willow used inEnergy Willow used in Enköping CHPEnköping CHP • Botom Ashes mixed with Sludge from BiogasBotom Ashes mixed with Sludge from Biogas Producton used as Fertlizer on Willow PlantatonsProducton used as Fertlizer on Willow Plantatons • CHP covers with 22 MW 50 % of Enköping El-CHP covers with 22 MW 50 % of Enköping El- demand and with 55 MW 100 % af Heatngdemand and with 55 MW 100 % af Heatng Demand (95 % connected) with BiomassDemand (95 % connected) with Biomass
  12. 12. • 1.200 Transports (10.000 km) with Sludge1.200 Transports (10.000 km) with Sludge containing Trucks through Enköping avoidedcontaining Trucks through Enköping avoided • Shorter biomass transports to CHPShorter biomass transports to CHP • Reducton of Cadmium levels in Plantaton soilReducton of Cadmium levels in Plantaton soil • Co2 storage in Plantaton SoilCo2 storage in Plantaton Soil • A FarmA Farm with 150 ha Fields (including 110 ha withwith 150 ha Fields (including 110 ha with Energy Willow) and 100 ha Wood got in 2006Energy Willow) and 100 ha Wood got in 2006 50 –50 – 60 % af Total Income60 % af Total Income from Handling Septc Sludgefrom Handling Septc Sludge • Farmers paid by Municipality Euro 1.11/m3 SeptcFarmers paid by Municipality Euro 1.11/m3 Septc Sludge to store it a year.Sludge to store it a year. • Euro 7.19/m3 to Fertlize with Own EquipmentEuro 7.19/m3 to Fertlize with Own Equipment
  13. 13. Willow Evapotranspiraton System MARJATTA Tappernøje BillebergaBilleberga 19 april 201319 april 2013 From the frstFrom the frst knownknown ”unknown” system”unknown” system in 1991/1992 toin 1991/1992 to best knownbest known practce in 2013practce in 2013 Recommended byRecommended by Authorites inAuthorites in Denmark forDenmark for Highest DemandsHighest Demands Zero Discharge SanitatonZero Discharge Sanitaton
  14. 14. EvapotranspiratonEvapotranspiraton
  15. 15. Oasis & Cloth Hanger EfectOasis & Cloth Hanger Efect
  16. 16. Crop Cofcient related to Oasis andCrop Cofcient related to Oasis and Cloth Hanger EfectCloth Hanger Efect
  17. 17. Premises – Dimensioning ModelPremises – Dimensioning Model • 8 m WIDE – with a DEPTH of 1.5m and 45°8 m WIDE – with a DEPTH of 1.5m and 45° GRADIE T on sides and endsGRADIE T on sides and ends • Useable PORE VOLUME expected to be 40 %Useable PORE VOLUME expected to be 40 % • EVAPOTRA SPIRATIO expected to be 2.5EVAPOTRA SPIRATIO expected to be 2.5 TIMES calculated Potental EvaporatonTIMES calculated Potental Evaporaton • 30-years average MO THLY PRECIPITATIO30-years average MO THLY PRECIPITATIO and POTE TIAL EVAPORATIOand POTE TIAL EVAPORATIO • SURFACE AREA dim. to avoid water storingSURFACE AREA dim. to avoid water storing on the surface in a year with normalon the surface in a year with normal precipitaton and with a max. of 10 cm ofprecipitaton and with a max. of 10 cm of surface water with a precipitaton whichsurface water with a precipitaton which statstcly occurs in one out of 10 yearsstatstcly occurs in one out of 10 years • Same LOAD of wastewater every monthSame LOAD of wastewater every month
  18. 18. Dimensioning due to Grid CellsDimensioning due to Grid Cells • Surface Willow Bed Area from 124 to 292Surface Willow Bed Area from 124 to 292 m2/100m3 WW (Average 173 m2/100 m3)m2/100m3 WW (Average 173 m2/100 m3) Average PrecipitatonAverage Precipitaton 524 - 903 mm/y524 - 903 mm/y EVAPOTRA SPIRATIOEVAPOTRA SPIRATIO 1343 - 1470 mm/y1343 - 1470 mm/y Potental Evapotranspirat.Potental Evapotranspirat. WW 452 - 936 mm/yWW 452 - 936 mm/y Calculated load reducedCalculated load reduced due to lacking storage cap.due to lacking storage cap. WW 357- 894 mm/yWW 357- 894 mm/y
  19. 19. SupliedSuplied kg/ha/ykg/ha/y HarvestedHarvested kg/ha/ykg/ha/y Mas BalanceMas Balance ClCl 672672 22 670670 SO4SO4 140140 55 135135 tot-tot- 728728 4040 688688 tot-Ptot-P 140140 88 132132 PbPb 0.0070.007 0.00040.0004 0.00660.0066 CdCd 0.00070.0007 0.010.01 -0.0093-0.0093 CrCr 0.012250.01225 0.00150.0015 0.010750.01075 CuCu 0.52850.5285 0.01550.0155 0.5130.513 HgHg 0.750.75 0.000190.00019 0.001560.00156 ii 0.0140.014 0.00160.0016 0.01240.0124 ZnZn 1.051.05 0.2050.205 0.8450.845
