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Agricultural Marketing, India,

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Agricultural Marketing, India,

  1. 1. Issues of AgriculturalIssues of Agricultural Marketing in IndiaMarketing in India Baban BayanBaban Bayan Department of Humanities andDepartment of Humanities and Social Sciences, IIT Guwahati,Social Sciences, IIT Guwahati, Guwahati-39Guwahati-39
  2. 2. IntroductionIntroduction  Agricultural marketing needs adequate attention.Agricultural marketing needs adequate attention.  In recent years, agricultural markets have grownIn recent years, agricultural markets have grown in size and complexity, not only in terms ofin size and complexity, not only in terms of volumes and commodities traded but also in termsvolumes and commodities traded but also in terms of regulatory reforms and proliferation ofof regulatory reforms and proliferation of marketing channels and arrangements, with newmarketing channels and arrangements, with new and evolving roles played by both state andand evolving roles played by both state and private players (Chand, 2012).private players (Chand, 2012).  Sidhu (1995) points out that to sustainSidhu (1995) points out that to sustain modernization in agriculture and its productivity, amodernization in agriculture and its productivity, a continuous search for improved methods ofcontinuous search for improved methods of agricultural marketing is required.agricultural marketing is required.
  3. 3. IntroductionIntroduction  Real agricultural markets function in a far moreReal agricultural markets function in a far more complex manner and perform a wide range ofcomplex manner and perform a wide range of other tasks critical to the processes of socialother tasks critical to the processes of social reproduction and development (Jan and white,reproduction and development (Jan and white, 2012).2012).  To ensure producer’s welfare literatures onTo ensure producer’s welfare literatures on agricultural marketing aptly advocates foragricultural marketing aptly advocates for availability of sound physical infrastructure,availability of sound physical infrastructure, transportation, marketing institutions and pricetransportation, marketing institutions and price support and public policy.support and public policy.  Markets as complex systems perform three roles:Markets as complex systems perform three roles: efficiency, extraction and exploitation (Jan andefficiency, extraction and exploitation (Jan and white, 2012).white, 2012).
  4. 4. IntroductionIntroduction The various problems facing the agriculturalThe various problems facing the agricultural marketing system were summarized by the twelfthmarketing system were summarized by the twelfth plan working group on agricultural marketingplan working group on agricultural marketing (Planning Commission 2011)(Planning Commission 2011)  Too many intermediaries resulting in high cost of goods andToo many intermediaries resulting in high cost of goods and services.services.  Inadequate infrastructure for storage, sorting, grading and post-Inadequate infrastructure for storage, sorting, grading and post- harvest management.harvest management.  Private sector unwilling to invest in logistics or infrastructurePrivate sector unwilling to invest in logistics or infrastructure under prevailing conditions.under prevailing conditions.  Price setting mechanism not transparent.Price setting mechanism not transparent.  Ill-equipped and untrained mandi staffIll-equipped and untrained mandi staff  Market information not easily accessible andMarket information not easily accessible and  Essential Commodities Act (ECA) impedes free movement,Essential Commodities Act (ECA) impedes free movement, storage and transport of produce.storage and transport of produce.
  5. 5. IntroductionIntroduction  The empiricist researchers have not paid much heed toThe empiricist researchers have not paid much heed to scholars who have identified malpractices towardsscholars who have identified malpractices towards producers by super markets in “buyer-driven” supplyproducers by super markets in “buyer-driven” supply chains. These include delayed payments; reductions inchains. These include delayed payments; reductions in prices at the last minute when suppliers have noprices at the last minute when suppliers have no alternative, removal of suppliers from lists for no goodalternative, removal of suppliers from lists for no good reason; high interest rates and the use of restrictivereason; high interest rates and the use of restrictive contracts with tough penalties for any non-compliancecontracts with tough penalties for any non-compliance (Singh 2011, Jan and white, 2012)(Singh 2011, Jan and white, 2012)  The key issues of Agri. Marketing in India have beenThe key issues of Agri. Marketing in India have been identified as Market infrastructure,identified as Market infrastructure, Logistics/transportation, farm gate prices and itsLogistics/transportation, farm gate prices and its leakages, institutional mechanism, public policyleakages, institutional mechanism, public policy initiatives and food processing and contract farming.initiatives and food processing and contract farming.
