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BA and Beyond 19 - Lynda Girvan - User story workshop

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This half day interactive workshop provides attendees with an understanding of User Stories within an agile context. During the workshop Lyn will explore the purpose of user stories, when and how to create them and how to manage them through to successful working solutions. You will leave this workshop with a good understanding of how to create, refine and manage user stories and use them effectively.

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BA and Beyond 19 - Lynda Girvan - User story workshop

  1. 1. User Story Workshop Handout 1 Presented by Lyn Girvan Grace Dieu Court, Monmouthshire, NP25 4EB +44 (0)1600 740 215 www.cmcpartnership.com
  2. 2. Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd User Story Workshop This half day interactive workshop provides attendees with an understanding of User Stories within an agile context. During the workshop Lyn will explore the purpose of user stories, when and how to create them and how to manage them through to successful working solutions. You will leave this workshop with a good understanding of how to create, refine and manage user stories and use them effectively. What you will learn during this workshop: • Understand the purpose of user stories • Understand user roles and their relevance to stories • Create and write user stories • Refine user stories using goal decomposition • How to incorporate non-functionals into backlogs • Manage stories through backlog management
  3. 3. Understand the purpose of user stories Purpose of user stories • Invented by ‘Extreme Programming’ method • Used to mitigate misunderstandings around requirements • Real goal of stories is shared understanding • Get their name from how they should be used, not how they are written down • Development work can be organised using stories • Simplicity of stories can lead to problems • Development teams must communicate with customer when time comes to implement a story Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd
  4. 4. Understand user roles and their relevance to stories User roles • What is a user role? • Types of user role – User – someone who uses the system – Purchaser – someone placing constraints (lawyers, auditors, policy, technical architects) – System – interfacing with the system • Persona • Extreme characters Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd
  5. 5. Example user role card Copyright ©2017, Girvan and Paul, Agile & Business Analysis, BCS Personas Copyright ©2017, Girvan and Paul, Agile & Business Analysis, BCS
  6. 6. Misuse character The abuser A character who purposefully seeks to sabotage the system Copyright ©2017, Girvan and Paul, Agile & Business Analysis, BCS Exercise 1 Tasks What Task 1 Identify user roles for the HolidaysToGo scenario Task 2 Create two personas for the new customer markets HolidaysToGo want to extend into You will find a short scenario at the back of your handouts called ‘HolidaysToGo’. Read through the scenario, then carry out the following tasks: Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd
  7. 7. Create and write user stories What is a user story? • Short description of user need or feature. • Placeholder for a conversation • Written by, or for, end users • Main instrument to influence development of software • Not a formal requirement description as: – Do not describe detail – Do not form part of formal sign-off – Do not describe non-functionals Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd
  8. 8. The 3 Cs Card Conversation Confirmation A placeholder for a conversation Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd Writing user stories Independent Negotiable Valuable to users or customers Estimatable Small Testable Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd
  9. 9. User story format Copyright ©2017, Girvan and Paul, Agile & Business Analysis, BCS Hierarchy of user stories • Themes – Group of related stories – Similar to needs or goals • Epics – Large user story • Stories – Way of describing functionality that is useful to the user Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd
  10. 10. Exercise 2 Task Based on the scenario, and using a little bit of imagination, identify as many stories as you can for the Customer user role. Feel free to split the role into categories (such as over 50s customer, student customer, etc.). Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd Refine user stories using goal decomposition
  11. 11. Why decompose stories “When user stories are used as realization/backlog items, it is important to find a suitable size for them. When developer(s) must realize big stories the development progress is poorly visible and it could happen that the developers lose focus and get stuck in complexity.” Quote from ‘Extreme Programming Explained: Embrace Change’ Copyright © Beck, Kent. Extreme Programming Explained: Embrace Change. 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2004 Decomposing stories As an entrepreneur I want to open a profitable café so that I can make money Think how you might decompose this story? Copyright ©2017 Girvan and Paul, Agile & Business Analysis, BCS
  12. 12. Technical v business decomposition Technical decomposition Business value decomposition Copyright ©2017 Girvan and Paul, Agile & Business Analysis, BCS Goal decomposition Copyright ©2017 Girvan and Paul, Agile & Business Analysis, BCS
  13. 13. Decomposing stories • Decompose goals not functions Goal decomposition v Functional decomposition Copyright ©2017 Girvan and Paul, Agile & Business Analysis, BCS Goal decomposition Serve hot drinks Espresso machine Instant coffee Filter coffee Bulk tea brewer Tea pot Tea leaves Tea bags Serve coffee Serve hot chocolate Serve tea Instant with hot water Instant with hot milk Serve hot drinks Hot chocolate Tea Add hot water Coffee Boil kettle Fill kettle Prepare cups Boil water Add ingredients to cups Obtain ingredients Stir and serve Milk and sugar Slicing user stories • Compound story – Epic that contains smaller stories – E.g. customer can search for course • Search using course code, search field, navigation buttons? • Complex story – Story where there is uncertainty – E.g. customer can pay for course using a Purchase Order on the website • Investigate paying using a PO over the website • A customer can pay using a PO Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd
