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Fr antibiotic pesticide hormones & heavy metals f


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Fr antibiotic pesticide hormones & heavy metals f

  1. 1. Dr.Babasaheb N. Kumbhar M.V.Sc
  2. 2. FOOD SAFETY :- A suitable edible product which when consumed orally either by a human or an animal does not cause any health risks (to consumer RESIDUES:- These substances having a pharmacological actions of their metabolites and of other substances transmitted to animal products and which are likely to be harmful to human health.
  3. 3. Acceptable Daily Intake : It is an estimate of the amount of the substance in food or drinking water, expressed on a body weight basis that can be ingested daily over a life time without appreciable risk. (in units of g/kg of Body weight) Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) : The maximum concentration of residue resulting from the use of a veterinary drug is acceptable in or on a food. in g/ kg on a fresh weight basis Safety factor- 1:1000
  4. 4. Drugs /antibiotic Antibiotics, coccidiostat, Anthelmentics, Acaricides, Topical antiseptics Insecticide Chlorinated Hydrocarbons & organophosphates Metals Lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium etc,… Hormones Safety compounds- Estradiol, Progesterone, Testosterone. Non safety compounds- Oxytocin, Thyroid
  5. 5. Growth Promoters Arsenicals , Antibiotics, Clenbuterol Natural toxins Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, Etc Environmental contaminants Herbicide, Fungicide. Preservatives : Sulphur, Dioxide, Sodium, Potassium ,Nitrite Other substances: Fluoride
  6. 6. Routes of Entry Dermal (skin) Oral (mouth) Inhalation (lungs) Eyes
  8. 8. Animal Drug Residues • “include the parent compounds and/or their metabolites in any edible portion of the animal product.”
  9. 9. The antibiotic ecosystem Treatment & prophylaxis Human medicine Community Veterinary Medicine Animal feed additives Environment Hospital Agriculture Plant protection Industry
  10. 10. Major Classes of Drugs Used in Food Animals  Antibiotics  Topical antiseptics bactericides,&fungicides  Ionophores  Steroid anabolic growth promoters  Antiparasite drugs
  11. 11. Drugs Most Likely to be Detected in Meat Penicillin Tetracycline  Sulphonamides  Neomycin, Gentamicin  Streptomycin
  12. 12. Drugs Withdrawal period(days) Amoxicillin Ampicillin Cloxacillin Penicillin G Chlor tetracycline Oxy tetracycline Tetracycline 12 6 10 3 1 18 14 Drugs Withdrawal period(days) Amoxicillin Ampicillin Cloxacillin Penicillin G Chlor tetracycline Oxy tetracycline Tetracycline 12 6 10 3 1 18 14
  13. 13. Development of resistance Gastro intestinal tract Proximal Distal Intestinal secretion Bile Résistance = lack of efficacy Résistance =public health issue Biophase Target pathogen Blood Food chain Environment Systemic Administration Quinolones Macrolides Tétracyclines Gut flora •Zoonotic (salmonella, campylobacter •commensal ( enterococcus)
  14. 14. Animal Drug Residue Concerns Consumer preference Consumer health risk Environmental concerns Lost milk product Lost animal Production loss for the producer
  15. 15. Effect of Residues Anaphylactic reaction Allergy Drug resistant organism Therapy failure Toxicity penicillin highly allergic
  16. 16. Solution to Drug & Chemical Residues  No easy solution in Milk & Meat  Incentive to do the right thing has to be greater than doing the wrong thing  System of control points, HACCP for the dairy & meat supply  Education:- Producers Veterinarians  Consumers
  17. 17. Pest: “ includes vectors of human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants or animals causing harm during or otherwise interfering with the production, processing, storage, transpo rt or marketing of food, agricultural commodities, wood and wood products or animal feedstuffs”. What is Pesticide? “any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling any pest.”
  18. 18. Insect weeds moulds Rodents Rat, mic e etc Plant growth activators.
  19. 19. Reason of pesticide residues – High fréquence of use – Lack of control in application or follow up – Poor Equipment/ analytical capability and poor quality control in laboratories
  20. 20. Source/Origin of pesticides through milk:- Attributed to two main factors. 1) Residues and their metabolites secreted in milk. 2) Direct contamination of milk after milking.
  21. 21. Insecticide Tolerance limit mg/kg (ppm) Aldrin dieldrin 0.2 DDT 7.0 Fenitrothion 0.03 Lindane 2.0 Chlorfencinphos 0.2
  22. 22. Skin: Rash, Burns Blistering, Sweating, contact Dermatitis, Jaundice Eyes: Tearing, Irritation, Conjunctivitis Cardiovascular system: Cardiac arrhythmias Gastrointestinal tract: Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea, Abdomin al pain Sympotms : Nervous system: Headache, Mood disturbances, Depression, Muscle twitching, Lack of coordination, Paralysis, Loss of consciousness, Coma Respiratory system: Throat pain, Rhinorrhea, Cough, Pulmonary edema, Difficulty in breathing, Respiratory failure
  23. 23. MercuryArsenic Lead
  24. 24. Heavy Metal Other Metal:- –Zinc – Aluminium – Selenium COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED TOXIC HEAVY METALS  Arsenic  Lead  Mercury  Cadmium A metal having an atomic weight greater than sodium, a density greater than 5 g/cm3 No known biological roles – toxic at low levels, e.g. Cadmium, Lead, Mercury i.e. “Heavy Metals” – Major concerns for food
  25. 25. Heavy Metals - Sources ♦ Worldwide – associated with mining, industry. Sources for food: – Environmental pollution – Accidental inclusion in processing – Contamination from containers Entry into environment: • Natural weathering – low levels, local • Extraction and concentration – high levels • Discarding of products after use Source in home (indoor source):-  dust carried on shoes and clothes  old-lead and latex based paints, domestic water supply, burning of wood,  Pesticides and fungicides  major sources of arsenic and mercury indoors INDUSTRIAL SOURCE OF RELEASING INTO ENVIORMENT
  26. 26. Cadmium is used in batteries CADMIUM Sources  Batteries  Electroplating  Plasticizers  Pigments  AlloysContaminant of zinc in metal alloys  Nuclear industry  Cigarette smoke  Most dietary exposure is through  cereals and vegetables, particularly root vegetables.
  27. 27. Mercury Sources Degassing of earth’s crust Fossil fuels Industrial release Dental amalgams Antiseptics, fungicides Diet - typically 2 μg/day (seafood) DENTAL AMALGAM BY MURCURY AS SOURCE OF POISONING
  28. 28. Lead (Pb) Poisoning  Manufacture of Pb – containing products (Batteries)  leaded gas,  lead containing automobile fuel  Food, Soil, Plants  Insecticides,  Containers of soldered tins and ceramic glaze
  29. 29. Name of the poisonous metal Maximum Permissible level ppm by weight Lead 2.5 Copper 20.0 Arsenic 1.0 Tin 250.0 Zinc 50.0
  30. 30. Milk & Meat : Overuse & abuse use in live animal e.g. Inj.oxytocine  Increase milk production e.g. Gonadotropines & GnRH Anoestrus in cow In meat animal growth promoting hormones e.g. thyroid hormone & other hormone Progesterone to maintain pregnancy
  31. 31. Public health impact:- Early sexual maturity & puberty in female Atrophy of gland Neoplasm Psychological changes