Developmental Science Infantdevelopment is not an exact science, however developmental scientist have been able to construct development in infancy through average developmental milestones. Four developmental stages, cognitive, physical, social, and emotional development within infancy.
First Post: Cognitive Development During the first 3 months Neuron Networks become more complex because the infants brain is making more connections everyday through different sensory exposer. As the infant grows throughout infancy those Neurons continue to progress and cause many different aspects of development and growth. The sucking reflex can be seen when the infant will suck on anything that comes in contact with its lips As they progress they will combine grasping with sucking or simply just staring while touching. The environment also can impact the cognitive development of an infant through exposer to different sensory experiences, and reactions to those experiences which will then influence behavior. Infant responds differently when it is exposed than when it is not exposed, can be tested through visual aids, auditory exposer, and touch.
Cognitive Development During the 3-6 month period cognitive development infants begin to progress outside themselves and respond, recognize, and interact with others and objects. The infant can respond to a familiar voice or sounds by smiling, turning head, or crying. The infant can recognize familiar people and objects from close range or at a distance. The infant can interact with others and objects by watching faces closely, watching moving objects, starts using hands and eyes in coordination with others and objects, and begins to make sounds and babble others and objects. The infant can demonstrate changes in their ability to cause change Ex. The different sounds a toy makes by the different ways it is maneuvered.
Cognitive Development During the 6-9 month period an infant is able to babble, trying to verbalize the sounds they hear and have better awareness of the world around them, with people and objects. They can coordinate schemes to produce a solitary act like crying for attention, or moving other objects to get to a desired object. They also have a more developed sensory ability, and able to learn that specific actions have reactions.
Cognitive Development During the 9-12 month period infants respond to others actions and words Can understand “no” Their babble now has inflections or changes in tone They can also use simple holophrases such as ma, mama, which can both indicate mother. In this stage infants can also easily fide hidden objects, or object permanence
Cognitive Development Object Permanence- which means people and objects still exist even when they cannot be seen. Mommy doesn’t disappear playing peek-a-boo.
Second Post: Physical Development Within the 0-3 month period of physical development the brain and the nervous system are the bases of development because the brain tells the body what to do, how to grow and move. However at this stage the body grows in a way it can function, with the most important parts being the head and mid-section. For instance at 0-3 months an infant develops visual abilities and bodily functions before they have the ability to navigate their limbs accurately. Movements and grasping are awkward and imprecise. Eating and rooting are also developed first.
Physical Development During the 3-6 month period an infant has the ability to move and control its body and limbs more than in the previous months. Now the infant can control its neck and head, lifting its head and chest while on its stomach. Practices kicking and swimming motions on stomach and back. Learns to grasp and swipe objects more efficiently. Pushes down on legs when feet are on hard surface. Can also sit with supportive aid, and later without aid.
Physical Development During the 6-9 month period many infants can move themselves in particular directions and start to develop the fundamentals of sitting, crawling, walking, precise grasping. At this age infants can usually sit without assistance. Most infants crawl in between 8-10 months and start walking at around 9 months with aids and supports. At around 8 months infants can grasp with thumb and finger, or hand eye coordination.
Physical Development By 9-12 months most infants can sit up on their own, pull themselves to a stand, walk holding on to furniture or sometimes without aids. For the most part it depends on the infant, but usually by a year old most infants can walk, however it is not uncommon for them to walk on their own after a year. At this age infants can also take objects out of objects/things and put them back in. They also tend to poke/point with their index finger.
Third Post: Social Development During the 0-3 month period, parents are usually the infants first playmates, there for the infant develops off of the parents social interactions, basically the parent teaches the infant how to act and respond. Infants as young as 3 months old can comprehend emotion through facial expressions, verbal tones, and body movements, which in turn causes the infant to develop social emotions they express through “smile,” enjoyment, disappointment, or sadness.
Social Development During the 3-6 month period social development will progress to smiling at familiar faces showing eagerness to interact Infant enjoys playtime and interactions and shows signs of disappointment when ended. However infant can self comfort. The infant is more able to communicate with body and face.
Social Development Infants within the 6-9 month period show more attachments to familiar caregivers, and show more anxiety with strangers. During the 9-12 month period infants can be shy, anxious, or outgoing and content. It depends on their exposer to others, and how often. Infants in this stage enjoy imitation, and will often repeat sounds and gestures. At this age infants will often test their caregivers response to their behavior.
Fourth Post: Emotional Development At first during the 0-3 month period there is not much emotion that an infant understands. All an infant understands in survival instincts such as feeding, sleeping, and changing. Most of the time these are the only reasons an infant will distress. However if an infant is not allowed the opportunity to learn how to self sooth then that infant will require more soothing from outside influences
Emotional development During the 3-6 month period infants developed emotion identification. Where they are able to recognize the emotions in others through facial expressions, vocal expression, and body expression. Although some say that emotional expression may be inborn, and that expression might happen without witnessing it.
Emotional Development Within the 6-9 month period infants can display a sense of panic when emotional interaction is taken away. In some test it was shown how an infant would panic and start crying when a caregiver cease emotion and interaction. The test may have answered questions of whether or not infants need emotion to communicate. Is it possible that infants understand emotion enough to asses others moods?
Emotional Development During the 9-12 month period infants use their understanding of emotions to scheme and coordinate acts. They understand better the use of crying, laughing, smiling, kissing, and touch as ways to express wants and needs. They have also become aware of the emotions of others and are able to express empathy. Caregivers reactions also influence a childs emotions and how they deal with them. Which can also influence their temperament.