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Hipeac 2017
1
Virtualization and	hypervisor solutions for
mixed-criticality systems based on
heterogeneous multicore processors
Alfons Crespo
FP7	DREAMS,	
H2020	SAFEPOWER
MCS:	5th	International	workshop	on the
“Integrationof	mixed-criticality subsystems
on multi-core and	manycore processors”
Hipeac 2017
2
Message
Virtualization techniques will play a	
fundamental	role	in	the future of	
embedded (cyber-physical)	systems
Embedded virtualization is being used in	a	large number of	embedded industry segments for a	
wide variety of	reasons.	Near-native performance,	maintaining reliability,	and	the ability to
work within constrained environments are	the challenges
Hipeac 2017
3
Outline
• Introduction
– Problems
• Solutions
• Virtualizationtechniques
• Use	cases
• Conclusions
Hipeac 2017
4
Targeted	to	…
• Computer	controlled	systems
– failures	are	critical,
– and	may	have	severe	consequences	on	property,	
environment,	or	even	human	life.
Hipeac 2017
5
Problems		1/3
• Complexity	of	the	applications
– Applications	with	different	needs	
• Real-time	
• Communications
• Graphical	User	Interfaces
• SCADA
• ….
– Operating	Systems
• Support	for	the	applications
• Complexity	of	the	applications
– Lines	of	code
– More	applications	demanding	more	computation
Launchers/	Satellites:	500.000	LOC
Aircrafts:	up	to 5	Millionsof	LOC
Cars:	up	to 30	Millionsof	LOC
Hipeac 2017
6
Problems		2/3
• Certification
– Some	applications	require	to	be	certified	according	the	
level	of	criticality	(DO-178:	A,B,C,D)
– Large	and	complex	systems	are	hard	to	be	certified
– Involves:	Plans	for	Project	management,	Procedures	for	
engineering	process,	Life	cycle	model,	Evidences
– A	modification	of	a	small	component	can	imply	the	system	
re-certification
Hipeac 2017
7
Problems		3/5
• Dependability	&	security
– Reliability
– Integrity
– Safety
– Confidentiality
• Physical	factors
– Number	of	Processing	Units
– Weight	(satellites,	automotive)
– Energy	consumption	(satellites,	
– Wires	/weight
Cars:
N.	ECUs:	up	to	70
SLOC:	20	Millions
(appx.	A380)
Hipeac 2017
8
Outline
• Introduction
– Problems
• Solutions
• Virtualizationtechniques
• Use	cases
• Conclusions
Hipeac 2017
9
Solution	in	Avionics
• Integrated	Modular	Avionics:	Integration	in	a	module	several	
application	with	different	levels	of	criticality	/	security
• ARINC-653	Standard	as	Standard	interface	to	support	
partitioned	systems	
• Successfully	experiences	
– Boing	777	,	787,	..
– Airbus	350,	380,	…
– …
Hipeac 2017
10
Avionics	Approach
• Partitioning	kernel	isolates	and	separates	resources	across	
partitions.	
• The	separation	kernel	is	responsible	for	enforcing	data	
separation	and	information	controls	within	a	single	computer,	
providing	both	time	and	space	partitioning.	
Federated	architecture
Hipeac 2017
11
Virtualization
• Virtualization tecniques providing
– Several Virtual	Execution Execution Environments
– Fault Management	
– Isolation
– Independent application development
have demonstrated its ability to	deal with Mixed Criticality Systems
• Several projects related to	MCS	use	that approach
– MultiPARTES
– DREAMS
– SAFEPOWER
– EMC2
– SAFURE
– ……..
Hipeac 2017
12
Virtualisation
• A	virtual	machine	(VM)	is	a	software	implementation	of	a	machine	
(computer)	that	executes	programs	like	a	real	machine.
• Hypervisor (also	known	as	virtual	machine	monitor	VMM)	is	a	layer	of	
software	(or	a	combination	of	software/hardware)	 that	enables	to	run	
several	independent	execution	environments	or	partitions	in	a	single	
computer.	
