Indian auto history


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Indian auto history

  1. 1. Automobile engineering is the one of the stream of mechanical engineering. It deals with the various types of automobiles, their mechanism of transmission systems and its applications. Automobiles are the different types of vehicles used for transportation of passengers, goods, etc.
  2. 2. Basically all the types of vehicles works on the principle of internal combustion processes or some times the engines are called as internal combustion engines. Different types of fuels are burnt inside the cylinder at higher temperature to get the transmission motion in the vehicles. Most of the automobiles are internal combustion engines vehicles only
  3. 3. DEFINITION Automobile is a vehicle driven by an internal combustion engine and it is used for transportation of passengers and goods on the ground. Automobile can also be defined as a vehicle which can move by itself. Examples : Car, jeep, bus, truck, scooter, etc.
  4. 4. HISTORY OF THE INDIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY From the policy standpoint, the Indian automobile industry can be viewed in terms of the pre-1991 (before liberalization) and post- 1991 (after liberalization)
  5. 5. Pre-1991, Before Liberalization 1880's & early 1900's: About hundred years ago the first motorcar was imported. First car brought in India by a princely ruler in 1898 that was at Mumbai. Simpson & Co established in 1840. They were the first to build a steam car and a steam bus, to attempt motorcar manufacture, to build and operate petrol driven passenger service and to import American Chassis in India.
  6. 6. • Railways first came to India in 1850's. In 1865 Col. Rookes Crompton introduced public transport wagons strapped to and pulled by imported steam road rollers called streamers. The maximum speed of these buses was 33 kms/hr. • From 1888 Motors Spirit attracted a substantial import duty. In 1919 at the end of the war, a large number of military vehicles came on the roads
  7. 7. • In 1928 assembly of Trucks and Cars was started by the American General Motors in Bombay and in 1930-31 by Canadian Ford Motors in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. • In 1935 the proposals of Sir M Vishweshwarayya to set up an Automobile Industry were disallowed. • 1942 Hindustan Motors Ltd incorporated and their first vehicle was made in 1950. • In 1944 Premier Automobiles Ltd incorporated and in 1947 their first vehicle was produced.
  8. 8. • In 1947 the Government of Bombay accepted a scheme of Bajaj Auto to replace the cycle rickshaw by the auto and assembly started in a couple of years under a license from Piaggio. Manufacturing Program for the auto and scooter was submitted in 1953 to the Tariff Commission and approved by the Government in 1959. • Only seven firms namely Hindustan Motors Limited, Automobile Products of India Limited, Ashok Leyland Limited, Standard Motors Products of India Limited, Premier Automobiles Limited, Mahindra & Mahindra and TELCO received approval. M&M was manufacturing jeeps. Few more companies came up later.
  9. 9. • Automobile Products of India (API) and Enfield India had already commenced the manufacture of scooters, motorcycles, mopeds and autos from 1955. • In 1956, Bajaj Tempo Ltd entered the Indian market with a program of manufacturing Commercial Vehicles, and Simpson for making engines.
  10. 10. In 1960’s • In sixties 2 and 3 Wheeler segment established in the industry. Escorts and Ideal Jawa entered the field in the beginning of sixties. Association of Indian Automobile Manufacturers formally established in 1960. • Between 1955 and 1960 only API was producing Mopeds. During the first half of the sixties three companies namely Mopeds India Ltd (1965), SZUL Gwalior (1964) and Pearl Scooters Ltd (1962) entered the field.
  11. 11. ARAI ARAI is a co-operative industrial research association established by the automotive industry with the Ministry of Industries, Government of India. It works in harmony and complete confidence with its members, customers and the Government of India to offer the finest services, which earned for itself ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001 and NABL accreditations.
  12. 12. CLASSIFICATION OF VEHICLES(Automobile) On the Basis of Load, (a) Heavy transport vehicle (HTV) or heavy motor vehicle (HMV). e.g. trucks, buses. (b) Light transport vehicle (LTV). e.g. Pickup. (c) Light motor vehicle (LMV). e.g. cars, jeeps. On the Basis Wheels, (a) Two Wheeler vehicle. (b) Three Wheeler vehicle. (c) Four Wheeler vehicle. (d) Six Wheeler vehicle.
  13. 13. On the Basis of Fuel Used , (a) Petrol vehicle (b) Diesel vehicle (c) electric vehicle (d) steam vehicle (e) gas vehicle On the basis of Body, (a) Sedan with two doors (b) Sedan with four doors (c) Station wagon (d) Convertible, e.g. Jeep (e) Van (f) Special purpose vehicle, e.g. ambulance, milk van.
  14. 14. On the Basis of Cooling system used, (a) Water cooled (b) Air cooled On the Basis of Transmission (a) Conventional vehicle (b) Semi automatic (c) Automatic On the Basis of Cycle (a) Otto Cycle (b) Diesel Cycle On the Basis of Ignition (a) Spark ignition (b) Compression Ignition
  15. 15. Functions of Automobile Components Engine or Power Plant: The engine is the power plant of the vehicle. In general, internal combustion engine with petrol or diesel fuel is used to run a vehicle. An engine may be either a two-stroke engine or a four-stroke engine. An engine consists of a cylinder, piston, valves, valve operating mechanism, carburettor (or MPFI in modern cars), fan, fuel feed pump and oil pump, etc. Besides this, an engine requires ignition system for burning fuel in the engine cylinder.
  16. 16. Transmission System (Clutch and Gear Box): The power developed by the engine is transferred to the wheels by transmission system. Transmission system must do three jobs, (a)It must provide varying gear ratios. Number of gear ratios are equal to number of gears in a vehicle. (b) It must provide a reverse gear for moving vehicle in reverse direction. (c) It must provide a neutral or disconnecting arrangement so that the engine can be uncoupled from the wheels of the vehicle.
  17. 17. Braking System: Brakes are used to slow down or stop the vehicle. Hydraulic brakes are generally used in automobiles, where brakes are applied by pressure on a fluid. Mechanical brakes are also used in some vehicles. These brakes are operated by means of leavers, linkages, pedals, cams, etc. Hand brake or parking brake is usually a mechanical brake. These are used for parking the vehicles on sloppy surfaces and also in case of emergency.
  18. 18. Steering System: Front wheels can be turned to left and right by steering system so that the vehicle can be steered. The steering wheel is placed in front of driver. It is mechanically linked to the wheels to provide the steering control. The primary function of the steering system is to provide angular motion to front wheels so that vehicle can negotiate a turn. It also provides directional stability to vehicle when the vehicle moves ahead in straight line.
  19. 19. Suspension System: Main function of the suspension system is to isolate the body of the vehicle from shocks and vibrations generated due to irregularities on the surface of roads. Shock absorbers are provided in the vehicles for this purpose. It is in the form of spring and damper. The suspension system is provided both on front end and rear end of the vehicle. A suspension system also maintains the stability of the vehicle in pitching or rolling when vehicle is in motion.
  20. 20. Electrical system Electrical system is used in vehicles for Starting purpose, it is also used for to operate the headlights, horn, indicators, stereo, etc. Battery is the important part in electrical system.
  21. 21. THANK YOU