  20. 20. Willow bed ready for plantng april 2004Willow bed ready for plantng april 2004 Sept. 2004 Willow are appr. 3 m tallSept. 2004 Willow are appr. 3 m tall February 2005February 2005 June 2005June 2005 Willows August 2005Willows August 2005 second growing seasonsecond growing season 4 m*38 m Bassin, 1.5 m Deep4 m*38 m Bassin, 1.5 m Deep Møn, DenmarkMøn, Denmark
  21. 21. Plant 1: 184 m2 Plant 2: 912 m2 Plant 3: 528 m2 Plant 4: 720 m2 Plant 5: 320 m2 Plant 6: 720 m2 Plant 7: 784 m2 Plant 8: 1.632 m2 Plant 9: udgår Plant 10: 240 m2 Plant 11: 240 m2 Plant 12: 336 m2 Plant 13: 212 m2 Total 6.828 m2
  22. 22. Precipitaton 541 mm/year Exp. Evapotransp. 1550 mm Calculated 1406 mm 50 persons 17 houses 2.9 persons/house 1643 m3 WW/year 97 m3 WW/house/year 33 m3 WW/person/year 90 l WW/person/day Dimensioning value 1.680 m3 Willow System area 1760 m2 95 m3 WW/house 104 m2 area/house 105 m2 area/100 m3 WW Needed area in Guidelines single house up to 30 PE 137 m2 area/100 m3 WW/year 1760 m2 area - 1.285 m3 WW 1680 m3 WW - 2302 m2 area
  23. 23. FFlow or Streamlow or Stream of Materialof Material •UrineUrine •FaecesFaeces •Toilet PaperToilet Paper •Flush WaterFlush Water •
  24. 24. PhosphorusPhosphorus • One Person Excrete 1 KG P/year.One Person Excrete 1 KG P/year. • 0.7 KG in Urine and 0.3 KG in Faeces.0.7 KG in Urine and 0.3 KG in Faeces. • Human Phosphorus Returned to SoilHuman Phosphorus Returned to Soil Would Cover 80 % of P DemandWould Cover 80 % of P Demand • In Agriculture Short of PhosphorusIn Agriculture Short of Phosphorus Human Excreta could be a GoldenHuman Excreta could be a Golden Opportunity.Opportunity. • In 100 years Phosphorus Could Be Gone.In 100 years Phosphorus Could Be Gone.
  25. 25. From Nutrient Uptake to Water RemovalFrom Nutrient Uptake to Water Removal • To Maximize Water RemovalTo Maximize Water Removal • To Maximize Solids ConcentratonsTo Maximize Solids Concentratons • To Maximize utrient ConcentratonsTo Maximize utrient Concentratons • How to optmize related to aCl?How to optmize related to aCl? • How to optmize related to utrients?How to optmize related to utrients? • Projects – Field TestngProjects – Field Testng
  26. 26. Diferences Ireland to DenmarkDiferences Ireland to Denmark • Low Water ChargeLow Water Charge • o/Lowo/Low WastewaterWastewater ChargeCharge • Higher WaterHigher Water ConsumptonConsumpton • High Water ChargeHigh Water Charge • æstved Euro 2.22/m3 (2012)æstved Euro 2.22/m3 (2012) • High Wastewater ChargeHigh Wastewater Charge • æstved Euro 5.55/m3 (2012)æstved Euro 5.55/m3 (2012) • o WW Charge with Willowo WW Charge with Willow SystemSystem • Low Water ConsumptonLow Water Consumpton • Copenhagen 105 l/p/d (2011)Copenhagen 105 l/p/d (2011) • 2012 Expected 100 l2012 Expected 100 l
  27. 27. Implementing known Systems in SwedenImplementing known Systems in Sweden • Interestng in Sweden?Interestng in Sweden? • Advantages using the system?Advantages using the system? • Optmized Willow Plantng Material?Optmized Willow Plantng Material? • Estmate/Work out EvapotranspiratonEstmate/Work out Evapotranspiraton due to Grid Cells in Sweden?due to Grid Cells in Sweden? • Municipality – Builder – HouseholdMunicipality – Builder – Household • Consultancy, Workshops, EducatonConsultancy, Workshops, Educaton
  28. 28. New Knowledge - New SystemsNew Knowledge - New Systems • Dewatering Househ. Black Wastewater?Dewatering Househ. Black Wastewater? • Dewatering Househ. Septc Sludge?Dewatering Househ. Septc Sludge? • Dewatering Municipality BiologicalDewatering Municipality Biological Sludge?Sludge? • Testng ProjectsTestng Projects • Plantng Directly in Wastewater andPlantng Directly in Wastewater and Sludge?Sludge?
  29. 29. Sanitary System at MønsSanitary System at Møns Museumsgård DKMuseumsgård DK
  30. 30. Single Household in DenmarkSingle Household in Denmark Dewatering and CompostngDewatering and Compostng • One Double Flushing Divertng WCOne Double Flushing Divertng WC • Two ”Kaggen” Dewatering/Compostng UnitsTwo ”Kaggen” Dewatering/Compostng Units • One Ordinary Garden ComposterOne Ordinary Garden Composter

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