  6. 6. Market InfrastructureMarket Infrastructure  Reshma (2010) observes that post harvest lossesReshma (2010) observes that post harvest losses due to inefficient handling and poor storagedue to inefficient handling and poor storage structure account for an estimated 10 percent ofstructure account for an estimated 10 percent of food grains production and 25 percent of fruits andfood grains production and 25 percent of fruits and vegetables production in India.vegetables production in India.  In India, there are numerous concentrated beltsIn India, there are numerous concentrated belts where fruits of excellent quality are produced andwhere fruits of excellent quality are produced and the establishment of post harvesting andthe establishment of post harvesting and marketing infrastructure will provide needed fillipmarketing infrastructure will provide needed fillip to achieve significant volumes for exports (Yadav,to achieve significant volumes for exports (Yadav, 1995).1995).
  7. 7. Market InfrastructureMarket Infrastructure  Marketing infrastructure has two broadMarketing infrastructure has two broad dimensions- quantity and quality (Chand, 2012).dimensions- quantity and quality (Chand, 2012).  Widening gap between the rise in marketedWidening gap between the rise in marketed surplus and the number of markets (Chand,surplus and the number of markets (Chand, 2012).2012).  As India is lagging behind in establishment ofAs India is lagging behind in establishment of enough markets, it is also lagging behind inenough markets, it is also lagging behind in improving the quality of the existing markets.improving the quality of the existing markets.
  8. 8. Market InfrastructureMarket Infrastructure Amenities Number of markets with facility (%) Common auction platform (Covered) 64 Common auction platform (Open) 67 Common drying yards 26 Grading equipment 30 Canteen 43 Drinking water taps 28 Seating benches 28 Public address system 34 Price display board 61 Table: Facilities/Amenities in regulated markets.Table: Facilities/Amenities in regulated markets. Source: Reproduced from Ramesh Chand (2012), EPW: vol. 47, No. 52, pp.58
  9. 9. Market InfrastructureMarket Infrastructure  To enhance the marketing prospects for the farmers,To enhance the marketing prospects for the farmers, seller driven supply chain in marketing becomesseller driven supply chain in marketing becomes mandatory.mandatory.  In case of perishable horticultural commodities likeIn case of perishable horticultural commodities like fruits and vegetables, production plan should befruits and vegetables, production plan should be preceded by marketing plan (Kahlon and George,preceded by marketing plan (Kahlon and George, 2012).2012).  ““Regulated markets”Regulated markets”  In 2008, number of regulated markets in India wasIn 2008, number of regulated markets in India was 7,566 against 7,177 in 2001 registering an increase7,566 against 7,177 in 2001 registering an increase of only 389 in 7 years period (Indiastat.com).of only 389 in 7 years period (Indiastat.com).
  10. 10. Transportation/LogisticsTransportation/Logistics  To ensure even distribution of agricultural outputTo ensure even distribution of agricultural output across the country, transportation facility isacross the country, transportation facility is essential: an win-win outcomeessential: an win-win outcome  There is a transition in retailing from production orThere is a transition in retailing from production or technology push to market pull which requiredtechnology push to market pull which required producers and suppliers to increase flexibility andproducers and suppliers to increase flexibility and focus on the speed and reliability of delivery.focus on the speed and reliability of delivery. (Arnold, 2010).(Arnold, 2010).  Transport is important because of its strategicTransport is important because of its strategic implication forimplication for costcost (Yadav, 1995).(Yadav, 1995).
  11. 11. Transportation/LogisticsTransportation/Logistics  There is increasing attention given to product quality,There is increasing attention given to product quality, for which a significant component was determined byfor which a significant component was determined by the inbound and outbound logistics (Arnold, 2010).the inbound and outbound logistics (Arnold, 2010).  At present the 2/3At present the 2/3rdrd of fruits and vegetables isof fruits and vegetables is transported by roads in the country. But increasingtransported by roads in the country. But increasing diesel prices are making the road transportation costly.diesel prices are making the road transportation costly.  Arnold (2010) identifies factors related to productionArnold (2010) identifies factors related to production and those related to logistics, where the later includesand those related to logistics, where the later includes limitations on a) Transport infrastructure and services,limitations on a) Transport infrastructure and services, b) knowledge concerning markets and theb) knowledge concerning markets and the characteristics of final demand, c) access to distributioncharacteristics of final demand, c) access to distribution and retail networks, d) availability and financial termsand retail networks, d) availability and financial terms of trade finance.of trade finance.
