Ch23 firefighter survival


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Ch23 firefighter survival

  1. 1. Chapter #23 Firefighter Survival
  2. 2. Objectives (1 of 3) <ul><li>List three main components that lead to incident readiness. </li></ul><ul><li>Define four key checks to ensure PPE is ready for response. </li></ul><ul><li>List three types of personal accountability systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Define personal size-up. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe three components that lead to “fitness for duty.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (2 of 3) <ul><li>Name three practices that lead to team continuity. </li></ul><ul><li>Define risk/benefit. </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe three components of rehabilitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the procedures that should be taken to establish and prepare for assignment of a rapid intervention team. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives (3 of 3) <ul><li>List the five steps that can lead to an organized rapid escape. </li></ul><ul><li>List the three steps that should be taken when entrapment occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast post-incident thought patterns and critical incident stress. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Firefighter survival is accomplished through training and education. </li></ul><ul><li>PPE, task accountability, and fitness-for-duty all help prevent firefighter emergencies. </li></ul><ul><li>If a firefighter emergency occurs, a systematic rescue process would have to be established. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Incident Readiness <ul><li>Mental questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Am I in a position to respond? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is my protective gear available? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is my relationship to the response? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physically, can I respond? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentally, can I respond? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) <ul><li>PPE is the first thing firefighters put on, and the last thing they want to be left with when the incident is over. </li></ul><ul><li>All clothing materials dry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet clothing reduces the protective insulation and may lead to steam burns. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All PPE present and positioned for rapid donning. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) cont. <ul><li>Essential “pocket tools” available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flashlight, trauma shears, doorstops, nylon webbing, carabiners, grease pencils, chalk, sprinkler wedges, pliers, multiple tool, knives, earplugs, self-escape rope and radio. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternative PPE items packed and ready </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EMS equipment, wild land PPE, proximity PPE, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Accountability Systems <ul><li>Accountability systems are usually one of three types of systems </li></ul><ul><li>Passport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crew-card system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>team leader reports location or assignment changes to accountability officer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tag </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual system-F/F’s give tags to staging manger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staging manager assembles teams and assigns tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Company officer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oldest and most used system </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Accountability Systems cont. <ul><li>Regardless of system used, each F/F must be aware of how the system works. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to be accounted for on the incident is akin to Freelancing!! </li></ul><ul><li>FREELANCING – performing a task that has not been assigned or performing a task alone. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Accountability Systems cont. <ul><li>To eliminate freelancing, each and every F/F must be assigned to a team of two or more people and be given specific assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Freelancing can cause injury to other firefighters </li></ul>
  12. 12. Relationship to the Response <ul><li>Assignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-assigned (hyd., noz., etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various other assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal Size-up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined as continuous mental evaluation of F/F’s immediate environments, facts and probabilities. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Personal Size-up cont. <ul><li>Evaluation includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current chain of command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Likely assignment </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Personal Size-up cont. <ul><li>F/F’s should continually evaluate the safety of their environment by staying aware of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established work areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape routes </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Fitness for Duty <ul><li>Mental Fitness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being mentally ready to respond to an incident at all times rarely happens – firefighter’s lives are complex, busy, and full of mental and, in some cases, emotional challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The key is for the firefighter to “check out” of the environment and “check in” to size-up. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Fitness for Duty cont. <ul><li>Physical Fitness and Wellness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A fit F/F is less prone to injury than an unfit F/F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly individual – F/F’s have varied needs based on genetics, gender, metabolic rate, and personal history ( injuries, tolerance levels, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Fitness for Duty cont. <ul><li>Physical Fitness and Wellness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness and wellness lifestyle must include the following 5 points: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core strengthening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility improvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance training (weight-lifting) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional balance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Fitness for Duty cont. <ul><li>Energy and Rest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety is directly affected by the energy potential and rest a F/F has stored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced amount of sleep reduces the physical and mental capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced amount of food in the stomach or 3 hours since consumption F/F will reach fatigue quicker </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Safety at Incidents <ul><li>Team continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Orders/ communication </li></ul><ul><li>Risk/benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nourishment </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Safety at Incidents cont. <ul><li>Team continuity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F/F’s are assigned to a team of two or more and given specific assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injuries and death occur when F/F’s allow the urgency of the situation to override prudent judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Orders/ communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate thru IMS chain of command </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Safety at Incidents cont. <ul><li>Risk/benefit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined as an evaluation of the potential benefit that a task will accomplish in relationship to the hazards that will be faced while completing the task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk allot to save allot, Risk a little to save a little </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Safety at Incidents cont. <ul><li>Rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest - Achieved during crew rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At rehab maximize rest by sitting, having vital signs checked, and by mentally disengaging from the event </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active cooling – reduces body core temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If signs and symptoms indicate further rest and/or removal from incident scene </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Safety at Incidents cont. <ul><li>Rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydration – needed in any incident environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water is vital to the peak operation of virtually every body system from transport of nutrients, to blood flow, to waste removal, to temperature regulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>F/F’s should drink a quart of water an hour during periods of work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substituting carbonated/sugared beverages or other liquids for water can slow the absorption of water into the system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sports drinks can be diluted 50% with water in order to speed their absorption into the system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Safety at Incidents cont. <ul><li>Rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nourishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximizing energy from the human machine takes a balance of 4 essential elements; oxygen, water, blood sugar (from food), and insulin. