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Fadama poultry management plus obj

  1. 1. TITLED: IMPROVED HEALTH AND MANAGEMENT TECHNICS IN POULTRY FARMING In Collaboration with LAGOS STATE FADAMA DEVELOPMENT OFFICE DATE: 12 TH APRIL 2006 VENUE: BADAGRY LIBRARY PATRA CONSULT’s Training Workshop
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>TO EQUIP PARTICIPANTS WITH BASIC POULTRY HEALTH AND HUSBANDRY KNOWLEDGE. </li></ul><ul><li>TO INCREASE POULTRY MANAGEMENT SKILLS OF PARTICIPANTS. </li></ul><ul><li>TO ENHANCE FARMING BUSINESS EXPERTISE AS CATALYST FOR IMPROVED EFFICIENCY AND PROFITABILITY. </li></ul>
  3. 3. MODULE 1 POULTRY MANAGEMENT TECHNICS PATRA CONSULT
  4. 4. MODULE 1 PART I INTRODUCTION TO POULTRY MANAGEMENT PATRA CONSULT
  5. 5. BASIC DEFINITIONS <ul><li>POULTRY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALL AVIAN LIVESTOCK: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHICKEN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TURKEY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GUINEA FOWL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DUCK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GEESE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QUAIL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RATITES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HEALTH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEANS FREEDOM FROM DISEASE. IT INVOLVES PRENVENTION AND CURE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HEALTH FOR ANIMALS GUARANTEES HEALTH FOR HUMANS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PREVENTION IS HOWEVER CHEAPER THAN CURE. THEREFORE HEALTH IS WEALTH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOSECURITY – PREVENTION SANITATION & DISINFECTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROPHYLAXIS (SANITATION & DISINFECTION ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHEMOTHERAPY – MEDICAL INTERVENTION TO CURE I.E. USE OF DRUGS. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HUSBANDRY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TOTALITY OF MANAGEMENT TO GUARANTEE OPTIMUM PRODUCTIVITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOTAL WELL BEING OF LIVESTOCK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BREEDING, HOUSING, FEEDING, WATERING, CLEANING, BEHAVIOR, ENVIRONMENT, BIONOMICS… </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cockerel Layer TYPES OF POULTRY Broiler Turkeys Ostrich IT IS RIGHTEOUS TO CARE FOR LIVESTOCK PROVERBS 12 VS 10.
  7. 7. TYPE OF STOCK <ul><li>BREEDING STOCK </li></ul><ul><li>GRAND PARENT STOCK </li></ul><ul><li>PARENT STOCK </li></ul><ul><li>COMMERCIAL LINES </li></ul><ul><li>COMMERCIAL LINES </li></ul><ul><li>EGG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CHICKEN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GUINEA FOWL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QUAILS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MEAT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CHICKEN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BROILER </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OLD LAYER </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TURKEY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GEESE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DUCKS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OSTRICH </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. LIVESTOCK POPULATION ESTIMATES (1991 – 2004) 1990 13,947,000 34,495,000 22,104,000 3,210,000 72,480,856 88,000 936,000 1991 14,086,470 35,357,375 22,634,496 3,506,400 76,104,899 88,440 931,320 1993 14,369,608 37,147,342 23,733,989 3,835,786 83,505,651 89,327 922,030 1994 14,513,304 38,076,026 24,303,605 3,989,218 88,100,933 89,773 917,420 1995 14,658,437 38,027,926 24,886,892 3,148,786 92,505,980 90,222 912,833 1996 14,805,022 40,003,624 25,484,177 4,314,738 97,181,279 90,673 908,269 1997 14,953,071 41,003,714 26,095,797 4,487,326 101,987,843 91,125 903,728 1998 15,102,600 42,028,806 26,722,096 4,666,817 107,087,235 91,519 899,187 1999 15,253,625 43,079,525 27,363,426 4,853,488 112,441,597 92,036 894,646 2000 15,406,153 44,256,487 28,020,130 5,047,624 105,294,410 92,431 890,237 2001/2 15,560,214 45,260,399 28,692,613 5,249,529 111,856,193 92,956 885,786 2003/4* 15,560,214 45,260,399 28,692,613 5,249,529 121,856,193** 92,956 885,786 Source: Federal Department Livestock and Pest Control Service Departments, Abuja (2002/4) *No new Estimates for all species. **New estimates for poultry Cattle Goats Sheep Pigs Poultry Camels Donkeys
  9. 9. Poultry Business Planning <ul><li>Business (Company) Description </li></ul><ul><li>Operating (Facilities etc.) Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Project Costs and Project Funding </li></ul><ul><li>Product Description </li></ul><ul><li>Business Environment Description </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industry and Trade Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Competitive Analysis and Profiling </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational and Human Resource Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Strategies/Plan, </li></ul><ul><li>Financial projections </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Summary , </li></ul>
  10. 10. Setting Performance Objectives <ul><li>Successful poultry operation starts with setting of objective and production planning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Egg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Meat (Broiler) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Day old Chick </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Setting of objectives must cover the followings: </li></ul><ul><li>Egg production objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Livability on monthly basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age at 50% Hen day production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hen house X performance to 52 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period of peak performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed consumed per bird/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed consumed per dozen of egg on a monthly basis. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broilers production objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight at Cropping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livability % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed Conversion Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DOC production objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Livability % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hatchability % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexing rate </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>It is one thing to set objectives, it is another to achieve them. The performance of chick, grower, layer or broiler can be expressed in a simple equation as: </li></ul><ul><li>Performance equation = f (Q + D + E + H + Mgt) our goal or objective: </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>Q = Quality of Chicks/Breeders </li></ul><ul><li>D = Dietary level and quality </li></ul><ul><li>E = Environment and housing </li></ul><ul><li>H = Health </li></ul><ul><li>Mgt = Management practice and personnel level of training. </li></ul>Strategies for achieving Set Objectives
  12. 12. <ul><li>THE TEN GOLDEN RULES These are 10 (ten) most important factors that make the difference between success and failure of Poultry farming. CRITERION MORE SUCCESSFUL LESS SUCCESSFUL 1. HUMAN RESOURCES Competent, dedicated Untrained, hired labour </li></ul><ul><li>motivated, Family owned. </li></ul><ul><li>2. TECHNICAL Modern, efficient, Old, inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENT unsophisticated </li></ul><ul><li>3. PLACEMENT Long-term plan, single age Short-term plan, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SCHEDULE multiple age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. SOURCES OF Buying by quality, same Buying by price </li></ul><ul><li>REPLACEMENTS supplier variable supplier </li></ul><ul><li>5. DISEASE CONTROL Strict prophylaxis, check of Standard </li></ul><ul><li>immune status vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>6. FEEDING Controlled, phase feeding Ad lib, cheap feed </li></ul><ul><li>7. DEBEAKING Regular, 7 days to 7 weeks Only if necessary to </li></ul><ul><li>control cannibalism </li></ul><ul><li>8. EGG COLLECTION 7 days per week, twice a day, Irregular, seldom or </li></ul><ul><li>if necessary weekends </li></ul><ul><li>9. RECORDS Complete, daily Sporadic (if any) </li></ul><ul><li>10. OVERALL OBJECTIVE High quality eggs maximum “Hang on” </li></ul><ul><li>profits. </li></ul><ul><li>AS YOU LAY YOUR BED...... </li></ul><ul><li>GARBAGE IN GARBAGE OUT. </li></ul>
  13. 13. MODULE 1 PART 11 HUSBANDRY OF CHICKS PATRA CONSULT
  14. 14. SOURCING <ul><li>Does the hatchery have its own breeder farm? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it a commercial hatchery that pulls breeder eggs of various farms? Does the hatchery have a comprehensive history of vaccination profile of breeders from where your birds are to be hatched? </li></ul><ul><li>In all honesty, a reliable hatchery must be able to provide consumers with performance guide as well as efficiency information about annual performance index of their breeding stock. </li></ul><ul><li>Such information are expected to include : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average fertility as regards the batch from where the chicks are going to be hatched out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about the batch fertility as well as the hatchability estimate of the stock. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of Professional Services </li></ul>“ Garbage in, garbage out”
  15. 15. MAJOR HATCHERIES AND BREEDS IN NIGERIA <ul><li>HATCHERIES </li></ul><ul><li>S&D </li></ul><ul><li>ZARTECH </li></ul><ul><li>ECWA </li></ul><ul><li>AVIAN </li></ul><ul><li>CHI/AJANLA </li></ul><ul><li>AMO </li></ul><ul><li>PHED </li></ul><ul><li>KIKACHUKWU </li></ul><ul><li>KADUNA HATCHERIES </li></ul><ul><li>AGRITED </li></ul><ul><li>E.T.C. </li></ul><ul><li>BREEDS </li></ul><ul><li>SHIKA BROWN </li></ul><ul><li>NERA </li></ul><ul><li>LOHMANN </li></ul><ul><li>GOLDEN COMET </li></ul><ul><li>YAFFA </li></ul><ul><li>ANAK </li></ul><ul><li>H&N </li></ul><ul><li>HYBRO </li></ul><ul><li>ROSS </li></ul><ul><li>SHAVERS </li></ul><ul><li>E.T.C </li></ul>
