Writing Rules

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Writing Rules

  1. 1. Writing
  2. 2. How to write a good essay <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>( clarity, use of connectors, order of ideas...) </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>( use of complex and different structures, accuracy...) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>(use of diverse vocabulary items, lexical fields, avoidance or repetitions, use of synonyms...) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Some writing rules to take into account
  4. 4. <ul><li>Clear handwriting and neat presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget margins </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Clear handwriting and neat presentation </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>indentations </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Clear handwriting and neat presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t repeat words or ideas. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Clear handwriting and neat presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: only one ! and one ? </li></ul><ul><li>Check capital letters. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Clear handwriting and neat presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Use short </li></ul><ul><li>sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Aaaaaah!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>One sentence!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Try to read it </li></ul><ul><li>all at once, </li></ul><ul><li>can you breathe? </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Clear handwriting and neat presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Divide into paragraphs: </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Clear handwriting and neat presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Divide into paragraphs: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction / Point of view </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Clear handwriting and neat presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Divide into paragraphs: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction / Point of view </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arguments </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Clear handwriting and neat presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Divide into paragraphs: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction / Point of view </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arguments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Clear handwriting and neat presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction / Point of view </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arguments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Clear handwriting and neat presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use contractions in formal writing: </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Clear handwriting and neat presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use contractions in formal writing: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>isn’t is not </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can’t cannot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>won’t will not </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I’d like I would like </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I’m I am </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 2. Word Order
  17. 17. 2. Word Order <ul><li>S + V + O + ... </li></ul><ul><li>She didn’t want a computer for her birthday . </li></ul>
  18. 18. 2. Word Order <ul><li>S + V + O + ... </li></ul><ul><li>She didn’t want a computer for her birthday . </li></ul><ul><li>S V O C </li></ul>
  19. 19. 2. Word Order <ul><li>S + V + O + ... </li></ul><ul><li>She didn’t want a computer for her birthday . </li></ul><ul><li>S V O C </li></ul><ul><li>Position of adjectives: </li></ul>
  20. 20. 2. Word Order <ul><li>S + V + O + ... </li></ul><ul><li>She didn’t want a computer for her birthday . </li></ul><ul><li>S V O C </li></ul><ul><li>Position of adjectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before nouns: </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 2. Word Order <ul><li>S + V + O + ... </li></ul><ul><li>She didn’t want a computer for her birthday . </li></ul><ul><li>S V O C </li></ul><ul><li>Position of adjectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before nouns: My parents have just bought a new car. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. 2. Word Order <ul><li>S + V + O + ... </li></ul><ul><li>She didn’t want a computer for her birthday . </li></ul><ul><li>S V O C </li></ul><ul><li>Position of adjectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before nouns: My parents have just bought a new car. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But: </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 2. Word Order <ul><li>S + V + O + ... </li></ul><ul><li>She didn’t want a computer for her birthday . </li></ul><ul><li>S V O C </li></ul><ul><li>Position of adjectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before nouns: My parents have just bought a new car. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But: Somebody new is here. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. 2. Word Order <ul><li>S + V + O + ... </li></ul><ul><li>She didn’t want a computer for her birthday . </li></ul><ul><li>S V O C </li></ul><ul><li>Position of adjectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before nouns: My parents have just bought a new car. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But: Somebody new is here. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After verbs: </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. 2. Word Order <ul><li>S + V + O + ... </li></ul><ul><li>She didn’t want a computer for her birthday . </li></ul><ul><li>S V O C </li></ul><ul><li>Position of adjectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before nouns: My parents have just bought a new car. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But: Somebody new is here. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After verbs: My parents’ car is new . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. 2. Word Order <ul><li>S + V + O + ... </li></ul><ul><li>She didn’t want a computer for her birthday . </li></ul><ul><li>S V O C </li></ul><ul><li>Position of adjectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before nouns: My parents have just bought a new car. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But: Somebody new is here. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After verbs: My parents’ car is new . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjectives have no number and no gender : </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. 2. Word Order <ul><li>S + V + O + ... </li></ul><ul><li>She didn’t want a computer for her birthday . </li></ul><ul><li>S V O C </li></ul><ul><li>Position of adjectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before nouns: My parents have just bought a new car. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But: Somebody new is here. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After verbs: My parents’ car is new . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjectives have no number and no gender : those handsome s boys </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. No number!! Before nouns!! Both mistakes at the same time!
