Automobile engineering is the one of the
stream of mechanical engineering. It deals
with the various types of automobiles, their
mechanism of transmission systems and its
applications. Automobiles are the different
types of vehicles used for transportation of
passengers, goods, etc.
Basically all the types of vehicles works on the
principle of internal combustion processes or
some times the engines are called as internal
combustion engines. Different types of fuels
are burnt inside the cylinder at higher
temperature to get the transmission motion in
the vehicles. Most of the automobiles are
internal combustion engines vehicles only
Automobile is a vehicle driven by an internal
combustion engine and it is used for
transportation of passengers and goods on the
ground. Automobile can also be defined as a
vehicle which can move by itself.
Examples : Car, jeep, bus, truck, scooter, etc.
HISTORY OF THE INDIAN AUTOMOBILE
From the policy standpoint, the Indian
automobile industry can be viewed in terms of
the pre-1991 (before liberalization) and post-
1991 (after liberalization)
Pre-1991, Before Liberalization
1880's & early 1900's:
About hundred years ago the first motorcar was
imported. First car brought in India by a princely ruler
in 1898 that was at Mumbai. Simpson & Co established
in 1840. They were the first to build a steam car and a
steam bus, to attempt motorcar manufacture, to build
and operate petrol driven passenger service and to
import American Chassis in India.
• Railways first came to India in 1850's. In 1865
Col. Rookes Crompton introduced public
transport wagons strapped to and pulled by
imported steam road rollers called streamers.
The maximum speed of these buses was 33
• From 1888 Motors Spirit attracted a substantial
import duty. In 1919 at the end of the war, a
large number of military vehicles came on the
• In 1928 assembly of Trucks and Cars was
started by the American General Motors in
Bombay and in 1930-31 by Canadian Ford
Motors in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta.
• In 1935 the proposals of Sir M
Vishweshwarayya to set up an Automobile
Industry were disallowed.
• 1942 Hindustan Motors Ltd incorporated and
their first vehicle was made in 1950.
• In 1944 Premier Automobiles Ltd incorporated
and in 1947 their first vehicle was produced.
• In 1947 the Government of Bombay accepted a
scheme of Bajaj Auto to replace the cycle rickshaw
by the auto and assembly started in a couple of
years under a license from Piaggio. Manufacturing
Program for the auto and scooter was submitted in
1953 to the Tariff Commission and approved by the
Government in 1959.
• Only seven firms namely Hindustan Motors Limited,
Automobile Products of India Limited, Ashok
Leyland Limited, Standard Motors Products of India
Limited, Premier Automobiles Limited, Mahindra &
Mahindra and TELCO received approval. M&M was
manufacturing jeeps. Few more companies came up
• Automobile Products of India (API) and Enfield India
had already commenced the manufacture of
scooters, motorcycles, mopeds and autos from
• In 1956, Bajaj Tempo Ltd entered the Indian market
with a program of manufacturing Commercial
Vehicles, and Simpson for making engines.
• In sixties 2 and 3 Wheeler segment
established in the industry. Escorts and
Ideal Jawa entered the field in the
beginning of sixties. Association of Indian
Automobile Manufacturers formally
established in 1960.
• Between 1955 and 1960 only API was
producing Mopeds. During the first half of
the sixties three companies namely Mopeds
India Ltd (1965), SZUL Gwalior (1964) and
Pearl Scooters Ltd (1962) entered the field.
ARAI is a co-operative industrial research
association established by the automotive
industry with the Ministry of Industries,
Government of India. It works in harmony and
complete confidence with its members,
customers and the Government of India to offer
the finest services, which earned for itself ISO
9001, ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001 and NABL
CLASSIFICATION OF VEHICLES(Automobile)
On the Basis of Load,
(a) Heavy transport vehicle (HTV) or heavy
motor vehicle (HMV). e.g. trucks, buses.
(b) Light transport vehicle (LTV). e.g. Pickup.
(c) Light motor vehicle (LMV). e.g. cars, jeeps.
On the Basis Wheels,
(a) Two Wheeler vehicle.
(b) Three Wheeler vehicle.
(c) Four Wheeler vehicle.
(d) Six Wheeler vehicle.
On the Basis of Fuel Used ,
(a) Petrol vehicle
(b) Diesel vehicle
(c) electric vehicle
(d) steam vehicle
(e) gas vehicle
On the basis of Body,
(a) Sedan with two doors
(b) Sedan with four doors
(c) Station wagon
(d) Convertible, e.g. Jeep
(f) Special purpose vehicle, e.g. ambulance, milk van.
On the Basis of Cooling system used,
(a) Water cooled
(b) Air cooled
On the Basis of Transmission
(a) Conventional vehicle
(b) Semi automatic
On the Basis of Cycle
(a) Otto Cycle
(b) Diesel Cycle
On the Basis of Ignition
(a) Spark ignition
(b) Compression Ignition
Functions of Automobile Components
Engine or Power Plant:
The engine is the power plant of the vehicle. In
general, internal combustion engine with petrol or
diesel fuel is used to run a vehicle. An engine may
be either a two-stroke engine or a four-stroke
engine. An engine consists of a cylinder, piston,
valves, valve operating mechanism, carburettor (or
MPFI in modern cars), fan, fuel feed pump and oil
pump, etc. Besides this, an engine requires ignition
system for burning fuel in the engine cylinder.
Transmission System (Clutch and Gear Box):
The power developed by the engine is transferred to the
wheels by transmission system. Transmission system
must do three jobs,
(a)It must provide varying gear ratios. Number of gear
ratios are equal to number of gears in a vehicle.
(b) It must provide a reverse gear for moving vehicle in
(c) It must provide a neutral or disconnecting
arrangement so that the engine can be uncoupled
from the wheels of the vehicle.
Brakes are used to slow down or stop the vehicle.
Hydraulic brakes are generally used in
automobiles, where brakes are applied by
pressure on a fluid. Mechanical brakes are also
used in some vehicles. These brakes are operated
by means of leavers, linkages, pedals, cams, etc.
Hand brake or parking brake is usually a
mechanical brake. These are used for parking the
vehicles on sloppy surfaces and also in case of
Front wheels can be turned to left and right by
steering system so that the vehicle can be steered.
The steering wheel is placed in front of driver. It is
mechanically linked to the wheels to provide the
steering control. The primary function of the
steering system is to provide angular motion to
front wheels so that vehicle can negotiate a turn.
It also provides directional stability to vehicle
when the vehicle moves ahead in straight line.
Main function of the suspension system is to
isolate the body of the vehicle from shocks and
vibrations generated due to irregularities on the
surface of roads. Shock absorbers are provided in
the vehicles for this purpose. It is in the form of
spring and damper. The suspension system is
provided both on front end and rear end of the
vehicle. A suspension system also maintains the
stability of the vehicle in pitching or rolling when
vehicle is in motion.
Electrical system is used in vehicles for
Starting purpose, it is also used for to
operate the headlights, horn, indicators,
stereo, etc. Battery is the important part
in electrical system.