  16. 16. QUALITY of Day old Chicks (DOC) <ul><li>HEALTHY AND HIGH QUALITY DAY OLD CHICK – is the single most important determinant of Success. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Garbage in, garbage out” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOC should be alert and lively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOC should be free from any obvious deformities such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Omphalitis, Crocked beak, Missing eyes, Crossed beak, Red hock, Small chick, Sticky down, Straggly legs and other deformities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ The Hatchery can grow chicks, but it can also grow microbes” . </li></ul><ul><li>Chicks Selection – It is ideal to seek a professional’s support. Veterinarians, Salespersons, Animal Scientists etc </li></ul>
  17. 17. Transporting Day-Old Chicks from Hatchery to Farm Site <ul><li>A successful chick transportation must aim at reaching the destination with minimal stress and mortality. Some necessary conditions must be put into place during transportation of DOC, to achieve successful delivery to farm site. </li></ul><ul><li>The DOCs must be packed in perforated cartons of 50 chicks per carton with usually 1-2 chicks extra per carton to offset mortality in transit. </li></ul><ul><li>A well-aerated vehicle is ideal to transport the chicks. </li></ul><ul><li>Precautions for Day-Old-Chick </li></ul><ul><li>Use good vehicles that allow free in-flow of fresh air, and as such closed vans, buses, and car boots are not ideal. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use trucks to avoid excessive stress and mortality, Transport EASY. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport chicks during cold weather. The best period is early in the morning or late in the evening. Over the years, experience with chicks transportation has shown that chicks should not arrive the farm between 12 noon and 4.00 p.m. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid unnecessary stopovers on the way while transporting during the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for the shortest route and best road to the farm site. </li></ul><ul><li>A well guided and effective chick transportation is sure to reduce transport mortality while excessive stress has opposite effect. </li></ul>
  18. 18. DAY OLD CHICKS MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Preparing the farm Site. </li></ul><ul><li>Repairs and brooder house preparation. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep equipment, house and the brooder’s surroundings clinically clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Wash with high-pressure machine and store manure away from brooder houses. </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfect thoroughly, clean and disinfect all feeders, tanks and drinkers, and disinfest to eliminate ectoparasites, rats and lizards as they are carriers of dangerous diseases. The latter two could also waste the feed by competing with the birds. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare your brooders or chicks’ guards ready and commence pre-heating 6 hours before arrival of chicks. </li></ul><ul><li>In the raining season, you should pre-heat 9-12 hours before arrival of chicks, this will ensure that shavings are warm and the air temperature us conducive for the chicks. Temperature on arrival must be in the range of 32-350C (90-920F). </li></ul>
  19. 19. Housing and Management of DOC <ul><li>Spread shavings evenly as uneven litter creates pockets of uneven temperature, which may cause grouping of chicks to hide, depriving themselves of feed and water. Wood shavings are a good litter material, while maize cobs can also be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide clean water at room temperature before delivery using drinker with a capacity of 3 – 4 litre per 50 DOC. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not close the brooder house completely. Allow limited fresh air in. Let your thermometer and the behaviour of the chicks guide you. </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate brooder houses and do not allow easy access. Usually the best practice is - All-in, All-out programme . It allows for proper clean-up in the event of a disease outbreak. </li></ul>
  20. 20. HOUSING CONSTRUCTION <ul><li>Environmentally controlled houses. </li></ul><ul><li>The open sided houses are the most suitable for layer rearing in the tropics. </li></ul><ul><li>Poultry houses are normally built with the length facing North and South while the breadth faces East and West. </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for the construction of a poultry house: </li></ul><ul><li>Age in weeks Floor space requirement </li></ul><ul><li>0 - 6 0.13 – 0.54Sq. feet/bird </li></ul><ul><li>(0.0123 – 0.05m2/bird) </li></ul><ul><li>6 - 12 0.54 – 0.86sqft/bird </li></ul><ul><li>(0.05-0.08m2/bird) </li></ul><ul><li>Point of lay 1.08 – 3.2 Sq. feet/bird </li></ul><ul><li>(0.05 – 1.45m2/bird </li></ul><ul><li>Note that while making provision for floor space for brooder house the final space requirement per bird must be the size of the house . </li></ul>
  21. 21. BROODING TECHNIQUES <ul><li>Brooding is the practice of exposing chicks to conducive environment before they are capable of fully regulating their body temperature, </li></ul><ul><li>The heating system in the Brooder house could be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Heat canopy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space heating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Gas, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Kerosene, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Coal etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other issues:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Conventional brooder guard should be in place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Availability of a thermometer : maintain the range of 32-330C under the brooder itself and about 290C at the spectrum end of the brooder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- The temperature under the brooder should be regulated on a week basis at the rate of 2.80C or 50F per week until the brooder temperature attains about 270C which is usually achieved within 21 days of brooding in the tropics. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Brooding Techniques Condt. <ul><li>Table of Recommended Brooding Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Period of brooding Temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>(Weeks) ( 0 C) ( 0 F) </li></ul><ul><li>1st 32-35; 90-95 </li></ul><ul><li>2nd 29-32; 84-90 </li></ul><ul><li>3rd 26-39; 70-84 </li></ul><ul><li>4th-5th 21-26; 70-80 </li></ul><ul><li>After 2 weeks, the chick would start to regulate its body temperature due to increased hormonal secretions, feathering and increased physical activities . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Litter Management <ul><li>Litter is important in the regulation of floor temperature and subsequently the chicken’s body temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Routine Litter raking and replacement is essential. </li></ul><ul><li>The litter temperature should be approximately (30 0 C or 85 0 F). In addition; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove wet litter promptly, religiously . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid wet or caked litter as such litters are conducive to outbreak of Coccidiosis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh shavings must be dried and friable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid introducing wet or damp shaving into brooder houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use saw dust, as it could predispose to respiratory problems for the chicks. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. GROWING PULLET MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Rearing Techniques from 7-10 weeks to Point of Lay/Cage </li></ul><ul><li>Biosecurity – Continuous process. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in watering and feeding space management </li></ul><ul><li>Weighing – weekly </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding to target weight to avoid over or under weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Delousing – Leave to experts </li></ul><ul><li>Debeaking – Requires expertise and proper timing </li></ul><ul><li>Prophylactic (e.g. probiotics) and Metaphylactic Medication </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer to Cage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14-16 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid stress </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. GROWING PULLET MANAGEMENT Condt. <ul><li>Supply clean, fresh cool water for the chicks. </li></ul><ul><li>Water intake will increase as temperature increases. </li></ul><ul><li>If you do not supply enough water it will affect the growth rate of the birds. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid water spillage on the litter, so place water trough on raised flat planks. </li></ul><ul><li>Use high quality diet to start the chicks. </li></ul><ul><li>Supply DOC with feed on chick trays, or flat feeders. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure that there is sufficient feeder and space to ensure proper growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, start with 3 bird/10cm for trough feeder and 25 birds/hanging feeder of 18kg. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not waste feed, as you know that profit is directly proportional to cost of feed. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not fill the feeder to full level as this may cause wastage up to 25%. The best level is to fill the feeder up to one-third full. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust feeder height weekly to the level of the back of the bird. </li></ul>
  26. 26. PATRA CONSULT’S BROILER AND REPLACEMENT PULLET MANAGEMENT GUIDE