• Platform	virtualisation	 is	performed	on	a	given	hardware	platform	by	a	
layer	of	software	(called	hypervisor	or	virtual	machine	monitor),	which	
creates	a	simulated	computer	environment,	a	virtual	machine.	Each	of	the	
virtual	computers	is	referred	 as	“Partition”	or	“Execution	Environment”	
(IMA	terminology)
Hipeac 2017
13
Virtualisation
l XtratuM is	an	open	source	hypervisor	(bare-metal)	 designed	to	meet	
safety	critical	real-time	requirements
l Uses	para	and	full	virtualisation	techniques
l Strong	temporal	isolation
l Several	scheduling	plans.	Each	core	has	its	own	schedule
l Scheduling	policies	per	core:	cyclic	or	Server	based	FPS
l Strong	spatial	isolation
l Robust	communication	mechanisms (ARINC	sampling	and	queueing	ports)
l Robust	error	management	via	the	Health-Monitor
l Devices	can	be	directly	managed	by	partitions.	Shared	devices	can	be	
organised	in	a	IOServer
l All	resources	are	allocated	via	a	Configuration	Table (XML)
l Security	mechanisms
Hipeac 2017
14
Partitioning kernel /	Hypervisor
Hardware
Hypervisor
App
RTOS
App
RTOS
App
RTOS
App
RTOS
Hipeac 2017
15
Heterogeneous Systems
Hardware1
XtratuM Hypervisor
App
RTOS
App
RTOS
App
RTOS
App
RTOS
Hardware2
XtratuM Hypervisor
App
RTOS
App
RTOS
App
RTOS
App
RTOS
Network	(TTEthernet)
Hipeac 2017
16
Current HW/SW	Architectures
• Networked	Multicore	systems
– Integrated	by	several	subsystems
– Interconnected	with	other	subsystems
	
	
	
DREAMS	
Chip
DREAMS	
Chip
DREAMS	
Chip
DREAMS	
Chip
Fault-Tolerance
Hypervisor,	commu-
nication,	time,	resource	
management
Global	Res.	
Manager	(GRM)
DREAMS	CHIP
DREAMS	SYSTEM	OF	NETWORKED	MULTI-CORE	CHIPS
Encryption	Service
Memory	Service
Core	
Services	
Optional	
Services
(as	MW)
Partitions
Application	
Component
Application	
Component
Application	
Component
System	Core
Memory	GW
Application	Core	
or	Processor	
Cluster
Application	Core	
or	Processor	
Cluster
Application	Core	
or	Processor	
Cluster
System	Core
Ethernet	GW
System	Core
I/O
Hipeac 2017
17
Common View
• Reference	architecture
– Independent of	the underlying hardware
• Reference	communication system
– Inter	Partitions in	the same subsystem
– Inter	Partitions in	different subsystem
• Samplingand	queuingPorts (Channels)
– Integration at	hypervisor level services for network
communication
• Scheduling Synchronization
– External signals for execution plan	synchronization
• Several Scheduling Policies
– Each Core	can	be	scheduled under a	scheduling policy
• Cyclic,	Priority Server
Hipeac 2017
18
Additional features
• EnergyControl
– Several Execution Plans can	coexist with
• Partitions/Core	running	at	different voltage/frequency
– Hypervisor can	apply energy saving techniques when:
• Partitions/task finish its job before the slot	duration (wcet)
• Idle	time	intervals
– A	partition can	perform the system energy monitoring and	
take decisions:
• Change the plan	to	save energy
• Change the plan	to	reduce	the response	time
– Different consideration for Critical and	Non	critical
Partitions
Hipeac 2017
19
Outline
• Introduction
– Problems
• Solutions
• Virtualization techniques
• Use	cases
• Conclusions
Hipeac 2017
20
Partitions
• A	partition is	an	execution	environment	that	contains	the	
application	and	the	runtime	or	OS.