  29. 29. 2. Word Order <ul><li>S + V + O + ... </li></ul><ul><li>She didn’t want a computer for her birthday . </li></ul><ul><li>S V O C </li></ul><ul><li>Position of adjectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before nouns: My parents have just bought a new car. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But: Somebody new is here. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After verbs: My parents’ car is new . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Position of adverbs: </li></ul>
  30. 30. 2. Word Order <ul><li>S + V + O + ... </li></ul><ul><li>She dind’t want a computer for her birthday . </li></ul><ul><li>S V O C </li></ul><ul><li>Position of adjectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before nouns: My parents have just bought a new car. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But: Somebody new is here. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After verbs: My parents’ car is new . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Position of adverbs: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She always drinks wine / You’ re always naughty. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. 2. Word Order <ul><li>S + V + O + ... </li></ul><ul><li>She dind’t want a computer for her birthday . </li></ul><ul><li>S V O C </li></ul><ul><li>Position of adjectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before nouns: My parents have just bought a new car. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But: Somebody new is here. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After verbs: My parents’ car is new . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Position of adverbs: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She always drinks wine / You’ re always naughty. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I went there last week / They visit us once a month . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. 3. Avoid articles with general concepts.
  33. 33. 4. Avoid double negative
  34. 34. 5. Number agreement <ul><li>nothing, somebody are singular ! </li></ul>
  35. 35. 5. Number agreement <ul><li>nothing, somebody are singular ! </li></ul><ul><li>Somebody has just arrived. </li></ul>
  36. 36. 5. Number agreement <ul><li>nothing, somebody are singular ! </li></ul><ul><li>Somebody has just arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>people are plural ! </li></ul>
  37. 37. 5. Number agreement <ul><li>nothing, somebody are singular ! </li></ul><ul><li>Somebody has just arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>people are plural ! </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese people don’t like milk. </li></ul>
  38. 38. 6. Some special verbs <ul><li>Like, love, hate, enjoy + -ing </li></ul>
  39. 39. 6. Some special verbs <ul><li>Like, love, hate, enjoy + -ing </li></ul><ul><li>I love swimming. </li></ul>
  40. 40. 6. Some special verbs <ul><li>Like, love, hate, enjoy + -ing </li></ul><ul><li>I love swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>Would love, would like + to-infinitive </li></ul>
  41. 41. 6. Some special verbs <ul><li>Like, love, hate, enjoy + -ing </li></ul><ul><li>I love swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>Would love, would like + to-infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>I’d love to go swimming. </li></ul>
  42. 42. 6. Some special verbs <ul><li>Like, love, hate, enjoy + -ing </li></ul><ul><li>I love swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>Would love, would like + to-infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>I’d love to go swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>Modal Verbs ( can,should,may,must,have to) + infinitive </li></ul>
  43. 43. 6. Some special verbs <ul><li>Like, love, hate, enjoy + -ing </li></ul><ul><li>I love swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>Would love, would like + to-infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>I’d love to go swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>Modal Verbs ( can,should,may,must,have to) + infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>I must study. </li></ul>
  44. 44. 7. Prepositions + verb-ing <ul><li>I’m interested in swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>She’s looking forward to sleeping. </li></ul>
  45. 45. 7. Remember pronouns
  46. 46. 8. Remember pronouns Theirs Them Their They Yours You Your You Ours Us Our We Its It Its It Hers Her Her She His Him His He Yours You Your You Mine Me My I
  47. 47. 9. Use proper vocabulary <ul><li>Don’t invent words!!!!! If you don’t know how to say a word in English, don’t write it, change the word or the idea!!!!!! </li></ul>
  48. 48. 9. Use proper vocabulary <ul><li>Don’t invent words!!!!! If you don’t know how to say a word in English, don’t write it, change the word or the idea!!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Remember there are some words you can use in general situations: </li></ul>
  49. 49. 9. Use proper vocabulary <ul><li>Nouns: </li></ul>
  50. 50. 9. Use proper vocabulary <ul><li>Nouns: behaviour, advantages, disadvantages, drawback, causes, consequences, origins, reasons, effects, results, authorities, experts, belief, opinion... </li></ul>
  51. 51. 9. Use proper vocabulary <ul><li>Nouns: behaviour, advantages, disadvantages, drawback, causes, consequences, origins, reasons, effects, results, authorities, experts, belief, opinion... </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs: </li></ul>
  52. 52. 9. Use proper vocabulary <ul><li>Nouns: behaviour, advantages, disadvantages, drawback, causes, consequences, origins, reasons, effects, results, authorities, experts, belief, opinion... </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs: improve, reduce, agree, disagree, avoid, accept, behave, save, approve, disapprove, admit, underline, highlight... </li></ul>
  53. 53. 9. Use proper vocabulary <ul><li>Phrasal Verbs: </li></ul>
  54. 54. 9. Use proper vocabulary <ul><li>Phrasal Verbs: look after, look for, go up, grow up, get up, wake up, to sum up... </li></ul>
  55. 55. 9. Use proper vocabulary <ul><li>Phrasal Verbs: look after, look for, go up, grow up, get up, wake up, to sum up... </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting verbs: </li></ul>
  56. 56. 9. Use proper vocabulary <ul><li>Phrasal Verbs: look after, look for, go up, grow up, get up, wake up, to sum up... </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting verbs: say, tell, ask, answer, reply, claim, state, suggest, demand, announce, denounce... </li></ul>
  57. 57. 10. Use of connectors

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