  27. 27. MODULE 1 PART III HUSBANDRY OF LAYERS PATRA CONSULT
  28. 28. TYPE OF MANAGEMENT <ul><li>CAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MANUAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEMI-AUTOMATED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FULL AUTOMATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FLOOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MANUAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AUTOMATED </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RANGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GREEN FARMING </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. MOST CRITICAL PERIODS <ul><li>LAST THREE WEEKS BEFORE LAYING PERIOD BEGINS. </li></ul><ul><li>POINT OF LAY </li></ul><ul><li>PEAK OF PRODUCTION. </li></ul><ul><li>VACCINATION AND MEDICATION. </li></ul><ul><li>STRESS PERIODS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CHANGE OF FEED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POOR OR LACK OF FEEDING OR WATERING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DISEASE </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. HOUSING IN THE TROPICS (SECTION PLAN) <ul><li>CROSS VENTILATION </li></ul><ul><li>FREE AIR MOVEMENT </li></ul>
  31. 31. POULTRY COMFORTS
  32. 32. TYPICAL POULTRY HOUSE IN NIGERIA
  33. 33. HOUSING FOR OSTRICH
  34. 34. POULTRY HOUSING (CHICKENS) <ul><li>SPACE .Layers in Battery Cages- (5,000-6,000 birds) </li></ul><ul><li>3 tier cages of 10 x 50 x 4m height </li></ul>Facco Nevada cage 3 tier cages 10m 50m
  35. 35. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS <ul><li>2. PLANKS REQUIRED FOR CONSTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>3 x 4 = 200 (Poles) </li></ul><ul><li>2 x 4 = 150 (Rafters </li></ul><ul><li>2 x 3 = 250 (To hold slates roof) </li></ul><ul><li>2 x 2 = 500 (To hold wire nets) </li></ul><ul><li>NAILS </li></ul><ul><li>6” – 2 Bags </li></ul><ul><li>4” – 2 Bags </li></ul><ul><li>3” – 2 Bags </li></ul><ul><li>2” – 2 Bags </li></ul><ul><li>1 ½ - 2 Bags </li></ul><ul><li>Wire net 25 rolls of 150ft each </li></ul><ul><li>Slates = 600 pieces x 3 ⅓ x 8’ </li></ul>
  36. 36. DAY OLD CHICKS REARING PEN <ul><li>2. PEN PARTITIONING TO SAVE HEAT </li></ul>150’ week 1 30’ 5500 DOC week 2 week 3 Week 4-8 remove partitions
  37. 37. LIGHTING PROGRAMS <ul><li>ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BETTER FEED CONVERSION. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOWER ELECTRICITY COSTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FEWER CRACKED EGGS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOWER MORTALITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOWER WATER INTAKE, DRIER DROPPINGS UNIMPAIRED PRODUCTION. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INCREASED PRODUCTION </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. RECORD KEEPING: TOOL FOR PROFITABLE LAYER MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Types of Records </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record of raw materials inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production records (growers, layers, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record of diseases outbreaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record of staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In keeping a good and proper record, the under listed variables must be put into consideration on daily basis . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mortality / Livability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>% Hen day production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hen housed (eggs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egg weight / Average Egg weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of cracks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed conversion (kg / dozen egg) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medication / vaccination </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Basic Ingredients/ characteristics of Good Record Keeping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>must be timely in recording, record your information promptly, it should never be delayed to avoid errors and forgetfulness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>must be meaningful in presentation. A good record should be brief, precise and convey meaningful information to a second party reading. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>record must be dated with month, and year, otherwise such record may not be useful for further exercise of predication and forecasting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>records must be honestly recorded in all projects. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages of Records keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Although some advantages of record keeping have been mentioned, there is a need to emphasize two major advantages of record keeping in a poultry project. </li></ul><ul><li>Record keeping allows for comparison on breed, labour, management and annual performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Historical records can be processed to indicate trends seasonal variations and could be projected for future forecast and prediction. </li></ul><ul><li>From a good Layer records, a project manager can forecast sales or production in order to generate anticipated revenue for budgeting. </li></ul><ul><li>Record As a Tool for Forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>Two methods of forecasting that can be used include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Simple Moving Average Method (SMA) and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Linear Weighted Moving Average Method (LWMA) </li></ul></ul>RECORD KEEPING Condt
  40. 40. MODULE 1 PART IV HUSBANDRY OF TABLE BIRDS (e.g. BROILERS) PATRA CONSULT
  41. 41. <ul><li>BROILERS – Genetically and phenotypically designed to grow FAST by efficiently converting highly digestible nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Broiler Stock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local commercial stock of ≈ 6 million is still less than 20,000MT p.a. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broiler meat market of well over over 200,000MT p.a. is still dominated by Imports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Production does not compete favourably with Imported. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy of Scale favours large scale production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging Opportunities –Expanding Convenience food market & Ban on Importation of frozen broiler via land borders ->-> EXPANDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR NIGERIAN FARMERS </li></ul></ul>INTRODUCTION
  42. 42. Introduction condt. <ul><li>Key issues - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biosecurity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chick quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watering and watering practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccination strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A systematic and efficient management programme must be installed, which has to start even before the chicks arrive. </li></ul>REARING, HOUSING ETC SAME FORMAT WITH CHICKS, BUT DIFFERENT PARAMETERS FOR BROILERS
  43. 43. Biosecurity program <ul><li>Movement and Access Control </li></ul><ul><li>Location - a minimal 2 km perimeter isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Apply an all in, all out system. </li></ul><ul><li>Restrict as much as possible access to the farm and if needed build in safety measures. </li></ul><ul><li>Vermin control program. </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene and Environmental practices </li></ul><ul><li>Clean thoroughly before disinfection. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and Control program to check the quality of disinfection and vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>Development of a good natural immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply a vaccination program based upon local circumstances </li></ul>
  44. 44. Flock Management <ul><li>The number of birds placed depends on the control of the climatic conditions in the house. Although chicks can start at a density of 40 birds/m2, the stocking density in kg liveweight/m2 at killing time will determine stocking density. In naturally ventilated houses, a stocking density of 25 kg liveweight/m2 should not be exceeded. In well managed, environmentally controlled houses, a maximum of 30-35 kg liveweight/m2 should be considered. Feeder and drinker space should be sufficient for the stocking density obtained. </li></ul>Stocking density <ul><li>WEIGHT WATCH. </li></ul><ul><li>Weekly weighing of broilers and feed conversion </li></ul>
  45. 45. Water management <ul><li>Water is one of the most crucial nutritional factors. Fresh water must be available to avoid dehydration at all times. Water and feed intake are directly related, and without adequate supply of water, feed intake and growth will be reduced. Especially at the end of the growing period, when the majority of the breast meat is formed, adequate uptake of clean, fresh water is essential. Under normal conditions, a water to feed ratio of 1.6:1 (nipple drinkers) to 1.8:1 (bell drinkers) will be obtained. Water consumption increases when air temperature exceeds 20°C with approximately 7% per degree centigrade. Sudden changes in water to feed ratios and demands of water are early indicators of problems with feed quality, diseases or stress in the flock. Therefore monitoring water intake on a daily base is essential. </li></ul><ul><li>Water spillage has a negative influence on litter quality, which leads to increased incidence of hockburn and carcass down grading. </li></ul><ul><li>Water level: for the first week, the water levels should be 0.5 cm below the top of the drinker rim. After that, the water level should be 0.5 cm above the bottom of the drinker. </li></ul><ul><li>Drinker level: bottom of the drinker should be level with the back of the bird from 16-18 days onwards. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Automated Drinking-e.g.Nipples etc Minimises contamination and spillages etc.