  12. 12. Farm gate price and its leakagesFarm gate price and its leakages  The prices of agricultural output are consistently rising.The prices of agricultural output are consistently rising.  The farmers’ stake at the price rise has remained lowThe farmers’ stake at the price rise has remained low with increased participation of non producing agents inwith increased participation of non producing agents in agricultural marketing.agricultural marketing.  Middleman successfully turned marketing policies toMiddleman successfully turned marketing policies to their benefit dictating terms to producers and thwartingtheir benefit dictating terms to producers and thwarting modern capital from entering agricultural marketing.modern capital from entering agricultural marketing. Some examples of this are a) increasing theSome examples of this are a) increasing the commission rates of arhtiyas without any justification;commission rates of arhtiyas without any justification; b) rejecting direct payment to producers, which wouldb) rejecting direct payment to producers, which would bypass commission agents and c) determining pricesbypass commission agents and c) determining prices through non transparent methods (Chand, 2012).through non transparent methods (Chand, 2012).
  13. 13. Farm gate price and its leakagesFarm gate price and its leakages  The regulated markets that came to protect theThe regulated markets that came to protect the interests of the farmers deviated themselves from theirinterests of the farmers deviated themselves from their goal.goal.  It needs to be carefully worked whether revenueIt needs to be carefully worked whether revenue considerations are more important than increments inconsiderations are more important than increments in price realization to producers from selling produceprice realization to producers from selling produce outsideoutside mandimandi; and whether there are ways to take; and whether there are ways to take care of the state revenue from agricultural marketing ifcare of the state revenue from agricultural marketing if produce does not pass throughproduce does not pass through mandimandis (Chand, 2012).s (Chand, 2012).  A competitive market structure is expected to helpA competitive market structure is expected to help producers in getting remunerative prices of theirproducers in getting remunerative prices of their produce, provided role of middlemen in grabbingproduce, provided role of middlemen in grabbing marketing margin is less or non-existent –marketing margin is less or non-existent – InIn agriculture it is unwarrantedagriculture it is unwarranted (Jan and White, 2012).(Jan and White, 2012).
  14. 14. Farm gate price and its leakagesFarm gate price and its leakages  To ensure that farmers get adequate returns,To ensure that farmers get adequate returns, conglomerating the output of the small holder farmersconglomerating the output of the small holder farmers and channelizing in bulk to markets becomesand channelizing in bulk to markets becomes necessary.necessary.  Sidhu (1995) observes that the traditional middlemenSidhu (1995) observes that the traditional middlemen are often considered as hoarders and speculators andare often considered as hoarders and speculators and blamed for everything that goes wrong in theblamed for everything that goes wrong in the marketing system.marketing system.  The interaction between marketing and production isThe interaction between marketing and production is often overlooked.often overlooked.  There is no harm for producers to look for the leastThere is no harm for producers to look for the least better number of middlemen when there remainsbetter number of middlemen when there remains managerial complexity in supply chainmanagerial complexity in supply chain
  15. 15. Institutional MechanismInstitutional Mechanism  An effort to preserve farmers’ interests may be laidAn effort to preserve farmers’ interests may be laid through the provision of institutional facilities likethrough the provision of institutional facilities like small farmers’ associations, producers’small farmers’ associations, producers’ organization, co-operatives etc. apart from physicalorganization, co-operatives etc. apart from physical facilities.facilities.  The farmers’ organizations and cooperatives notThe farmers’ organizations and cooperatives not only lower the transaction costs of the firms, butonly lower the transaction costs of the firms, but also lower input costs for the farmers and providealso lower input costs for the farmers and provide them with better bargaining power (Singh, 2012).them with better bargaining power (Singh, 2012).  The more important issue of providing theThe more important issue of providing the institutional and operational framework whichinstitutional and operational framework which makes the facilities viable is ignored (Sidhu, 1995).makes the facilities viable is ignored (Sidhu, 1995).