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The key to providing quick energy to the F/F is to find a balance of protein (30), fat (30), and carbohydrate (40) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30/30/40 system provides essential elements from three food groups. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Safety at Incidents cont. <ul><li>Rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nourishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance will stabilize insulin release into the bloodstream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance helps to reduce blood sugar levels that often lead to sporadic activity, chemical imbalance, and fatigue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The balanced approach stimulates the release of hormones and enzymes that optimize human performance – both physical and mental </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Safety at Incidents cont. <ul><li>Rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nourishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protein is best derived from low fat meats, turkey, chicken, fish, eggs and cheese. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fats should be monounsaturated like olive oil, nuts and peanut butter. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good carbohydrates include green vegetables, apples, tomatoes, oranges, and oatmeal. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Firefighter Emergencies <ul><li>Rapid escape </li></ul><ul><li>Lost firefighter </li></ul><ul><li>Trapped firefighter </li></ul><ul><li>Injured firefighter </li></ul>
  28. 28. Rapid Escape <ul><li>Preplan the escape. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly evaluate escape routes in various environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Report the need for rapid evacuation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual or impending collapse should be communicated via radio while exiting the area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not reporting or delay in report can lead to the injury of other firefighters </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Rapid Escape cont. <ul><li>Acknowledge rapid evacuation signals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signals vary from department to department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could be a defined air horn signal or a barrage of sirens and air horns or even a radio broadcast – an alert tone followed by the evacuation order </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Rapid Escape cont. <ul><li>Rapidly escape. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave immediately, without tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid escape can be accomplished in a number of ways, windows, breaching walls, roof, or balcony and waiting for a ladder or self rescue to a lower level. Escape routes will depend on the situation. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Rapid Escape cont. <ul><li>Report successful escape. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once the team has escaped the structure, they must then report a PAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PARs are preformed at given intervals of 10 to 30 minutes or if there is a change in modes or strategies (switch from offensive to defensive) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Lost, Trapped and Injured Firefighters <ul><li>First step is to get help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activate PASS device and declare “Mayday” or activate emergency button on radio if applicable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make noise to assist crews in locating you, bang on floor or pipes, also utilize visual signals such as a flashlight </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Lost, Trapped and Injured Firefighters <ul><li>Second step is to size up the situation and develop a plan </li></ul><ul><li>Key factors to consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What exactly is causing the entrapment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the exposure to fire / smoke / further collapse? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much breathing air is left in the SCBA bottle? </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Lost, Trapped and Injured Firefighters <ul><li>What is the extent of injuries? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there anything that can be done to self-extricate? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there any self first-aid that can be preformed? </li></ul><ul><li>How can air be preserved? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Lost, Trapped and Injured Firefighters <ul><li>Third step is for the firefighter to attempt self rescue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-extrication must be a planned and systematic way opposed to reckless and panic driven </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Rapid Intervention Teams <ul><li>NFPA 1500 and NFPA 1561 require the formation of RIT teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When preparing for RIT assignment, gather tools and equipment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The RIT should start preplanning information about building construction, layout, and entry/egress routes </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Rapid Intervention Teams <ul><ul><li>Position near the main entry point and be ready for immediate deployment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When “Mayday” is called the RIT should size up the situation and mask up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orders are received from IC to initiate search/rescue, unless IC has given RIT the responsibility to self-initiate actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RIT reports progress to the IC </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Post-Incident Survival <ul><li>Post incident thought patterns occur when the firefighters become relaxed during clean up of an incident, causing strains, sprains, and being struck by objects </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical imbalance is another factor that leads to inattentiveness </li></ul>
  39. 39. Post-Incident Survival <ul><li>Whether the issue is chemical imbalance or post-incident thought patterns, the F/F needs to stay alert and try to pick up signs of potential injury and take steps to cope with it. </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighters are expected to tolerate a certain level of incident stress, given the nature of the environment that firefighting brings </li></ul>
  40. 40. Post-Incident Survival <ul><li>Incidents that are especially gruesome or involve significant human tragedy can easily impact firefighters on an emotional basis. This is referred to as critical incident stress (CIS) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Critical Incident Stress (CIS) <ul><li>Events can trigger emotional response. </li></ul><ul><li>Most times response is kept internal. </li></ul><ul><li>Signs of CIS are exhibited in many ways and include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faraway stares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to be alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighters that stop and look as if they have forgotten their task </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Critical Incident Stress (CIS) <ul><li>Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) is important process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CISM can take many forms, both formal and informal. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. CISM <ul><li>After an incident of significant magnitude, a critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) is a formal type of CISM that may be held by peers and mental health professionals. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Summary <ul><li>Survival depends on proactive and preventive actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Fitness includes both mental and physical. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform orders with attention to communication. </li></ul><ul><li>RIT teams are for immediate deployment. </li></ul><ul><li>Remain calm during an emergency situation. </li></ul>