  47. 47. Broiler Feed management <ul><li>Obtaining sufficient body weight at 7 days is crucial for flock performance. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that emphasis must be put on the starting period, both in management and in the feed program. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation of feed uptake by easy access to feed and water and a good quality feed, preferably crumble, are essential for obtaining first week results. </li></ul><ul><li>The form of the grower and finisher feed is preferably a 3mm pellet, as this stimulates feed intake. </li></ul><ul><li>Broilers are usually fed ad libitum . </li></ul>
  48. 48. Broiler Feed management condt. <ul><li>At start, make sure the feeders are completely filled, for easy access for the </li></ul><ul><li>At start, place the feeders as low as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Supply additional feed on paper, feed plates or trays for the first 3-4 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a good quality feed, preferably in crumble form, as starting feed (see chapter on nutrition) </li></ul><ul><li>Use a good quality feed, preferably in a pelleted form, as grower feed (see chapter on nutrition) </li></ul><ul><li>After 1 week, allow the feed system to be emptied every day, for cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Withdraw medicated feed and change to clean feed in time for processing. – (Withdrawal period) </li></ul><ul><li>Withdraw feed in time for processing. </li></ul>
  49. 49. A typical Nutrient recommendations for broilers. Nutrient Starter Grower Finisher Feed Feed Feed Days 0-14 14-35 35 - End Crude protein % 23.0 22.0 21.0 Met. energy kcal/kg 3150 3200 3250 Mj/kg 13.18 13.39 1160 Linoleic acid % 1.5 1.3 1.2 Total amino acids’ Lysine % 1.25 1.18 1.12 Methionine % 0.50 0.48 0.45 M+C % 0.90 0.88 0.85 Threonine % 0.85 0.83 0.75 Trypthophan % 0.24 0.22 0.20 Calcium % 0.95 0.90 0.85 Available Phosphorus % 0.50 0.45 0.42 Sodium % 0.16 0.16 0.16 Chloride % 0.20 0.18 0.15 Potassium % 0.55 0.55 0.55
  50. 50. Brooding and Temperature management <ul><li>Pre-heating 24 hours prior to arrival of the chicks, to allow the litter to be warmed up. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature of the concrete floor should be at least 27°C when the chicks arrive. Only when very thick layers of litter are used (>10 cm), can this temperature be slightly lower. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal brooding system is a combination of space heating and local heating, as the birds can more or less choose their required temperature. Observing chick behaviour is a good guide to ambient temperature and ventilation problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Light management - Conventionally, broilers arc grown in continuous light conditions, to maximise daily weight gain. Give 1 Hour darkness per day. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Litter management <ul><li>Litter is important in the regulation of floor temperature and subsequently the chicken’s body temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>The litter temperature should be approximately (30 o C or 85 o F). In addition; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove wet litter promptly, religiously . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh shavings must be dried and friable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid introducing wet or damp shaving into brooder houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use saw dust, as it could predispose to respiratory problems for the chicks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid wet or caked litter as such litters are conducive to outbreak of Coccidiosis and hock and leg blisters. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Housing and equipment <ul><li>House design in production cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural, Forced/Extraction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Watering, Heating, Feeders etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>1 1000-1250 birds 2 1000-1250 birds 30ft Broiler pen -8 weeks growing period All in all out batch production 4 weeks apart fill 1 and 4 weeks later fill 2. 150ft
  53. 53. 2. or 2 pens of total capacity of 5,000 – 6,000 broilers 1 500-650 2 500-650 2 weeks continuous production system House design 3 500-650 4 500-650 1 500-650 2 500-650 3 500-650 4 500-650
  54. 54. Heat Stress in broilers <ul><li>Broilers are sensitive to Heat stress </li></ul><ul><li>Hot weather management and Hot climate control therefore crucial.. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporative cooling and Increasing the air velocity at bird level to 2-3 m/s. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat stress prevention/management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation in walls and roofing designs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation of Water tanks and pipes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water sprinklers on the roof to reduce temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply of cool water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid wet litter to reduce humidity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rear males and females separately, allow lower density stocking for males. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More fat/less carbohydrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortifying water with 1g of vitamin C and 0.3g of aspirin per litre. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Pre-slaughter bird handling <ul><li>Avoid Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced and humane handling crew – meat quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection and removal of birds meeting quality standards </li></ul><ul><li>Observe withdrawal period. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove Feed 8-10 hours before processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Ship in the cool hours and ensure low density crating. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate ventilation and cooling system may have to provided </li></ul>
  56. 56. MODULE 1 PART V MARKETING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS PATRA CONSULT
  57. 57. STRUCTURE OF THE NIGERIAN MARKET <ul><li>ISSUES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEASONALITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ELASTICITY OF DEMAND – VIRTUALLY INELASTIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOW BUYING POWER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIGH UNIT COST OF PRODUCTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POOR LEVEL OF PROMOTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POOR FUNDING OF MARKETING FUNCTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POOR COORDINATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POOR PROCESSING AND STORAGE FACILITIES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POWER OUTAGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LACK OF STANDARDS </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. PRODUCT MARKETING- Current Issues <ul><li>MARKETING OF DOC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>› 75% IN THE SW, BAN ON IMPORTS AS CATALYST, NO GPS/PS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MARKETING OF POINT OF LAY/GROWERS/COCKRELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MULTI-LEVELS, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MARKETING OF OLD LAYERS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEASONAL/FESTIVE PERIODS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MARKETING OF EGGS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RECURRENT GLUT, LOW DEMAND GENERATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MARKETING OF BROILER (TABLE/DRESSED) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RESTRICTED TO BIG PLAYERS, ECONOMY OF SCALE, ROI. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MARKETING OF TURKEY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEASONAL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MARKETING OF OSTRICHES-GROWING FAST </li></ul>
  59. 59. Meat processing <ul><li>PROCESSING ASSEMBLY LINE </li></ul><ul><li>STUNNER </li></ul><ul><li>BOILER </li></ul><ul><li>DEFEATHERING </li></ul><ul><li>EVICERATOR </li></ul><ul><li>CUTTER </li></ul><ul><li>FREEZE BLASTING </li></ul><ul><li>COLD STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>MEAT PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>HACCP COMPLIANT MACHINES </li></ul><ul><li>for producing the following- </li></ul><ul><li>Chops </li></ul><ul><li>Meat Balls </li></ul><ul><li>Streaks </li></ul><ul><li>Nuggets </li></ul><ul><li>Hamburgers </li></ul><ul><li>Roasts </li></ul><ul><li>Sausages </li></ul>
  60. 60. POULTRY PRODUCT MARKETING - SOLUTION <ul><li>STANDARDISATIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodical Extraction of Dues and Funds for marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membership and Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MARKETING STRATEGIES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TARGET MARKETING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School children (Egg in One School meal per day program adopted for UBE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mothers and Nurses </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. INSURANCE FOR POULTRY <ul><li>One major strategy in managing risk in poultry enterprises is through insurance. </li></ul><ul><li>For a long time, farmers in Nigeria have blamed government for not establishing agricultural insurance scheme for livestock and crops, thus it had been identified that lack of insurance coverage constituted a major contributory factor to the fall of the poultry industry. </li></ul><ul><li>NIGERIAN AGRIC. INSURANCE CORPORATION is responsible for insuring poultry farming investments (NAIC) </li></ul><ul><li>Proper funding and implementation of Agric Insurance plan have been the limiting factors. </li></ul><ul><li>In the same vein, lack of COMPENSATION plan to cushion disaster and crisis effects in poultry has limited growth. </li></ul>
  62. 62. LEGISLATIVE CONTROL IN POULTRY INDUSTRY <ul><li>1. Pharmacists have statutory roles for sales, distribution, manufacture and dispensing of Veterinary Pharmaceuticals. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Meat Edict empowers the Veterinary officer for meat health or meat hygiene. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Veterinary Surgeon Decree of 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>4. The Animal Disease Control decree of 1988. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Animal Science Practice statutory provision in under way. </li></ul>
  63. 63. MODULE 2 POULTRY FEEDS AND FEEDING PATRA CONSULT
  64. 64. <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>THE NIGERIAN POULTRY AND FEED INDUSTRY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regular Feed Ingredients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonality = Inconsistency in Availability/Quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Versatile Array, including alternatives / non-conventional feed ingredients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limitation in Commercial Quantity/Localised availability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluctuating prices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Climate/Weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical/Warm/Moist Climate/Vegetation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aids Infestations/Spoilage of Raw Materials. Enhances Litter-borne Infections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Favourable condition for cropping 2-3x.. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial or Self-mix Feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Practice : Usually Mixed/Integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical factors of production efficiency : Animal, Raw Materials, Expertise, Environment & Management </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. THE ANIMAL ISSUES <ul><li>BREED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DWARF/LONG LEGGED </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STARTER/FINISHER </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GENETICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SUPERIOR ENGINEERING & HYBRIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SOURCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REPUTABILITY, CONSISTENCY E.TC. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FAST FOOD/HOUSE HOLD TABLE MEAT/CULTURAL PREFERENCES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIGH /MEDIUM/LOW GROWTH RATE PERFORMANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEAN /SOFT/FATTY/TOUGH MEAT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HEALTH STATUS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factor of Source (above) & Health Management </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. RAW MATERIALS ISSUES : NUTRIENTS & SOURCES <ul><li>CARBOHYDRATE/ENERGY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MAIZE, SORGHUM, MILLET </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PROTEIN – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ANIMAL: FISH MEAL, MEAT MEAL (NOW BANNED) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLANT: SBM, GNC, CSM, BDY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FAT/OIL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OIL SEED SOURCES, P/OIL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FIBRE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W/OFFAL, PKC, BDG, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MINERALS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MACRO & TRACE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VITAMINS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LIFE SUPPORTING/PERFORMANCE DRIVERS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WATER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VEHICLE /CARRIER </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. WORK-FORCE/EXPERTISE <ul><ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT ISSUES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>EMPOWERMENT </li></ul><ul><li>CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SELF-FULFILLMENT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CAREER/LIFE DEVELOPMENT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REMUNERATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WORKABLE ♦HUMANE♦ ENLIGHTENED ♦LIVING♦ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>FAMILY SENSE OF BELONGING. </li></ul><ul><li>DEDICATION </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUSED </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DETAILED/ATTENTION TO DETAILS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ CHICKEN SENSE ” </li></ul>
