Chapter 8 fire extinquishers 4 07

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Chapter 8 fire extinquishers 4 07

  1. 1. Portable Fire Extinguishers
  2. 2. Objectives (1 of 2) <ul><li>Explain the five classes of fire and the risks associated with each class. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the kinds of fire extinguishers used for each class. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the rating systems of portable extinguishers for Classes A,B, and C. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the limitations of portable extinguishers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (2 of 2) <ul><li>Demonstrate the operation of portable fire extinguishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the care and maintenance of portable fire extinguishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the inspection requirements of portable fire extinguishers. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction (1 of 3) Click Here to View Video: Portable Fire Extinguishers
  5. 5. Introduction (2 of 3) <ul><li>Portable fire extinguishers are designed to fight small incipient fires. </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighters must know how to use extinguishers and be able to teach others. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper instruction can improve department effectiveness and reduce damage costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire extinguishers come in a variety of types and sizes. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction (3 of 3) <ul><li>Firefighters should know the extinguishers carried on apparatus. </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighters should be capable of answering questions regarding fire extinguishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens will often request information and training on the use of extinguishers. </li></ul>
  7. 7. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS: <ul><li>ONE OF THE MOST COMMON FIRE-PROTECTION APPLIANCES USED TODAY </li></ul><ul><li>1ST LINE OF DEFENSE AGAINST FIRES </li></ul><ul><li>EXCELLENT TOOL FOR EXTINQUISHING INCIPIENT FIRES </li></ul><ul><li>CAN OFTEN EXTINGUISH A SMALL FIRE IN LESS TIME THAN DEPLOYING A HOSE LINE </li></ul>
  8. 8. GENERAL : <ul><li>It is important that firefighters be knowledgeable about the different types of portable fire extinguishers and their use. </li></ul><ul><li>We will discuss the various types of portable fire extinguishers that firefighters are likely to encounter. </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers provides information on rating, placement and use. </li></ul>
  9. 9. GENERAL : <ul><li>Firefighters should rely on extinguishers carried on their apparatus and not those found in occupancies. </li></ul><ul><li>Two portable extinguishers are required on fire apparatus by NFPA standard 1901 </li></ul><ul><li>One suitable for class B and C fires and one for class A </li></ul><ul><li>Sizes are as follows: Co2 rated 10 BC, Dry Chemical rated 80 BC, & 2.5 Gal H2o for Class A </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fire Classification and Risk <ul><li>The type and nature of the burning material (fuel) defines the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>There are five classes of fire. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class K (As of 1998) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Class K Fires Click Here to View Video: Class K Fires
  12. 12. Types of Fire Extinguishers (1 of 2) <ul><li>Many types of fire extinguishers are available today. </li></ul>Click Here to View Video: Fire Extinguisher Functions/Ratings
  13. 13. Types of Fire Extinguishers (2 of 2) <ul><li>Many factors need to be considered before using an extinguisher. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type and amount of fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User and occupancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of equipment being protected </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Extinguishing Agents (1 of 2) <ul><li>Water is the basic agent for Class A fires. </li></ul><ul><li>Water-based foam extinguishers for class B fires have either AFFF or FFFP. </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 is an inert gas stored under pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 is effective on Class B or C fires. </li></ul><ul><li>Dry chemical agents are particles propelled by a gaseous medium. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three categories of dry chemicals. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of Extinguishing Agents (2 of 2) <ul><li>Wet chemicals are water-based solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Wet chemicals are used for Class K fires. