HATE CRIME LEGISLATION IN
THE UNITED STATES
Jonathan Nagar
De Nguyen
Introduction
Hate crimes:When a perpetrator targets a victim because
of his or her membership to a certain social group.
•...
Hate Crime Study
 Looked at the number of hate crimes in each
state.
 As of July 2009 there are five states that have
no...
Question 1
Are hate crimes rare enough in these states to not
need legislation?
Data To Consider
Average hate crimes in non-legislated states
(Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, South Carolina
andWyoming) : 56...
Graph
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Arkansas Georgia Indiana South Carolina Wyoming
Hate Crimes in Non-legislated States
Answer co...
Question 2
 Is there a difference in the likelihood of a hate
crime occurring in Pennsylvania compared to
one of the 5 st...
Pennsylvania vs. South Carolina
Hypothesis
Null:There is no difference in reported hate
crimes by agencies in the two stat...
HYPOTHESIS TESTS x-value sample 1 27 x-value sample 2 56
sample size 1 954 sample size 2 476
pooled proportion 0.058 propo...
Question 3
Should the states adopt sexual orientation
under their hate crime laws?
Data To Consider
Bias motivation Incidents
Race 4000
Religion 1462
Sexual Orientation 1195
Ethnicity/National Origin 984
D...
Graph
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
Ethnicity/National Origin: Sexual Orientation:
Ethnicity vs. Sexual Orientation
Ans...
Sexual Orientation vs. Ethnicity/National
Origin
 Null:There is no difference in the number sexual
orientation crimes com...
Question 4
 Does hate crimes occur on college campus
just as often as in a dark alley?
Data to consider:
 Highway/road/dark
alley:
 Total Incident: 1,387
 Race: 780
 Religion: 102
 Sexual Orientation: 287...
Graph:
All Hate Crime Locations
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
College Campus vs. Dark Alley
 Null: Hate crimes in college campus occur just
as likely as in dark alley.
 Alternative: ...
Hate crime legislation in the united states
Hate crime legislation in the united states
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Hate crime legislation in the united states

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De Nguyen and Jonathan Nagar

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Hate crime legislation in the united states

  1. 1. HATE CRIME LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED STATES Jonathan Nagar De Nguyen
  2. 2. Introduction Hate crimes:When a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her membership to a certain social group. • Nationality • Age • Gender • Gender identity • Political affiliation •Racial group •Religion •Sexual orientation •Disability •Ethnicity
  3. 3. Hate Crime Study  Looked at the number of hate crimes in each state.  As of July 2009 there are five states that have no legislation in place (Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, South Carolina andWyoming).  Goal is to determine whether or not these states need to adopt the hate crime law.
  4. 4. Question 1 Are hate crimes rare enough in these states to not need legislation?
  5. 5. Data To Consider Average hate crimes in non-legislated states (Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, South Carolina andWyoming) : 56 Highest total: Arkansas 113 Lowest total:Wyoming 5 Average hate crimes in remaining 45 states: 165
  6. 6. Graph 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Arkansas Georgia Indiana South Carolina Wyoming Hate Crimes in Non-legislated States Answer considering averages:Yes, they are rare enough
  7. 7. Question 2  Is there a difference in the likelihood of a hate crime occurring in Pennsylvania compared to one of the 5 states without hate crime laws?
  8. 8. Pennsylvania vs. South Carolina Hypothesis Null:There is no difference in reported hate crimes by agencies in the two states. Alternative:There is a difference in reported hate crimes by agencies in the two states One-Tailed orTwo-Tailed: Two-Tailed
  9. 9. HYPOTHESIS TESTS x-value sample 1 27 x-value sample 2 56 sample size 1 954 sample size 2 476 pooled proportion 0.058 proportion 1 0.0283 proportion 2 0.1176 Pennsylvania South Carolina std error 0.013 Is there a difference in reported hate crimes by agencies in Pennsylvania and South Carolina? NULL: m1 = m2 There is no difference in reported hate crimes by agencies in the two states. ALTERNATIVE: m1 <> m2 There is a difference in reported hate crimes by agencies in the two states. one-tailed or two tailed? 2 test statistic (obs) (6.809) critical measure 1.960 |obs| > critical?? yes p-value 0.000 a-level 0.050 p-value < a-level?? yes REJECTTHE NULL CONCLUSION:There is a difference in hate crimes between the two states.
  10. 10. Question 3 Should the states adopt sexual orientation under their hate crime laws?
  11. 11. Data To Consider Bias motivation Incidents Race 4000 Religion 1462 Sexual Orientation 1195 Ethnicity/National Origin 984 Disability 79 Multiple Bias Incidents 2
  12. 12. Graph 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Ethnicity/National Origin: Sexual Orientation: Ethnicity vs. Sexual Orientation Answer:Yes, hate crime laws should include Sexual Orientation
  13. 13. Sexual Orientation vs. Ethnicity/National Origin  Null:There is no difference in the number sexual orientation crimes compared to ethnicity/national origin.  Alternative:There is a difference in the number sexual orientation crimes compared to ethnicity/national origin. One-tailed orTwo-tailed:Two-Tailed
  14. 14. Question 4  Does hate crimes occur on college campus just as often as in a dark alley?
  15. 15. Data to consider:  Highway/road/dark alley:  Total Incident: 1,387  Race: 780  Religion: 102  Sexual Orientation: 287  Ethnicity/NationalOrigin: 205  Disability: 13  College Campus:  Total Incident: 941  Race: 508  Religion: 199  Sexual Orientation: 116  Ethnicity/NationalOrigin: 110  Disability: 8
  16. 16. Graph: All Hate Crime Locations 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500
  17. 17. College Campus vs. Dark Alley  Null: Hate crimes in college campus occur just as likely as in dark alley.  Alternative: Hate crimes in college campus does not occur just as likely as in dark alley. One-tailed orTwo-tailed: One-Tailed

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