  68. 68. What the Chicken wants…
  69. 69. THE EXPERTISE <ul><li>THE NUTRITIONIST </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FEED FORMULATION / COMPUTER /TECHNICAL SKILL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KEY TO COST EFFECTIVE, EFFICIENT AND APPROPRIATE FEED FORMULATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEAST COST/OPTIMAL FORMULATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMPUTER SIMULATED GROWTH MODELS – Beyond Least cost formulation, moving into Least cost Growth Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth Modelling Programmes ( GMP ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trajectory of nutrient profile-down to Amino Acids , & feed consumption & Growth curves & Cost.. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Ivey Growth Model or Chickpot </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NUTRIENT BLENDING SKILL/KNOWLEDGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biological Value </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QUALITY CONTROL -> CONSISTENCY & PROFITABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NUTRIENT PROFILE OF RAW MATERIALS </li></ul><ul><li>THE RIGHT MIX : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical Mixers – Dead Vacuums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attendant Nutrient 2 o Deficiency, uneven growth etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal Mixers. - Lower Coefficient of Variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5% CV is near ideal – i.e. using Specroscopy Test with aid of Marker or test materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>▲ – LOGISTICS, TIME AND COST. </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. BALANCED (COMMERCIAL) FEED OPTION <ul><li>FINISHED FEEDS AND CONCENTRATES FOR CONVENIENT FEED PROVISION ARE AVAILABLE IN THE NIGERIAN MARKET </li></ul><ul><li>MAJOR SUPPLIERS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LIVESTOCK FEEDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEEPC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VITAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOP FEEDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANIMAL CARE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AMO BYNG NIG. LTD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.T.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FACTORS FOR CHOICE OF SUPPLIERS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EVIDENCE OF HIGH FEED CONVERSION RATE (CR). BEST IF THE OFFER “ GMP ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MUST HAVE A PROMISE OF CR =/<3:1 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COST EFFECTIVE/FRIENDLY PRICE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MUST GUARANTEE MINIMUM OF 30-40% P/MARGIN </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PROJECTED COST OF PRODUCTION </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROMISE OF 1.7-1.9 KG LIVE WEIGHT AT 8 WEEKS AND MAXIMUM 5.7KG FEED </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. <ul><li>TOLLING SERVICES/CONTRACT MILLING </li></ul><ul><li>ISSUES- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COMMON PHENOMENOM IN THE SOUTH WEST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHILD OF CIRCUMSTANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNREGULATED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOW TO NIL GMP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REQUIRES CLOSE SUPERVISION AND THIS IS TIME CONSUMING. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMMON SOURCE EPIZOOTOLOGICAL HAZARDS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RECOMMENDED APPROACH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HUMAN CAPITAL ALLOCATION (Trusted Hand) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USE NEW BAGS/ WASHED, DISINFECTED AND DRIED BAGS/ BULK DELIVERY SYSTEMS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PATRONISE ONLY THOSE WITH ORGANISED AND STANDARDISED SET UP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SELF-MILL ON YOUR FARM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ ISSUES ON SELF MIX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEDICATED PERSONNEL - MUST NOT HINDER POULTRY SUPERVISION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MATERIAL MANAGEMENT/QUALITY CONTROL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FINANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ETC. </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. THE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES <ul><li>THE MANAGER/MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>QUALITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEVOTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATTENTION TO DETAILS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HOUSING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STANDARD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AMPLE VENTILATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPACE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CLIMATE/WEATHER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TEMPERATE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TROPICAL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MICRO-CLIMATE: Disturbance/Noise Control. E.t.c. </li></ul>
  73. 73. MANAGEMENT: FEEDING PRACTICES/TECHNICS <ul><li>STANDARD CONSUMPTION RATE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AGE, PRODUCTION e.t.c. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BEST TIME OF FEEDING BROILERS (NIGHT, MORNING AND EVENING HOURS ETC) </li></ul><ul><li>DELIVERY RATE –AD LIBITUM </li></ul><ul><li>TURNING OF THE FEED THOUGH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STANDARD - 4 X OR 3X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AUTOMATED TURNING – CHAIN FEEDING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NUTRIENT SPECIFICATIONS / REQUIREMENTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BREED, AGE, SPECIES, PRODUCTION TARGET/OBJECTIVE ETC. </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. FEEDING PRACTICES/TECHNICS CONDT . <ul><li>MATERIAL HANDLING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PROPER STORAGE / STACKING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LABELLING OF FEED. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SHELF LIFE/FIFO/FRESHNESS OF FEED. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SYSTEM OF FEEDINGS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AUTOMATIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEMI AUTOMATIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MANUAL: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TRAINING/SUPERVISION </li></ul><ul><li>WASTAGE CURTAILMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE/MANAGEMENT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TYPE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REGULAR CLEANING/SERVICING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FEEDING SPACE REQUIREMENTS. </li></ul><ul><li>HYGIENE AND GOOD HEALTH MANAGEMENT </li></ul>
  75. 75. FEEDING PRACTICES/TECHNICS CONDT . <ul><li>SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), & Norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management by Objectives (MBOs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LISTS ACTIVITIES/FUNCTIONS OF FARM HANDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STANDARDIZING/REGIMENTING ACTIVITIES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding, Watering, Cleaning, Medication, Vaccination e.t.c. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CLOCKS/THERMOMETERS IN POULTRY PENS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE MANAGER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80:20 RULE </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. ISSUES IN FEEDING AND WATERING CONDT. <ul><li>STARVING BIRDS OF WATER FOR 3 DAYS WILL RESULT IN MOULTING AND DROP IN PRODUCTION. </li></ul><ul><li>FOR EVERY GRAM OF FEED EATEN BY CHICKEN IT WILL NEED 2-3MLS OF WATER. </li></ul><ul><li>A SIMPLE RULE OF THE THUMB IS TO MULTIPLY FEED INTAKE BY 2 TO ARRIVE AT WATER INTAKE IN LITRES. </li></ul><ul><li>INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN CONTENT ON PERFORMANCE </li></ul><ul><li>PROTEIN CONTENT 13.5% 15.0% 16% 17.5% </li></ul><ul><li>EGG NUMBER 275 285 287 288 </li></ul><ul><li>EGG WEIGHT 59.65 60.10 60.55 61.07 </li></ul><ul><li>MASS 41.70 43.60 44.20 44.80 </li></ul><ul><li>FCR 2.72 2.59 2.57 2.48 </li></ul><ul><li>MORTALITY 8.10 7.9 7.6 7. 7 </li></ul>
  77. 77. TYPICAL LOCAL FEED AND WEIGHT TARGETS
  78. 78. MODULE 3 POULTRY HEALTH ISSUES PATRA CONSULT
  79. 79. CLASSIFICATION OF POULTRY DISEASES <ul><li>BACTERIAL </li></ul><ul><li>VIRAL </li></ul><ul><li>FUNGAL </li></ul><ul><li>PROTOZOAN </li></ul><ul><li>PARASITIC </li></ul><ul><li>NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES </li></ul><ul><li>HEREDITARY AND GENETIC </li></ul><ul><li>TOXIC </li></ul><ul><li>DISEASES OF UNKNOWN AETIOLOGY </li></ul>
  80. 80. BACTERIAL/MYCOPLASMA DISEASES <ul><li>PULLORUM </li></ul><ul><li>INFECTIOUS CORYZA </li></ul><ul><li>FOWL TYPHOID </li></ul><ul><li>FOWL CHOLERA </li></ul><ul><li>CHRONIC RESPIRATORY DISEASE </li></ul><ul><li>ETC </li></ul>
  81. 81. FOWL CHOLERA Swollen comb and face, wattles Fragments of egg yolk in the abdominal cavity Causes : Pasteurella multocida Symptoms: - Very acute form: sudden death. Acute and chronic form: yellow – greenish diarrhea, loss of appetite, difficult breathing, hyperthermia, swollen and cyanotic wattles and face. Lesions: - Enlarged liver, with small grey to whitish spots of necrosis Hemorrhages in lungs, intestines pericardum. Fragments of egg yolks in abdominal cavity. Treatment : IMEQUYL 10% 1g/litre of drinking water during days. Prevention : Hygiene measures. Vaccination BACTERIAL DISEASES
  82. 82. CHRONIC RESPIRATORY DISEASE E. Coli septicemia. perihepatitis Nasal discharges <ul><li>Causes Primary agent: Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Secondary complications: viral (IB, ND) and Symptoms: Respiratory problem: gasping, nasal discharges, coughing, watery eyes, characterized by slow propagation. Reduced growth. Drop in egg production and hatchability. Lesions: Mucus in trachea, thickened air sacs, pericarditis, perihepatitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: Against Mycoplasma: SUANOVIL 50:0,50g/litre of drinking water during 3 to 5 days. Against E Coli: IMEQULY 10%: 1g/ litre of drinking water during 3 to 5 days. Prevention: M.G free day old chicks. Hygiene and isolation measures SUANOVIL 50 or BELCOSPIRA ORALE preventive programms </li></ul>
  83. 83. OMPHALITIS <ul><li>Cause: </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly E. Coli </li></ul><ul><li>Bad egg hygiene conditions for incubation. </li></ul><ul><li>Bad management of incubators and hatcheries. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Lameness and weakness of chicks. </li></ul><ul><li>Infected vent and High mortality during the first days of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesions: </li></ul><ul><li>Soft and flabby abdomen, very offensive smell. Infected navel. </li></ul><ul><li>Unabsorbed egg yolk, peritonitis, pericarditis and perihepatitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment and Prevention: </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene of hatching eggs: fumigation immediately after laying and also in the hatchery. </li></ul><ul><li>QUINOLONES e.g. IMEQUYL 10% at day – old 1g/ litre of drinking water for 3-5 days. </li></ul>
  84. 84. FOWL TYPHOID <ul><li>Causes: Salmonella gallinarum Symptoms: Loss of appetite, high thirst, green diarrhea, anemia, sudden death. Lesions: Enlarged liver spleen and kidneys, deformed eggs. Soft liver of brown to greenish color with necroses. </li></ul>Hemagglutination (positive above) Typical bronze greenish color of liver Treatment and Presentation: Systematic Blood Test of Breeders. IMEQUYL 10% 1g/litre of drinking water for 3 – 5 days.