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean agents have replaced halons. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean agents do not conduct electricity or leave a residue. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two classes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Halocarbon agents and inerting gases </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Kinds of Extinguishers <ul><li>Pump-type extinguishers are hand-pumped devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressurized extinguishers operate by expelling gas that propels the agent out. </li></ul><ul><li>Cartridge-operated extinguishers are used for dry chemical and most dry powder Class D extinguishers. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Backpack Pump Tank
  18. 18. PUMP-TANK WATER <ul><li>STREAM REACH – 30 to 40 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>DISCHARGE TIME – 45 sec. To 3 min. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Stored Pressure Water Extinguisher Stored Pressure Foam Extinguisher Stored Pressure Extinguishers (1 of 2)
  20. 20. STORED-PRESSURE WATER <ul><li>STREAM REACH - 30 to 40 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>DISCHARGE TIME - 45 sec. To 60 sec. </li></ul>
  21. 21. FOAM EXTINGUISHERS: <ul><li>STREAM REACH - 20 to 25 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>DISCHARGE TIME - Approx. 50 sec. </li></ul><ul><li>AFFF - USED ON CLASS B FIRES NOT INVOLVING WATER SOLUABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR SOLVENTS) AIR ASPIRATING CREATING A BLANKET </li></ul><ul><li>FFFP - USED ON CLASS B FIRES INVOLVING ALCOHOL RESISTANT LIQUIDS (SMOTHERS) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Stored Pressure Dry Chemical Extinguisher Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers Stored Pressure Extinguishers (2 of 2)
  23. 23. DRY CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHERS <ul><li>ABC ( MULTI- PURPOSE)- MOST COMMON USED </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>BC (REGULAR, OR SODIUM BICARBONATE) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POTASIUM BICARBONATE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POTASIUM CHLORIDE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>PKP (POTASSIUM BICARBONATE) </li></ul><ul><li>USED FOR MOST CLASSES OF FIRES </li></ul>
  24. 24. DRY CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHERS <ul><li>STREAM REACH: 5 TO 20 Ft. </li></ul><ul><li>DISCHARGE TIME: 8 TO 25 Sec. </li></ul><ul><li>!!!!!! NEVER MIX DRY CHEMICAL WITH OTHER TYPES OF AGENTS , MAY CAUSE A DANGEROUS RISE IN PRESSURE INSIDE EXTINGUISHER </li></ul><ul><li>NON-TOXIC ONLY AN IRRITANT </li></ul>
  25. 25. HALON EXTINGUISHERS: <ul><li>1211 - CLEAR LIQUID STREAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stream Reach - 8 to 18 ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge Time - 8 to 18 sec. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1301 -FIXED SYSTEMS (FLOODING) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stream Reach - 4 to 6 ft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge Time - 8 to 10 sec. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NEARLY INVISIBLE (WIND) </li></ul><ul><li>HALOTRON (CLEAN-AGENT)- B&C </li></ul><ul><li>NON OZONE DEPLETER, ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE </li></ul>
  26. 26. Cartridge-Operated Dry Chemical Extinguisher
  27. 27. CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHERS <ul><li>STREAM REACH - 3 to 8 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>DISCHARGE TIME - 8 to 30 sec. </li></ul><ul><li>HORN- DISPERSION </li></ul><ul><li>UNLIKE OTHERS ITS STORED UNDER ITS OWN PRESSURE </li></ul>
  28. 28. DRY POWDER EXTINGUISHERS: <ul><li>DRY POWDER ( LITH-X) - EXTINGUISH COMBUSTIBLE METALS </li></ul><ul><li>NOT EVERY DRY POWDER EXTINGUISHER WILL WORK ON ANY COMBUSTIBLE METAL FIRE </li></ul><ul><li>GRAY OR BLACK IN COLOR </li></ul><ul><li>APPLY WITH SUFFICIENT DEPTH </li></ul>
  29. 29. WET CHEMICAL <ul><li>CLASS K - FOUND IN KITCHENS WITH UNSATURATED FATS & OILS, EXTINGUISHES WITH MINIMAL SPLASH BACK AND PREVENTION OF REFLASH </li></ul><ul><li>Common Size - 2-1/2 Gallon </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Principle - Air Pressure </li></ul>