• Partitions	can	be	integrated:
– Single	thread	application	+	minimal	runtime
– Multithread	application	+	RTOS
– Multi-core	Multithread	application	+	RTOS
– Multithread	application	+	GPOS
• Oss	:
– Have	to	be	adapted	to	be	virtualized	(para-virtualization)
– Can	be	executed	without	modification	(full	virtualization	based	on	
hardware	virtualization	mechanisms)
Hipeac 2017
21
Partitions
• Two different partitions can	be	defined:
– User Partitions
• Normal	services (only can	impact on the own partition)
– Access	to the own status,	Communicate with other partitions,
Perform actions on the partition (reset,	halt,	suspend),	Generate
partition health monitor	events,..	
– System Partitions:	
• Access	to Restricted services
– Access	to the system information,	Actions on the system (reset),	
Access	to other partitions (get status,	get errors,	…),		Actions to
other partitions (halt,	suspend,	resume,	Modification of	the
partition image (reload images,	…),	Global	Health Monitor	
logstream,	….
Hipeac 2017
22
Multi-core systems
• Processors	trend	is	multicore	systems
– Multi-core	systems	represent	a	major	evolution	in	computing	
technology
– Currently,	businesses	and	consumers	require	its	benefits	
• More	complex	systems
• Performance	and	productivity
– Provides	high-performance	computing	
– But	
• For	real-time	systems	there	are	problems
– WCET	analysis
– Impact	of	shared	resources
– …
• Multicores	can	facilitate	the	integration	of	a	large	
number	of	subsystems
Hipeac 2017
23
Common	aspects
• Number	of	functions	in	critical	systems	is	very	high
• The	certification	is	complex	and	expensive
• The	coexistence	of	functions	with	different	level	of	
criticality	and	security
• Need	of	a	reference	architecture
• Approach:	To	split	the	system	application	into	small	
applications	that	can	be	independently:
– Developed
– Certified
– Executed	in	a	common	platform
Hipeac 2017
24
Virtualisation:	Where	&	How
• Type2	(Bare-metal):
– Highly	hardware	dependent.
– Reduced	memory	footprint.
– Easier	to	certificate	(reduced	LOC)
How
• Transparent	 virtualisation
– The	OS	runs	without	modification.	No	need	to	adapt	
(port)	the	guest	OS
– The	guest	is	not	aware	of	the	virtualisation	layer
– Hard	to	provide	real-time
• Explicit	virtualisation
– The	guestOS is	aware	about	the	existence	of	the	hypervisor
– Privilege	instructions	have	to	be	para-virtualised.	Hypercalls
– Hypervisor	mimics	the	hardware	behaviour
– Additional	services	for	partitioned	systems
Embedded
o Hardware	assisted
o Binary	translation
o Emulation.
Hipeac 2017
25
Virtualisation:	embedded systems
• Hypervisor	providesvirtualCPUs
– Reference	architecture
• Registers
• Timers
• Interrupts
• Memory Management	Unit
• Basic	devices
• Dedicateddevices:	
• Hardware	drivers	can	be	managed
specifically by the guestOSs
Hipeac 2017
26
Virtualisation:	embedded systems
• Virtualization hardware	support
– Hardware	provides:
• Processor mode:	hypervisor (e.g
ring	level -1)
• Several instances of	the
registers,	MMU,	IRQ	masks,	…
• Efficient Virtual	machine	
(partition)	context switch
Hipeac 2017
27
Virtualisation:	embedded systems
• Hypervisor	providesvirtualCPUs+	Partitioning
Services
– System management:	Reset the system,	get the status
– Partition management:	Start,	stop,	suspend,	resume	,	get
status
– Partition scheduling
– Inter-partition communication:	Send and	receive messages
– Tracing facilities:	Store and	retrieve traces
– Health Monitor:	Fault management
Hipeac 2017
28
Software	architectures:	hypervisor
• Hypervisor	based	Asymmetric	Multiprocessing	
(h-AMP)
• Several	hypervisor	instances
• Hypervisor	based		Symmetric	Multiprocessing	
(h-SMP)
• One	hypervisor
Hipeac 2017
29
Outline
• Introduction
– Problems
• Solutions
• Virtualizationtechniques
• Use	cases
• Conclusions
Hipeac 2017
30
Scenarios
User
Interface
Apps.
GPOS
Remote	
Access	
services.