  85. 85. PULLORUM Whitish diarrhea (in chicks) <ul><li>Causes: Salmonella pullorum. Vertical transmission Symptoms: Mainly in chickens less than 15 days of age: whitish diarrhea, high mortality and morbidity, poor growth. Lesions: Slow vitellus resorbtion, whitish kidney, lesions in liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention and Treatment: Systematic Blood Test of breeders and eradication. Imequyl 10%: 1g/ litre of drinking water for 3-5 days. </li></ul>
  86. 86. INFECTIOUS CORYZA <ul><li>Causes: Haemophilus paragallinarum Symptoms: Disharges from eyes and nose. Swollen head and face Sneezing, coughing, difficulty in breathing, loss of appetite, drop in egg production. </li></ul>Swollen sinus <ul><li>Trretment: IMEQUYL 10% 1g/ litre of drinking water during 3 – 5 days. Prevention: Vaccination HAEMOVAX </li></ul>
  87. 87. PROTOZOAN DISEASES <ul><li>COCCIDIOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>BLACKHEAD- (HISTOMONIASIS) </li></ul>
  88. 88. COCCIDIOSIS <ul><li>Cause : Protozoa: EIMERIA of different subspecies. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms : </li></ul><ul><li>Paleness, drop in production </li></ul><ul><li>Bloody acqueous diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Ruffled feathers </li></ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul><ul><li>Lesions: </li></ul><ul><li>Different according to the type of Eimeria </li></ul><ul><li>Hardened intestines with ulcerated bloody </li></ul><ul><li>mucus and necrosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Caecum with blood (E. tenella) </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>ANTICOCCIDIALS </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention: </li></ul><ul><li>BIOLOGICALS </li></ul><ul><li>FEED ADDITIVES e.g. LERBEK in feed. </li></ul>E. necatrix E. acervulina
  89. 89. COCCIDIOSIS LIFE CYCLE
  90. 90. Coccidiosis Cond’t
  91. 91. BLACK HEAD DISEASE <ul><li>Cause – Histomonas meleagridis </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly a disease of Turkeys, not clinical in chickens (Carriers). </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms – Loss of appetitte </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanosis of the snood and wattles </li></ul><ul><li>Major source of mortality in young turkeys </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken worm (Heterakis gallinae) is the intermediate host for the organism </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention . Sanitation, Good management technic e.g. Do not rear chicken and turkey together or else deworm chickens frequently. Metronidazole in Feed. </li></ul>Treatment – Nitrofurans. Metronidazole
  92. 92. VIRAL DISEASES <ul><li>NEWCASTLE DISEASE </li></ul><ul><li>GUMBORO </li></ul><ul><li>FOWL POX </li></ul><ul><li>AVIAN INFLUENZA </li></ul><ul><li>INFECTIOUS LARYNGOTRACHEITIS </li></ul><ul><li>ONCOGENIC VIRUSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AVIAN LEUKOSIS COMPLEX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAREK DISEASE </li></ul></ul>
  93. 93. GUMBORO DISEASE <ul><li>Cause : Birnsvirus, characterized by its strong immunosuppressive capability (high incidence for efficacy of any other vaccination). </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: In case immunosuppressive form: </li></ul><ul><li>Depression, whitish diarrha, poor feed conversion. </li></ul><ul><li>High sensitivity to all other viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>In case of acute form: </li></ul><ul><li>In broilers, 10% - 25% mortality between 3 to 6 weeks of age </li></ul><ul><li>In pullets, 15% - 60% mortality between 3 to 12 weeks of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesions: </li></ul><ul><li>Enlanged Bursa of Fabricius </li></ul><ul><li>Haemorrhagic lesions in Bursa of Fabricius and muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention: </li></ul><ul><li>Severe cleaning and disinfection before introducing day – old chickens. </li></ul><ul><li>Breeder vaccination with inactivated vaccines (Gumboriffa, Bigopest or Gumbopest) in order to transmit maternal antibodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Broiler vaccination as early as possible with live vaccines (BUR-706 or Gumboral CT) in order to quickly stimulate active immunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Pullet vaccination same as broiler vaccination. In some cases, usage of killed vaccines (Gumboriffa, Gumbopest) may be necessary. </li></ul>Swollen Bursa Fabricius Normal bursas compared to infected ones Hemorrhage
  94. 94. NEWCASTLE DISEASE Hamorrhage in the proventriculus Torticolis Cause : Paramyxovirus: Symptons: Respiratory signs: rales, coughing and sneezing. Nervous signs: paralysis, torticolis. Rapid evolution, high mortality, drop in egg production, abnormal eggs, Prevention: Vaccination
  95. 95. FOWL POX Grey nodules on the comb and around the eggs Cause: Virus. Symptoms: Loss of appetite Scale – like eruptions on the comb, wattles, face and around the eyes. Formation of yellow nodules in the mouth and larynx. Prevention: Vaccination
  96. 96. EGG DROP SYNDROME Soft or deformed eggs <ul><li>Cause: Adenovirus 127. Only in layers and breeders during egg production period. Symptoms: Slight depression. Drop in egg production (15 – 35%). Discoloured and soft – shelled eggs (30% during 5 to weeks). Lesions: No clear lesions. Prevention: Vaccination </li></ul>
  97. 97. INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS <ul><li>Cause: Coronavirus </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: Respiratory signs: gasping, coughings, sneezing. </li></ul><ul><li>Drop in egg production, deformed eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Lesions: Lungs and trachea congested. </li></ul><ul><li>Urates in the kidneys. </li></ul><ul><li>Deformation of egg sheel. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: QUINOLONES for bacteria complications. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention: Vaccination </li></ul>Difficulty of breathing in small chicks Mucus in the trachea Deformed eggs Urates in kidney and swollen ovaries
  98. 98. SWOLLEN HEAD SYNDROME <ul><li>Cause : </li></ul><ul><li>Primary agent is a pneumovirus </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary complications virus (IB) and bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>(E. Coli-Haemophilus..) which enter through lesions caused by </li></ul><ul><li>pneumovirus. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>In broilers: </li></ul><ul><li>Maximal intensity of symptoms at 4-5 weeks of age: </li></ul><ul><li>depression, watery eyes, almond-shape eyes, head </li></ul><ul><li>swellings, nervous symptoms, mortality (up to 20%). </li></ul><ul><li>In layers and breeders: </li></ul><ul><li>Light symptoms during rearing period. </li></ul><ul><li>During laying period, same symptoms as for broilers, together with: </li></ul><ul><li>drop in egg production (5 to 30%). and hatchability </li></ul><ul><li>poor quality of day old chicks. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesions: </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion and necrotic lesions of the mucosae of the nasal </li></ul><ul><li>cavity, the palative cleft and upper respiratory tract. </li></ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous oedema on head tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: QUINOLONES against Gram (-) complications. Vaccination: </li></ul>Peri orbital oedema (in brilers) Oedema in head tissue (in breeders) Torticoli (in broilers)