  16. 16. Institutional MechanismInstitutional Mechanism  Cooperatives were developed as a countervailingCooperatives were developed as a countervailing force to curb the speculative activities of privateforce to curb the speculative activities of private trade (Kahlon and George, 1995).trade (Kahlon and George, 1995).  Collective action through cooperatives orCollective action through cooperatives or associations is important not only to be able to buyassociations is important not only to be able to buy and sell at a better price, but also to help smalland sell at a better price, but also to help small farmers adapt to new patterns and much greaterfarmers adapt to new patterns and much greater levels of competition (Singh, 2012).levels of competition (Singh, 2012).  Marketing practice should come in a packageMarketing practice should come in a package
  17. 17. Institutional MechanismInstitutional Mechanism  Jan and White (2012) says, “if the marketingJan and White (2012) says, “if the marketing system is conceived as having boundaries thensystem is conceived as having boundaries then power in markets flow not just through sociallypower in markets flow not just through socially engineered organizations, noted among which areengineered organizations, noted among which are business associations and lobbies, but also throughbusiness associations and lobbies, but also through social institutions such as the caste structure,social institutions such as the caste structure, patriarchy, ethnic solidarity, religious authority andpatriarchy, ethnic solidarity, religious authority and the multifarious practices of locality”the multifarious practices of locality”  More emphasis on quality standards, frequentMore emphasis on quality standards, frequent handling of processed goods etc. will make greaterhandling of processed goods etc. will make greater demands on the physical and institutional facilitiesdemands on the physical and institutional facilities in the market (Kahlon and George, 1995).in the market (Kahlon and George, 1995).
  18. 18. Public PolicyPublic Policy  In India, the top policy concerns have been priceIn India, the top policy concerns have been price regulation through the Essential Commodities Actregulation through the Essential Commodities Act and the Public Distribution Systems (PDS) andand the Public Distribution Systems (PDS) and parametric regulation through the regulation ofparametric regulation through the regulation of markets-Agricultural Produce Market Committeesmarkets-Agricultural Produce Market Committees (APMC) Acts (Swaminathan, 2000).(APMC) Acts (Swaminathan, 2000).  Essential Commodities Act (1955) provides forEssential Commodities Act (1955) provides for instruments like license, permit, regulation andinstruments like license, permit, regulation and orders for a) price control, b) storage, c) stockingorders for a) price control, b) storage, c) stocking limits d) movement of product e) distribution f)limits d) movement of product e) distribution f) disposal g) sale h) compulsory purchase by thedisposal g) sale h) compulsory purchase by the government and i) sale (levy) to the governmentsgovernment and i) sale (levy) to the governments under the ECA (Chand, 2012).under the ECA (Chand, 2012).
  19. 19. Public PolicyPublic Policy  Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee Acts doAgricultural Produce Marketing Committee Acts do not follow the setting up of parallel competitivenot follow the setting up of parallel competitive markets. The markets set up under the acts also domarkets. The markets set up under the acts also do not provide direct and free marketing, organizednot provide direct and free marketing, organized retailing, smooth raw material supplies to agroretailing, smooth raw material supplies to agro processing industries, competitive trading,processing industries, competitive trading, information exchange, etc.information exchange, etc.  The model Act (2003) provides for legal persons,The model Act (2003) provides for legal persons, growers and local authorities to establish newgrowers and local authorities to establish new markets, establishment of direct purchase centers,markets, establishment of direct purchase centers, consumers/farmers markets for direct sale,consumers/farmers markets for direct sale, promotion of public-private partnership in thepromotion of public-private partnership in the management and development of agriculturalmanagement and development of agricultural markets, regulation and promotion of contractmarkets, regulation and promotion of contract farming etc. (Dev, 2007).farming etc. (Dev, 2007).
  20. 20. Public PolicyPublic Policy  The model APMC Act notes that the monopoly ofThe model APMC Act notes that the monopoly of government regulated wholesale markets hasgovernment regulated wholesale markets has prevented the development of a competitiveprevented the development of a competitive marketing system (Banerji et al., 2012).marketing system (Banerji et al., 2012).  As critics of neo-liberal policy prescription haveAs critics of neo-liberal policy prescription have demonstrated, “deregulation agenda” are primarilydemonstrated, “deregulation agenda” are primarily geared towards removing all traces of interventiongeared towards removing all traces of intervention (with all their flaws) that aim to bring at least(with all their flaws) that aim to bring at least some benefit from the otherwise oppressivesome benefit from the otherwise oppressive capitalist regime to labour, petty producers andcapitalist regime to labour, petty producers and consumers, while retaining and even strengtheningconsumers, while retaining and even strengthening those aspects of state intervention that explicitlythose aspects of state intervention that explicitly benefit capital (Ghosh 2012, Patnaik,1996).benefit capital (Ghosh 2012, Patnaik,1996).
