510 34

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  • 510 34

    1. 1. BIO20B Development & Physiology Prof. Justin CummingsPlant Physiologist /Restoration ecologist
    2. 2. Lab #1 Plant morphology •Print out handouts from eCommons •All assignments are to be turned in at 2:00 on Friday
    3. 3. Plant of the week #1Coast redwood, Sequoia sempervirens World’s tallest living species 2000+ years old Stump-sprouting Thick bark UCSC’s redwood
    4. 4. • Kingdom: Plantae -Includes glaucophytes, red algae, and green plants -All descended from an ancestral organism with primary chloroplast
    5. 5. •Green Algae- ancestral organismto all land plants
    6. 6. Adaptations allowing for the colonization of land by plants1.Cuticle: waxy covering of leaves2.Stomata: Openings in leaves and stems that allow for gas exchange3.Gametangia: multicellular organs that enclose plant gametes and prevent them from desiccating4.Embryos: young plants contained within a protected structure5.Pigments: allow for protection against harmful uv radiation6.Fungal mutualism: promotes nutrien and water uptake from soil
    7. 7. Gymnosperms vs. AngiospermsGymnosperms- Seed plants thatdon’t produce flowersAngiosperms- Flowering plants
    8. 8. Angiosperms: Monocots vs. Eudicots Arrangement of Cotyledons Veins in leaves flower petals vascular bundles in stem Monocot 1 parallel Usually in multiples of 3 scattered Eudicot 2 netlike Usually in multiples of 4 or 5 in a ring
    9. 9. Autotrophs: Obtain carbon through atmosphericcarbon fixation and photosynthesisWhat do plants need?•Light•CO_2•Water•Minerals
    10. 10. Basic Plant Structure• Shoot system • Stem and Leaves -Photosynthesis and Water/Nutrient Transport •Root System •Roots -Absorb water, nutrients, and stores products from photosynthesis
    11. 11. Fig 5.7•Plants Cell •90% of cell volume •Primarily serves as a storage structure •Water filled sacks containing minerals, enzymes, amino acids, and sugars from photosynthesis
    12. 12. •2 cells walls •Primary and secondary cells walls•Primary cell wall Mades up of hemicellulose and pectins•Secondary cell wall •Internal to primary cell wall •Increases structural support •Embedded with lignin
    13. 13. Meristematic cells give rise to more specialized cells • Undifferentiated cells • Cell division -> one meristem cell; one differentiated specialized cell 3 Types of mature cells 3 Types of tissue Parenchyma DermalSchlerenchyma Ground Collenchyma Vascular
    14. 14. 1. 3 types of cellsPARENCHYMA •Most common cell types •Most of a leaf •Metabolically active •Totipotent ( e.g. wounding, cuttings) •Primary cell wall; middle lamella (region between cells that binds them together) (no secondary cell wall) •Large vacuolesInvolved in: •Photosynthesis •Storage cells in roots •Most of a fruit
    15. 15. 2. 3 Types of mature cells From the Greek: “Glue”COLLENCHYMA • Flexibility and support • Thickened primary cell walls; no secondary wall • Occur in bundles • Tend to be long, pliable ------- Why is celery stringy • (Alive when mature) • Rich in pectins ------Jelly
    16. 16. 2. 3 types of mature cellsCOLLENCHYMA• Provide support to petiole, non-woody stems, and growing organs
    17. 17. 3. 3 types of mature cells From the Greek: “Hard”SCLERENCHYMA •Function: Structural Support •Thick 2º cell walls •Lignified •Dead when mature (in non- growing parts) •Protection of seed & fruits •Different types: •Sclereids----------- Why are pears gritty •Fibers ----------------- Most of what we wear!
    18. 18. FibersRigid sipport to woodSclereidsDensly packed cells; e.g. Nut Shell
    19. 19. 1. Dermal Tissue From the Greek “Over skin”EPIDERMIS• One-cell thick• Cuticle (wax on surface •  Specialized cells • Tichomes • Root hairs Periderm- Dermal tissue of stems and roots of woody plants
    20. 20. 2. Ground Tissue• Between dermal and vascular tissue• Metabolically active• Photosynthesis, storage (parenchyma)• Support (schlerenchyma, collenchyma)
    21. 21. 3. From the latin “small vessel” VASCULAR TISSUE• Continuum of phloem and xylem• Transport • Phloem: sugars • Xylem : water• Support (xylem)
    22. 22. Two specialized cels in vascular tissue: Xylem and Phloem4. Tracheary elements (=schlernchyma)• Dead when mature• Thick cell walls• Interconnect via pits in walls• Connect end to end• Conduct water• Tracheids (gymnosperms & vessel elements(angiosperms)
    23. 23. Two specialized cells types in vascular tissue: Xylem and Phloem5. Sieve tube cells = parenchyma• Live when mature• Missing nuclei , vacuoles....• Need companion cells• Connect end to end (sieve plates)
    24. 24. * This will be on the testOrgans in the roots Organs in the shoots roots stem leaves 3 Types of Tissue Dermal Vascular Ground 3 Types of cells Parenchyma Collenchyma Schlerenchyma
    25. 25. Look at root and shoot in book
    26. 26. How do plants grow?• Plants show indeterminate growth (keep growing.• Totpotent cells (1 cell-> whole organism). Meristems • Cells unspecialized • Divide ->additional cells Apical meristem Lateral meristem 1º growth 2) growth (thickening e,g. roots * shoot tips e.g. tree trcuk
    27. 27. MERISTEMS cont.What if meristem is damaged?• Other cells become meristematicAfter the meristem• All subsequent growth = elongation
    28. 28. MERISTEMS cont.How does a tree grow?Then, 2º growth from lateral meristems <Vascular cambium Cork cambium1º growth from apical meristem
    29. 29. What’s a growth ring?In Winter/spring, lots of rain,• Xylem cells bigger,• with thin walls = lightIn Summer/fall, dry• Xylem cells smaller• with thick walls = dark
    30. 30. How do little bunnies kill big trees “Girdling” Because thecambium (themeristem) is close to the surface

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