Secure
OS
HW
Basic	
Control
Logic
RTOS
XtratuM
System	
Manage
ment
RTS
Basic	
Control
Logic
RTOS
Several	replicas	running	in	different	
cores/subsystems
Vote	decisions
Hipeac 2017
31
Scenarios
User
Interface
Apps.
GPOS
Remote	
Access	
services.
Secure
OS
HW
Basic	
Control
Logic
RTOS
XtratuM
System	
Manage
ment
RTS
Basic	
Control
Logic
RTOS
System	
Container
Par.1
Par.2
Par.3
Dynamically	to	upgrade	partitions
Hipeac 2017
32
Scenarios
User
Interface
Apps.
GPOS
Remote	
Access	
services.
Secure
OS
HW
Basic	
Control
Logic
RTOS
XtratuM
System	
Manage
ment
RTS
Basic	
Control
Logic
RTOS
High	level	Health	Monitor
Perform	a	system	analysis	and	decide	
to
- Restart/stop/reload	a	partitions
Log-
stream
Health Monitor
Logstream
Hipeac 2017
33
Scenarios
User
Interface
Apps.
GPOS
Remote	
Access	
services.
Secure
OS
HW
Basic	
Control
Logic
RTOS
XtratuM
System	
Manage
ment
RTS
Basic	
Control
Logic
RTOS
Certified
Hipeac 2017
34
Scenarios
User
Interface
Apps.
GPOS
Remote	
Access	
services.
SecureOS
HW
Basic	
Control
Logic
RTOS
XtratuM
System	
Manage
ment
RTS
Basic	
Control
Logic
RTOS
Health Monitor
Logstream
Certified
No	need	of	new	certification
RTCA	DO-297
EUROCAE	ED-124
Hipeac 2017
35
Scenarios
User
Interface
Apps.
GPOS
Remote	
Access	
services.
Secure
OS
HW
Basic	
Control
Logic
RTOS
XtratuM
Energy
Manage
ment
RTS
Basic	
Control
Logic
RTOS
High	level	System	Partition
Gather	sensor	data
- Change	Execution	Plan
Energy Sensors
83%
100% 71%
66%
55%
Different	scheduling	plans	with	Partition/Tasks	running	
at	different	frequencies
Different	consideration	for	HC/MC/LC	Partitions
Off-line	generated
Hipeac 2017
36
Scenarios
User
Interface
Apps.
GPOS
Remote	
Access	
services.
Secure
OS
HW
Basic	
Control
Logic
RTOS
XtratuM
Executi
on	
Manage
ment
RTS
Basic	
Control
Logic
RTOS
High	level	System	Partition
Gather	Performance	registers
- Stop/Resume	Core	Execution	with	LH
Performance	ExecutionRegisters
Hipeac 2017
37
Outline
• Introduction
– Problems
• Solutions
• Virtualizationtechniques
• Use	cases
• Conclusions
Hipeac 2017
38
Conclusions
• Next	systems	shall	be	more	complex
– Partitioning	
• Design
• Implementation
• Execution
• Next	systems	shall	be	networked	multi-core
– Temporal	Interferences
– Analysis	and	integration
• Hypervisor	based	systems	can	help	to	deal	with	all	these	
issues
Hipeac 2017
39
Research	Challenges
• Hypervisors:
– Support	for	multi-core:	ensure	predictable	and	efficient	temporal	
isolation,	allowing	for	resource	sharing
– Provide	means	for	developing	secure	and	safe	systems
– System	resource	control
• Energy
• Execution
• Security
• Real-time	scheduling	techniques
– Ensure	independent	certification	of	critical	partitions
– Support	for	multi-cores:	predictabilty,	improve	utilization
• Methodology	and	development	tools	support:
– for	modelling,	partitioning	or	validation
– facilitating	new	roles	and	responsabilities
– Tailoring	for	specific	application	domains
Hipeac 2017
40
XtratuM Hypervisor
• XtratuM hypervisor	has	been	developed	by	fentISS
(spinoff	of	UPV)
• It	is	being	used	in	Space	sector	(satellites)
• It	has	evolved	in	several	EU	Projects

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