  21. 21. Public PolicyPublic Policy  The model APMC Act proposed in 2003 notes thatThe model APMC Act proposed in 2003 notes that the monopoly of government regulated wholesalethe monopoly of government regulated wholesale markets has prevented the development of amarkets has prevented the development of a competitive marketing system (Banerji et al.,competitive marketing system (Banerji et al., 2012).2012).  As critics of neo-liberal policy prescription haveAs critics of neo-liberal policy prescription have demonstrated, “deregulation agenda” are primarilydemonstrated, “deregulation agenda” are primarily geared towards removing all traces of interventiongeared towards removing all traces of intervention (with all their flaws) that aim to bring at least(with all their flaws) that aim to bring at least some benefit from the otherwise oppressivesome benefit from the otherwise oppressive capitalist regime to labour, petty producers andcapitalist regime to labour, petty producers and consumers, while retaining and even strengtheningconsumers, while retaining and even strengthening those aspects of state intervention that explicitlythose aspects of state intervention that explicitly benefit capital (Ghosh 2012, Patnaik,1996).benefit capital (Ghosh 2012, Patnaik,1996).
  22. 22. Public PolicyPublic Policy  The main instruments of agricultural price policy haveThe main instruments of agricultural price policy have been 1) Assured prices to producers through the systembeen 1) Assured prices to producers through the system of Minimum Support Prices (MSPs) implementedof Minimum Support Prices (MSPs) implemented through obligatory procurement 2) Inter and intra-yearthrough obligatory procurement 2) Inter and intra-year price stability through open market operations, 3)price stability through open market operations, 3) Maintaining buffer stock, 4) Distributing food grains atMaintaining buffer stock, 4) Distributing food grains at reasonable prices through the PDS.reasonable prices through the PDS.  The price policy implemented in the last four and a halfThe price policy implemented in the last four and a half decades has mainly benefitted wheat and rice amongdecades has mainly benefitted wheat and rice among food grains and sugar cane and cotton among otherfood grains and sugar cane and cotton among other crops (Chand, 2012).crops (Chand, 2012).  FDI in retail is fast becoming an important issue aroundFDI in retail is fast becoming an important issue around which analysis, policy and politics is playing out inwhich analysis, policy and politics is playing out in recent period.recent period.
  23. 23. Public PolicyPublic Policy  The struggle in retail may be viewed as one betweenThe struggle in retail may be viewed as one between two forms of capital; large scale corporate capital ontwo forms of capital; large scale corporate capital on the one hand and smaller scale (informal) capital onthe one hand and smaller scale (informal) capital on the other (Frodin 2012).the other (Frodin 2012).  With the large scale exodus from agriculture and theWith the large scale exodus from agriculture and the tardy pace of job creation in industry, petty tradetardy pace of job creation in industry, petty trade has become one of the major sources of livelihoodshas become one of the major sources of livelihoods for a vast array of India’s poor (Jan and White,for a vast array of India’s poor (Jan and White, 2012).2012).  According to one estimate, around 40 million peopleAccording to one estimate, around 40 million people live on activities related to retail sector, 98% oflive on activities related to retail sector, 98% of which are within the local informal sector (Sridhar,which are within the local informal sector (Sridhar, 2007).2007).
  24. 24. Public PolicyPublic Policy  Adequate field experience is a must to find a moreAdequate field experience is a must to find a more holistic agricultural marketing policy in the country.holistic agricultural marketing policy in the country.  Kahlon and George (1995) rightly observe that ourKahlon and George (1995) rightly observe that our marketing policies will not make much headway withoutmarketing policies will not make much headway without developing organized marketing, processing, storage,developing organized marketing, processing, storage, quick transportation and market intelligence services.quick transportation and market intelligence services.  Agricultural marketing is a state subject and manyAgricultural marketing is a state subject and many states are either slow or reluctant to implement variousstates are either slow or reluctant to implement various reforms and legislations related to marketing, evenreforms and legislations related to marketing, even though they are considered necessary for developingthough they are considered necessary for developing the market and trade and improving the welfare ofthe market and trade and improving the welfare of producers and consumers (Chand, 2012).producers and consumers (Chand, 2012).
  25. 25. Food Processing and ContractFood Processing and Contract FarmingFarming  Availing the food processing arrangements helpsAvailing the food processing arrangements helps farmers particularly engaged with production offarmers particularly engaged with production of perishable horticultural products.perishable horticultural products.  Market structure has changed which encourages arrivalMarket structure has changed which encourages arrival of more processed products.of more processed products.  There are three vital factors for the steadily increasingThere are three vital factors for the steadily increasing demand for processed fruits and vegetables. a)demand for processed fruits and vegetables. a) Durability which obviates the problem of perishability,Durability which obviates the problem of perishability, b) New taste, texture and appearance attributes andb) New taste, texture and appearance attributes and product combinations, which appeal to consumers, c)product combinations, which appeal to consumers, c) Convenience for use and reduction of cleaning andConvenience for use and reduction of cleaning and preparation requirements (Yadav, 1995).preparation requirements (Yadav, 1995).