  99. 99. AVIAN ENCEPHALOMYELITIS (Epidemic Tremor) <ul><li>Cause: </li></ul><ul><li>Enterovirus </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms : </li></ul><ul><li>Between 6 days and 3-4 weeks: nervous signs, tremor, </li></ul><ul><li>paralysis. High mortality in chicks. </li></ul><ul><li>In layers, sharp drop in egg production. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention: </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination of future breeders and pullets </li></ul>Tremor and nervous signs in chicks
  100. 100. INFECTIOUS LARYNGOTRACHEITIS <ul><li>Cause: Herpes virus. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in breathing: gasping, coughing, squealing, </li></ul><ul><li>head drawn back for breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesions: </li></ul><ul><li>Blooded trachea. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention: </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination </li></ul>Difficulty in breathing Bloody Exudates in the trachea
  101. 101. INFECTIOUS SYNOVITIS <ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><li>Viral-bacterial complications: Reovirus (viral arthritis). </li></ul><ul><li>Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma synoviae. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>General weakness, swollen articulation and metatarses. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesions: </li></ul><ul><li>Purulent arthritis and synovitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruptured tendons. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention : Vaccination </li></ul>Swollen articulations
  102. 102. LYPHOID LEUCOSIS <ul><li>Agent: Retro (leuco) virus. Symptoms: General weakness, decrease of appetite and egg production. Normally birds are affected after 3-4 months of age. Lesions: Grey to whitish tumors on the ABDOMINAL ORGANS. Prevention: Selecting breeds with genetical resistance to poultry leucosis. Strict hygiene measures (isolation, cleaning, disinfection…). </li></ul>
  103. 103. MAREK’S DISEASE Typical Paralysis Affected liver compared to normal liver <ul><li>Cause : Herpes virus Symptoms and Lesions: Nervous form progressive paralysis from 12 to 20 weeks of egg Visceral form – grey whitish tumors in the liver, kidneys, spleen ovaries and other viscera from 7 weeks of age and onwards. Cutaneous form – cutaneous lesions. Prevention: Vaccination </li></ul>
  104. 104. AVIAN INFLUENZA <ul><li>Symptoms and Lesions: Incubation period: 3-14 days Birds found dead Drop in egg production Neurological signs Depression, anorexia, ruffled feathers Combs swollen, cyanotic Conjunctivitis and respiratory signs </li></ul><ul><li>Control and Eradication: Depopulate flock and destroy carcasses Remove manure down to bare concrete High pressure spray to clean equipment and surfaces Spray with residual disinfectant Eliminate insects and mice Vaccination . </li></ul>Cause : RNA Orthomyxovirus Three Groups Type-A: Bird flu Type-B: Human flu Type-C: Human flu Influenza A Fifteen types H1 to H15 Nine Subtypes N1 to N9 H5 and H7 subtypes are highly pathogenic H5N1 type <ul><li>Morbidity: Approaches 100% in commercial poultry flocks Deaths within 2 to 12 days after first signs of illness Survivors in poor condition </li></ul>
  105. 105. FUNGAL DISEASES <ul><li>ASPERGILLOSIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspergillus fumigatus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MYCOTOXICOSIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CAUSED BY MYCOTOXINS (2 0 Metabolites of different moulds & fungi growing on Agricultural produce either before harvest, during harvest, during transportation or during storage or during processing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lethal for POULTS (TURKEYS), CHICKS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Production in layers and Poor growth in growing birds </li></ul></ul>
  106. 106. MYCOTOXINS <ul><li>Carcinogenic- Aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1 </li></ul><ul><li>Oestrogenic- Zearalenone) </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotoxic- (fumonisin B1) </li></ul><ul><li>Nephrotoxic- Ochratoxins, citrinin, oosporeine) </li></ul><ul><li>Dermonecrotic (trichothecenes) </li></ul><ul><li>Immunosuppressive-Aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, and T‑2 toxin). </li></ul>
  107. 107. PARASITIC DISEASES <ul><li>INTERNAL:- </li></ul><ul><li>VARIOUS HELMINTHS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INTESTINAL WORMS E.G. ROUNDWORMS ETC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRACHEAL WORMS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL:- </li></ul><ul><li>VARIOUS ECTOPARASITES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LICE, TICKS, FLEAS ETC </li></ul></ul>
  108. 108. INTERNAL PARASITES <ul><li>NEMATODES </li></ul><ul><li>Cause: Intestinal worms: </li></ul><ul><li>Ascaris </li></ul><ul><li>Heterakis </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaria </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Paleness, drop in production </li></ul><ul><li>Whitish diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive weakness. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesions: </li></ul><ul><li>Worms in intestine or caecum </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>anthelmentics </li></ul>Cappillaria Ascaris Heterakis Syngamus trachea
  109. 109. NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS <ul><li>Simple or multiple deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>P rimary causes: </li></ul><ul><li>Deficient feed, old or decomposed, lacking </li></ul><ul><li>the required amounts in vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary causes: </li></ul><ul><li>Stress factors, infections… interfering with untrients absorption. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: HIGH DOSE OF WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS in the drinking water, especially during fast growing </li></ul><ul><li>period, peak of egg production and after stress period. </li></ul>Vitamin D deficiency: Ca malabsorption Vit. E deficiency: Nervous system affection
  110. 110. NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES <ul><li>DEFICIENCIES OF : </li></ul><ul><li>VITAMINS </li></ul><ul><li>MINERALS & other nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>PREDISPOSE BIRDS TO DISEASES </li></ul>Lysine defc Thiamine defc Riboflavin defc. (Curled toe paralysis) Choline defc.