  30. 30. WET CHEMICAL <ul><li>CLASS K - </li></ul><ul><li>STREAM REACH - 8 to 12 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>DISCHARGE TIME - 75 to 80 sec. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Rating Systems of Portable Extinguishers <ul><li>Each class of fuel is subject to a separate type of rating test. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class A rating test uses wooden cribbing test. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class B rating test uses a pan of flammable liquid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class C rating test only involves conductivity of the agent and the nozzle or hose and nozzle combination. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Rating Systems of Portable Extinguishers
  33. 34. CLASS A RATINGS: <ul><li>CLASS A RATINGS RANGE FROM 1-ATO 40-A </li></ul><ul><li>1-A EQUALS 11/4 GAL.OF WATER (BENCH MARK) </li></ul><ul><li>2-A HAS TWO TIMES THE EXTINGUISHING CAPABILITY OF A 1-A </li></ul><ul><li>ACCORDING TO OCCUPANCY HAZARD,MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA PER UNIT, PER EXTINGUISHER, AND MAXIMUM TRAVEL DISTANCE TO EXTINGUISHER </li></ul>
  34. 35. CLASS B RATING: <ul><li>CLASS B RATINGS RANGE FROM 1-B TO 640-B </li></ul><ul><li>THE 1-B RATING EQUALING 1 SQUARE FOOT </li></ul><ul><li>THE TEST CONSIST OF THE APPROXIMATE SQUARE FOOT AREA OF A FLAMMABLE LIQUID FIRE THAT A NON-EXPERT OPERATOR CAN EXTINGUISH </li></ul>
  35. 36. CLASS C & D RATINGS: <ul><li>CLASS C FIRES ARE TYPICALLY CLASS A OR B FIRES INVOLVING ENERGIZED EQUIPMENT (AGENT NON-CONDUCTIVE) </li></ul><ul><li>THERE IS NO EXTINGUISHER WITH A CLASS A-C RATING </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS D FIRES EXTINGUISHING CAPABILITY VARIES WITH THE FUEL METAL BEING BURNED </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS D EXTINGUISHERS ARE NOT GIVEN A MULTI PURPOSE RATING </li></ul>
  36. 37. Limitations of Portable Extinguishers <ul><li>Extinguishers have limited capabilities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are designed and rated for certain types and sizes of fire. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The wrong extinguisher will create greater problems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You need to use the right extinguisher for the fire present. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Extinguisher Operation <ul><li>P ull the pin. </li></ul><ul><li>A im the nozzle. </li></ul><ul><li>S queeze the handle. </li></ul><ul><li>S weep the nozzle. </li></ul>Click Here to View Video: PASS Procedure/Fire Extinguisher Maintenance
  38. 39. OPERATION OF EXTINGUISHER: <ul><li>SELECTING </li></ul><ul><li>QUICK INSPECTION </li></ul><ul><li>APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION </li></ul>
  39. 40. SELECTION: <ul><li>CHOOSE PROPER EXTINGUISHER ACCORDING TO SIZE OF FIRE, TYPE OF FIRE. </li></ul><ul><li>CHOOSE AN EXTINGUISHER THAT WILL EFFECTIVELY DO THE JOB WITHOUT RISK TO LIFE AND PROPERTY </li></ul>
  40. 41. QUICK INSPECTION: <ul><li>EXTERNAL DAMAGE </li></ul><ul><li>HOSE-HORN/NOZZLE ARE IN PLACE </li></ul><ul><li>PROPER WEIGHT OF EXTINGUISHER </li></ul><ul><li>PRESSURE GAUGE IN OPERATING RANGE </li></ul>
  41. 42. APPROACH: <ul><li>SAFETY IS PARAMOUNT !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER RUN WITH EXTINGUISHER </li></ul><ul><li>APPROACH FROM WINWARD SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>MAKE SURE AGENT REACHES FIRE </li></ul><ul><li>WATCH FOR RADIANT HEAT </li></ul>
  42. 43. APPLICATION: <ul><li>P ULL OUT THE PULL PIN IN OUTWARD DIRECTION WITH RIGHT HAND </li></ul><ul><li>A IM NOZZLE AT BASE OF FIRE WITH RIGHT HAND </li></ul><ul><li>S QUEEZE HANDLE WITH LEFT </li></ul><ul><li>S WEEP NOZZLE FROM SIDE TO SIDE AT BASE OF FIRE WITH RIGHT HAND, MOVING FORWARD UNTIL FIRE IS EXTINGUISHED </li></ul>
  43. 44. Obsolete Extinguishers <ul><li>Firefighters should never operate obsolete extinguishers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soda acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical foam (except film-forming) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaporizing liquids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartridge-operated water or loaded stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper or brass extinguishers </li></ul></ul>Click Here to View Video: Obsolete Fire Extinguishers
  44. 45. Care and Maintenance of Portable Extinguishers <ul><li>Carefully inspect before placing in service. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove them from bracket periodically. </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally invert dry chemical extinguishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean dirt and grit to maintain good working order. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Inspection Requirements (1 of 2) <ul><li>First, perform visual inspection. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be checked every 30 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Pin seal should be in place. </li></ul><ul><li>Gauge should register proper pressure. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Inspection Requirements (2 of 2) <ul><li>Some extinguishers, such as CO 2 , are only checked by weighing. </li></ul><ul><li>Weight is stamped on the cylinder. </li></ul><ul><li>Check for hydrostatic testing. </li></ul>