  26. 26. Food Processing and ContractFood Processing and Contract FarmingFarming  Kahlon and George (1995) opine that processingKahlon and George (1995) opine that processing practices have to be evolved which reduces thepractices have to be evolved which reduces the cost of shipments, adds value to the product,cost of shipments, adds value to the product, creates employment and ensure quality.creates employment and ensure quality.  Out of total production of fruits and vegetablesOut of total production of fruits and vegetables every year, less than 2 per cent goes intoevery year, less than 2 per cent goes into processing units. Its share of fruits and vegetablesprocessing units. Its share of fruits and vegetables in global trade is not even 1 per cent.in global trade is not even 1 per cent.  The food processing units in the country will haveThe food processing units in the country will have to strive hard for winning the confidence of theto strive hard for winning the confidence of the consumers (Yadav, 1995).consumers (Yadav, 1995).
  27. 27. Food Processing and ContractFood Processing and Contract FarmingFarming  Contract farming can potentially have larger beneficial effectsContract farming can potentially have larger beneficial effects on products that are perishable, that have larger supplyon products that are perishable, that have larger supply chains than wheat or rice, and where quality improvementchains than wheat or rice, and where quality improvement would matter a great deal more (Banerji et al., 2012).would matter a great deal more (Banerji et al., 2012).  The expectation behind contract farming is based uponThe expectation behind contract farming is based upon removal of intermediaries and introducing an assuredremoval of intermediaries and introducing an assured purchase of output of farmers by the contracting party at apurchase of output of farmers by the contracting party at a remunerative price for him.remunerative price for him.  Contractual relationship overlooks the fact that theContractual relationship overlooks the fact that the contractual relationship between producers and largecontractual relationship between producers and large corporations reduces smallholders with less bargaining powercorporations reduces smallholders with less bargaining power effectively to wage-labour status with the former decidingeffectively to wage-labour status with the former deciding everything from the type of crop, choice of inputs, theeverything from the type of crop, choice of inputs, the amount of credit, and timing of sales (Jan and white, 2012).amount of credit, and timing of sales (Jan and white, 2012).
  28. 28. ConclusionConclusion  Effective agricultural marketing is capable of bringingEffective agricultural marketing is capable of bringing welfare to actual producers away from the nonwelfare to actual producers away from the non producing agents who grab maximum marketing marginproducing agents who grab maximum marketing margin in the supply chain of agricultural output.in the supply chain of agricultural output.  Apart from shortages in facilities like transportation,Apart from shortages in facilities like transportation, market infrastructure, institutions and food processingmarket infrastructure, institutions and food processing and contract farming arrangements, there is seriousand contract farming arrangements, there is serious policy dilemma in providing needed agriculturalpolicy dilemma in providing needed agricultural marketing framework in India.marketing framework in India.  Exploitation of farmers is to the extent that only a 20Exploitation of farmers is to the extent that only a 20 paisa of consumers’ 1 rupee goes to actual producerspaisa of consumers’ 1 rupee goes to actual producers and the remaining 80 paisa goes to intermediariesand the remaining 80 paisa goes to intermediaries (Dev, 2007).(Dev, 2007).
  29. 29. ConclusionConclusion  Unorganized and small holder farmers are the mostUnorganized and small holder farmers are the most vulnerable section in the agricultural marking processvulnerable section in the agricultural marking process in the country against the other relatively better offin the country against the other relatively better off actors like small and big traders and retailers etc.actors like small and big traders and retailers etc.  In India, a serious consequence of selling at aIn India, a serious consequence of selling at a designated place, the yard of adesignated place, the yard of a mandimandi, is that once, is that once agricultural produce has been brought to it, it isagricultural produce has been brought to it, it is seldom taken back in the event of any unfair dealseldom taken back in the event of any unfair deal (Chand, 2012).(Chand, 2012).  Current policies on agricultural marketing has to beCurrent policies on agricultural marketing has to be revisited and designed in the way that the actualrevisited and designed in the way that the actual producers gain the most out of it.producers gain the most out of it.
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  33. 33. THANK YOUTHANK YOU

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