  111. 111. FUNDAMENTALS OF POULTRY DISEASE PREVENTION AND BIO-SECURITY PATRA CONSULT
  112. 112. <ul><li>QUALITY OF DAY OLD CHICKS </li></ul><ul><li>BIONOMICS OF PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>HOUSING DESIGN & ORIENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>MANURE MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>LITTER MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>AIR MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>WATER QUALITY </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDER DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>BIOSECURITY </li></ul>POULTRY DISEASE PREVENTION
  113. 113. PREVENTION- NUTRITION <ul><li>RATION MUST BE BALANCED </li></ul><ul><li>PROVIDE ADEQUATE QUANTITY </li></ul><ul><li>FEED MUST BE FRESH </li></ul><ul><li>INCLUDE NUTRACEUTICALS, SUCH AS ANTIMYCOTOXIN </li></ul><ul><li>USE NUTRACEUTICALS THAT ARE ANTI MYCOTOXIN </li></ul><ul><li>NUTRACEUTICAL –PHYTOGENIC (YUCCA) OR GEOLOGIC (HSCAS) </li></ul><ul><li>HSCAS- HYDRATED SODIUM CALCIUM ALUMINO SILICATE </li></ul><ul><li>HSCAS –MOST POWERFUL M/TOXIN BINDERS </li></ul>
  114. 114. PREVENTION: CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS <ul><li>ROUTINE DEWORMING </li></ul><ul><li>ROUTINE DELOUSING </li></ul><ul><li>ANTISTRESS MEDICATIONS DURING INCLEMENT WEATHER OR STRESS </li></ul>PREVENTION: MANAGEMENT OPERATION <ul><li>MONITOR APPETITE THROUGH DAILY FEED CONSUMPTION </li></ul><ul><li>OBSERVE ALERTNESS OF BIRDS </li></ul><ul><li>MAINTAIN STRICT CULLING POLICY </li></ul>
  115. 115. PREVENTION: ROUTINE VACCINATIONS <ul><li>TYPICAL BROILER MEDICATION AND VACCINATION PROGRAM </li></ul><ul><li>AGE IN DAYS/WEEKS MEDICATION/VACCINATION/ACTIVITIES </li></ul><ul><li>BROILER </li></ul><ul><li>1-4 WKS 1-5 Days INTRA-OCULAR NDV </li></ul><ul><li>6-7 Days VIT & ANTIBIOTIC </li></ul><ul><li>8-12 Days COCCIDIOSTAT </li></ul><ul><li>14 Days VITAMINS </li></ul><ul><li>10TH Day GUMBORO (1st short) </li></ul><ul><li>17-19 Days VITAMINS </li></ul><ul><li>21ST Day NDV LASOTA ORAL </li></ul><ul><li>22-23 Days VITAMINS </li></ul><ul><li>23-26 Days COCCIDIOSTAT </li></ul><ul><li>28TH Day GUMBORO (2nd Short) </li></ul><ul><li>4-8 WKS 31 32 Days VITAMINS </li></ul><ul><li>33-41 Days ANTI CRD DRUG ADMINISTRATION </li></ul><ul><li>44-46 Days ANTI-COCCIDIOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>47 50 Days VITAMINS </li></ul><ul><li> DAYS 42-50 SALES </li></ul><ul><li> DAYS 51- 53 CLEAN HOUSE & FUMIGATE </li></ul><ul><li> DAYS 59-60 RESTOCK </li></ul>
  116. 116. PREVENTION- BIOSECURITY APPROACH <ul><li>HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES OF BIOSECURITY </li></ul><ul><li>BIBLICAL ACCOUNTS- MOSES LAWS ON SANITATION IN THE CAMP OF ISRAEL </li></ul><ul><li>ALEXANDER THE GREAT 323BC- USED FIRE </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF OIL BY THE GREAT BRIDGE BUILDERS </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF SILVER- KINGS AND PRINCES </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF SALT- PRINGLES 18 TH CENTURY </li></ul><ul><li>SEMMELWEIS IN 1849- PUERPERAL FEVER IN VIENNA </li></ul><ul><li>LISTER – FIST SURGEON TO USE PHENOLS </li></ul><ul><li>LOUIS PASTEUR </li></ul><ul><li>PAUL EHRLICH </li></ul><ul><li>ALEXANDER FLEMING </li></ul>
  117. 117. BIOSECURITY <ul><li>BIOSECURITY AIMS AT BREAKING THE CHAIN OF TRANSMISSION OF DISEASE AGENTS </li></ul><ul><li>DISEASE AGENTS ARE TRANSMITTED DIRECTLY FROM ONE INDIVIDUAL TO ANOTHER OR INDIRECTLY THROUGH FOMITES </li></ul><ul><li>SOME DISEASE AGENTS ARE COMMUNICABLE BETWEEN MAN AND ANIMALS, CALLED ZOONOTIC DISEASES </li></ul><ul><li>DISEASE AGENTS ARE GROUPED AS FOLLOWS: </li></ul><ul><li>BACTERIA </li></ul><ul><li>VIRUSES </li></ul><ul><li>FUNGI </li></ul><ul><li>MYCOPLASMA- PPLOs </li></ul><ul><li>PARASITES- ENDO AND ECTO </li></ul>
  118. 118. POULTRY HEALTH MANAGEMENT -THE ESSENTIALS BIOSECURITY Personal Environmental Asepsis Hygiene Hygiene and Safety -Disinfectants - Sanitizers -Etc. Environmental Pest Control Others Control
  119. 119. Organic/Green Farming Immunization Chemo-Prophylaxis PROPHYLAXIS -Yucca --HSCAS -Additives -Biologicals POULTRY HEALTH MANAGEMENT -THE ESSENTIALS. Condt.
  120. 120. Laboratory Physical Exam. &Observation Postmortem -Culture tests -Serologic tests -Genetic detection - Sensitivity tests -Etc. Proper and Accurate DIAGNOSIS POULTRY HEALTH MANAGEMENT -THE ESSENTIALS. Condt. Obtaining blood sample
  121. 121. POST MORTEM <ul><li>Ground Rules : </li></ul><ul><li>Asepsis </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Methodical </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Differentials </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusive Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation </li></ul>
  122. 122. CHEMOTHERAPY <ul><li>PROFESSIONAL USE OF CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Anti viral </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Infectives </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antibacterials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antimicrobials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antifungal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Herbal Products </li></ul>POULTRY HEALTH MANAGEMENT -THE ESSENTIALS. Condt.
  123. 123. DISINFECTION AND ANTISEPSIS <ul><li>DISINFECTION: IS THE PROCESS THROUGH WHICH MOST FORMS OF LIFE ARE ELIMINATED FROM THE OBJECT WHICH IS BEING REFERRED TO AS DISINFECTED </li></ul><ul><li>ANTISEPSIS: IS THE PROCESS THROUGH WHICH MOST MICROBIAL FORMS ARE ELIMINATED FROM LIVING TISSUES </li></ul>
  124. 124. GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR EFFECTIVE DISINFECTION <ul><li>CLEANING - OBJECTIVE IS TO REMOVE AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE ALL ORGANIC MATTER(O.M) </li></ul><ul><li>WASHING- OBJECTIVE IS TO SOLUBILIZE REMNANTS OF ORGANIC MATTER FOR EASY REMOVAL </li></ul><ul><li>HEATING- TEMPERATURE INFLUENCES RATE OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS </li></ul>
  125. 125. ACTIVITY OF DISINFECTANTS IN THE PRESENCE OF O.M. <ul><li>Disinfectant Activity in the presence </li></ul><ul><li> of organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Phenol + </li></ul><ul><li>Quaternary ammonium + </li></ul><ul><li>Formaldehyde +++ </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine ++ </li></ul><ul><li>Key : </li></ul><ul><li>+ Slight or weak </li></ul><ul><li>++ Moderate </li></ul><ul><li>+++ High </li></ul>
  126. 126. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICACY OF A CHEMICAL DISINFECTANT contd <ul><li>EFFECT OF P H </li></ul><ul><li>SOME DISINFECTANTS WORK AT ACIDIC, WHILE SOME AT ALKALINE ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>QUALITY OF WATER </li></ul><ul><li>HARD WATER MAY RENDER A DISINFECTANT INSOLUBLE </li></ul><ul><li>HALOGENATION </li></ul><ul><li>ALL HALOGENS HAVE INTRINSIC </li></ul><ul><li>DISINFECTANT ACTIVITY BUT NOT ALL ARE STABLE. </li></ul><ul><li>ADDITION OF CHLORINE ATOMS TO A PHENOL INCREASES EFFICACY </li></ul>
  127. 127. Environmental and Movement Control <ul><li>Strict Traffic Embargo </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid crisscrossing and interchanging of Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy all pest Harbourages </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient effluent disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain manure tanks or clear pits as due </li></ul>
  128. 128. Hygiene and Sanitation Practices <ul><li>Foot and Tyre Dips </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Hygiene </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waste management practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sanitation Showers </li></ul>
  129. 129. MODULE 4 POULTRY WASTES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES PATRA CONSULT
  130. 130. POULTRY WASTES <ul><li>SOLID </li></ul><ul><li>SEMI-SOLID </li></ul><ul><li>LIQUID </li></ul>
  131. 131. FLOW CHART OF COMMON MANURE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
  132. 132. UNDERFLOOR STORAGE THE SIZE OF THE STORAGE IS ACCORDING TO THE VOLUME OF WASTES PRODUCED
  133. 133. OPEN LOT SOLID MANURE CONTROL
  134. 134. LIQUID OR SEMI-SOLID WASTE CONTROL
  135. 135. WASTE MANAGEMENT RULES <ul><li>SEPARATE WASTES ACCORDING TO TYPE USING BARRIERS, FILTERS AND PHYSICAL REMOVALS </li></ul><ul><li>MAINTAIN MANURE TANKS OR CLEAR PITS AS DUE. </li></ul><ul><li>KEEP ALL DRAINAGES CLEAN AND FUNCTIONAL. </li></ul><ul><li>KEEP FARM SURROUNDING CLEAN. </li></ul><ul><li>AVOID OPEN WASTE COLLECTION OR DUMB </li></ul><ul><li>MAINTAIN/CLEAR INCINERATOR ETC. </li></ul><ul><li>AVOID RUN-OFFS </li></ul>
  136. 136. WASTE MANAGEMENT RULES COND’T <ul><li>KEEP EVERY WHERE DRY </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT BE A NUISANCE TO NEIGHBOURS </li></ul><ul><li>NO NOT POLLUTE THE ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>DISPOSE FAR AWAY FROM FARM SITE ACCORDING TO LOCAL AUTHORITY OR WASTE MANAGEMENT COMPANY DIRECTIVES </li></ul>
  137. 137. DON’T JUST HAVE A GOOD DAY, MAKE IT A GOOD DAY
  138. 138. FINITO

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