  47. 48. INSPECTION : <ul><li>LOCATIONS/ACCESSABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>SEAL </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL DAMAGE </li></ul><ul><li>GAUGE </li></ul><ul><li>HOSES&HORNS/NOZZLE </li></ul><ul><li>INSTRUCTION& NAMEPLATE </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK WEIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>INSPECTION TAG/COLLAR& STICKERS </li></ul>
  48. 49. LOCATION/ACCESSABILITY: <ul><li>IN DESIGNATED LOCATION </li></ul><ul><li>IN BRACKET/CASE </li></ul><ul><li>CLEAR OF OBSTRUCTIONS </li></ul>
  49. 50. SEAL/PIN: <ul><li>PIN IS IN </li></ul><ul><li>SEAL IS NOT BROKEN </li></ul><ul><li>PROPER TYPE OF SEAL AND PIN IS ON EXTINGUISHER </li></ul>
  50. 51. PHYSICAL DAMAGE: <ul><li>DENTS </li></ul><ul><li>CRACKS </li></ul><ul><li>CORROSION </li></ul><ul><li>BROKEN OR BENT HANDLES </li></ul><ul><li>CRACKED OR BROKEN HOSES/NOZZLES </li></ul>
  51. 52. GAUGE: <ul><li>IN OPERATION RANGE </li></ul><ul><li>NO WATER IN IT </li></ul><ul><li>BENT </li></ul><ul><li>LEAKING </li></ul><ul><li>BLOWOUT DISC </li></ul><ul><li>NEEDLE NOT BROKE </li></ul>
  52. 53. HOSES&HORNS/NOZZLES <ul><li>FREE OF OBSTRUCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>CRACKED OR SPLIT </li></ul><ul><li>MELTED </li></ul><ul><li>FITTINGS </li></ul><ul><li>ALL CO2 HOSES REQUIRE A CONDUCTIVITY TEST LABEL </li></ul>
  53. 54. INSTRUCTIONS/NAMEPLATE: <ul><li>THERE </li></ul><ul><li>LEGIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>RATING </li></ul><ul><li>SYMBOL </li></ul>
  54. 55. WEIGHT: <ul><li>LIFTING </li></ul><ul><li>SCALE </li></ul><ul><li>GAUGE </li></ul><ul><li>NAMEPLATE </li></ul>
  55. 56. INSPECTION TAG/COLLAR& STICKERS : <ul><li>DATE OF INSPECTION,MAINTENANCE,OR RECHARGING </li></ul><ul><li>ANY EXTINGUISHER SERVICED AFTER JANUARY 1999, SHALL HAVE A SERVICE COLLAR </li></ul><ul><li>ALL EXTINGUISHERS MADE OR SERVICED AFTER 1989 SHALLHAVE HMIS LABEL OR STICKER </li></ul><ul><li>HYDROSTATIC STICKER </li></ul><ul><li>6YR STICKER </li></ul>
  56. 57. MAINTENANCE/SERVICING: <ul><li>RESPONSIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>ANNUAL SERVICE </li></ul><ul><li>6YR MAINTENANCE </li></ul><ul><li>HYDROSTATIC TEST </li></ul>
  57. 58. RESPONSIBLILITY: <ul><li>THE BUILDING OCCUPANT </li></ul><ul><li>PROPERTY OWNER </li></ul><ul><li>LICENSED COMPANIES </li></ul><ul><li>CERTIFIED EXTINGUISHER TECHNICIANS </li></ul>
  58. 59. ANNUAL SERVICE: <ul><li>INSPECTED ANNUALLY EITHER BY BUILDING OWNER, FIRE INSPECTOR, LICENSED BUISNESS </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK HOSE </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK GAUGE </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK SEAL </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK LABELS </li></ul><ul><li>WEIGHT </li></ul>
  59. 60. 6 YEAR MAINTENANCE: <ul><li>COMPLETED EVERY 6 YEARS AFTER MANUFACTURED, OR HYDROSTACIALLY TESTED </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLETE TEARDOWN </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK VALVE STEM </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK O-RING </li></ul><ul><li>AGENT </li></ul><ul><li>OVERALL EXTINGUISHER </li></ul>
  60. 61. HYDRO-STATIC TESTING: <ul><li>DRY CHEM/POWDER- 12 YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>HALON- 12 YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>CO2- 5 YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>FOAM- 5 YEARS( AGENT EVERY 3) </li></ul>
  61. 62. HYDRO CONT: <ul><li>WATER- 5 YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLETE TEARDOWN </li></ul><ul><li>DEFORMATIES, DENTS, SCRATCHES </li></ul><ul><li>ALL STORED PRESSURE EXTINGUISHERS THAT REQUIRE A 12 YEAR HYDRO ARE REQUIRED TO UNDERGO A 6 YEAR MAINTENANCE </li></ul>
  62. 63. IF ANY OF THE ITEMS LISTED ARE FOUND DEFICIENT IN EITHER INSPECTION OR MAINTENANCE, THE EXTINGUISHER SHOULD BE REMOVED FROM SERVICE, AND REPAIRED IN ACCORDANCE WITH DEPARTMENT POLICIES
  63. 64. Summary <ul><li>There are various classes of fires. </li></ul><ul><li>There are various kinds of extinguishers. </li></ul><ul><li>The proper type of extinguisher is needed for various classes of fire. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to remember extinguishers have limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>Extinguishers need to be maintained, serviced, and inspected regularly. </li></ul>

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