  14. 14. Splitting stories by goal • As a … corporate customer • I want to… book a hotel room • So I can… work in another location Which part of the story is the goal? Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd • As a … corporate customer • I want to… book a hotel room • So I can… work in another location • Book by phone, email, through website • Book one hotel room, multiple rooms, different dates, book rooms for multiple people Splitting stories by goal Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd
  15. 15. Stories deliver business value Copyright ©1998-2016 Delta Matrix. All Rights Reserved. Patterns for splitting stories Type of story Story Ways to split Task or step As a web maintainer I want to post a new course description to the company website • As a formatted pdf • As a reviewed word document Business rules As a customer I want to book a course • One course • Multiple courses • For multiple delegates Data sets As a marketing manager I want to review management information (MI) so I can see marketing results • Sales MI for past week • Website hits month by month • Product A sales Q1 Data/content entry As a web controller I want to create news and events • Using existing content • Uploading formatted pdfs • By creating HTML pages CRUD As a customer I want to manage my bookings • Make a booking • Change a booking • Cancel a booking • Check course bookings Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd
  16. 16. Exercise 3 Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd Task Decompose the following story: ‘As a backpacker I want to book a holiday travelling around Europe so that I can see lots of Europe’ Prioritising stories Copyright ©2017 Girvan and Paul, Agile & Business Analysis, BCS
  17. 17. MoSCoW prioritisation Copyright ©2017 Girvan and Paul, Agile & Business Analysis, BCS Incorporating non-functionals into backlogs
  18. 18. What are non-functional requirements? Functional requirement Functional requirement What the system needs to do • Functions • Behaviour Non-functional requirement Non-functional requirement How well it does it • Soft goals • Global qualities Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd Categories of NFRs • Persistent • Set constraints/limits • Need to be known upfront Global • Operational • Make functionality better • Evolve over time AssociatedAssociated Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd
  19. 19. Global (persistent) NFRs • Need to be known up-front NFR Document DOD Add to ‘Definition of Done’ Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd Global NFR Associated NFRs Value stories End-userEnd-user Associated NFR Associated NFR End-userEnd-user • Need to be known just in time • Add to confirmation • Include in BDD scenarios • Add to definition of done Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd
  20. 20. Testing for value • The sum of the parts does not always equal the whole • Test for values • Use BDD / confirmation tests Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd Manage stories through backlog management
  21. 21. The backlog • Log work items • Use consistent format: – Requirement catalogue – User stories – Features • Discuss work items • Prioritise work items • Decompose large items • Refine backlog Copyright ©2012 Kenneth S Rubin and Innolution, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Managing the backlog New backlog item Refined/split High priority Lower priority Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd
  22. 22. Refined stories Important Less important High priority Lower priority © Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd Managing the backlog Different views of the backlog Copyright ©2017 Girvan and Paul, Agile & Business Analysis, BCS
  23. 23. © CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd Goal alignment Copyright ©2017 Girvan and Paul, Agile & Business Analysis, BCS Story map Copyright ©2017 Girvan and Paul, Agile & Business Analysis, BCS
  24. 24. Copyright ©2019, CMC Partnership Consultancy Ltd HolidaysToGo Scenario HolidaysToGo is a travel company selling holiday packages to UK mature travellers wanting child free holidays across Europe at an affordable price. Customers To date their customer base has been focused on mature customers age 50+ who often want to travel out of school holiday timeframes. Feedback has suggested that some of their customers wish to go on more adventurous holidays, including cycling, climbing, sailing, etc. Based on feedback, HolidaysToGo is currently looking to expand their customer offering and include more adventurous holidays, including backpacking. They think this could apply to a younger clientele, and so are looking to extend their age demographic to appeal to and attract younger customers as well as the over 50s. Partners HolidaysToGo have built up good relationships with airlines, hotels and resorts, transport companies, ferries and insurance companies in order to offer their current packages. They will need to extend their partners to include lower cost accommodation, such as Youth Hostel Association (YHA) and comfortable budget accommodation, as well as bus and rail services and organised activities in order to appeal to the new market. Advertising HolidaysToGo have a web site but do not currently make bookings through their website. Instead their sales assistants take bookings over the phone as this has appealed to their current clients to date. They invest quite a lot of money in advertising their services through other websites, re-sellers and magazines targeting customers who are 50+. They will need to extend their marketing if they are to attract a wider clientele.

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