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mania
YAHAYA ABUBAKAR
JIKA
Bnsc
1
InstRUctIonAl oBJectIves
At the end of this class student
should be able to;
Define mania.
List the classification of mania.
List the signs and symptoms of
mania.
List the causes of mania.
List the treatment modalities of
mania. 2
introduction
A Mania is a distinct period 
during which there is an 
abnormally and persistently 
elevated, expansive, or irritable 
mood. This period of abnormal 
mood must last at least 1 week (or 
less if hospitalization is required).
3
definition
Mania is the mood of an
abnormally elevated arousal
energy level.
Mania is a state of extreme
physical and emotional elation.
The word is derives from
the Greek (mania) meaning
"madness, frenzy" 4
ClassifiCation
Mania can be classify into 3; these are
Mixed states; In a mixed state the
individual has co-occurring manic and
depressive features.
Hypomania; In hypomania, there is less
need for sleep and both goal-motivated
behavior and metabolism increase.
Associated disorders; A single manic
episode is sufficient to diagnose bipolar I
disorder 5
CaUsEs
The exert mechanism by which
mania occurs is not yet known.
Based on the mechanism of action of
antimanic agents and abnormalities
seen in patients experiencing a manic
episode the following factors are
noted
6
CON’T
A person may experience mania as a
result of a range of factors, including:
 stressful events
 genetic factors
 biochemical factors
(neurotransmitter abnormalities or
imbalances)
 seasonal influences
 bipolar affective disorder (BPAD).
7
signs and symptoms
 The mood disturbance must be accompanied by at
least three of the following symptoms;
 Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
 Decreased need for sleep
 pressure to keep talking
 Flight of ideas
 Distractibility
 Increase in goal-directed activity or psychomotor
agitation
 Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that
have a high potential for painful consequences
8
TreaTmenT modaliTies
There are basically 2 types
treatment modalities;
Psychological
Treatments
Organic Treatments
9
 Organic Treatments; this involve the used
of drugs
 Mood stabilizers:
 lithium (0.6—1.2 mEq/L)
 carbamazepine (6—12 mg/L)
 valproate (50—125 mg/L)
 Anticonvulsants:
 gabapentine
 topiramate
 lamotrigine
 Agitated or psychotic patient –
coadministartion of
 antipsychotics of second generation
(olanzapine, risperidone)
 Benzodiazepines (lorazepam, clonazepam)
10
nursing inTervenTion
Develop a relationship with the person based
on empathy and trust.
Ensure that the person remains free from
injury.
Assist the person to decrease their agitation
and hyperactivity.
Promote positive health behaviors, including
medication compliance and healthy lifestyle
11
CON’T
Promote the person’s engagement with
their social and support network.
Ensure effective collaboration with other
relevant service providers, through
development of effective working
relationships and communication.
Support and promote self-care activities
for families and carers of the person with
mania. 12
SUMMARY
A Mania is a distinct period during 
which there is an abnormally and 
persistently elevated, expansive, or 
irritable mood. 
13
14

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