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Diffusion and Integration Final Project August 2011, DJM

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  • Hello, my name is David Miller. Welcome to today’s brief presentation on the diffusion and integration of electronic course materials for employee training. Today’s topic is Adobe Captivate and I will be discussing the management of electronic course materials, Effective strategies to develop teaching-learning communities , And a lternate forms of assessment for employee training.
  • Typically, the four stages of innovation development are: Need, Research, Development and Commercialization
  • Need: What problem or need existed that gave rise to this innovation? Adobe Captivate will address this company’s need to consider more innovative methods for employee training, delivery methods, and assessments of same . Curriculum developers and instructors must weave together concepts as disparate as spaced practice, engagement, distributed cognition, personalization, and social learning into a new view of what learning can become.
  • Research: What research organization or people developed a solution to this problem or need? While the product started out as a pure screen recording utility known as Flashcam (Nexus Concepts 2002), it evolved into an E-learning authoring tool after San Diego-based eHelp Corporation acquired Flashcam and released it as RoboDemo. Eventually, software firm Macromedia acquired eHelp to gain RoboDemo. Shortly before Adobe Systems acquired Macromedia, they changed the name of the product to Captivate.
  • Turned ordinary interactions into more valuable digital experiences every day, across media and devices, anywhere, anytime. Offered customers solutions in three critical endeavors: 1) Built content and applications with greater reach and stronger impact. 2) Customer experience management Offered customer experiences that strengthen brands and improve efficiency. 3) Online marketing Delivered and measured marketing effectiveness across a wide spectrum of screens and devices.
  • Adobe® Captivate® 5.5 software is the industry-leading e-learning authoring software for rapidly creating and maintaining interactive eLearning content. Import your existing Microsoft PowerPoint content and make it more engaging with rich media, application simulations, branching scenarios, and quizzes. Easily publish to leading SCORM- and AICC-compliant Learning Management Systems and track key performance metrics.
  • Adobe Captivate crashes and any unsaved work is lost if the project cache is cleared from Windows Explorer (Widows) or Finder (Mac) while Adobe Captivate is running. On Windows 7 and Vista, you cannot record applications if they are launched in the 'admin' mode while Adobe Captivate is launched in the 'non-admin' mode. Sequence type questions are not shuffled at runtime Indentations, line spacing, and font sizes in text captions vary Widgets are missing Adobe Captivate does not allow you to add SWF files to an aggregator project if the location of the files is not added as a 'trusted location' in Flash Player settings. 5) Users, who answer Adobe Captivate quizzes using Firefox or Safari, cannot post results to if you have published the project to Flash Player 9.
  • AdobeCaptivate appeals to a wide variety of audiences, typically grouped in training and education, sales and marketing, or technical support and documentation.
  • 1982: John Warnock and Charles Geschke form Adobe Systems. 1986: Adobe goes public. 1987: Adobe releases Adobe Illustrator and establishes an international presence through its European subsidiary. 1994: Company acquires Aldus, the developer of PageMaker software. 1999: Adobe introduces InDesign, a professional publishing software package. Sales surpass $1 billion for the first time.
  • The Five Stages of the Innovation-Decision Process are: Knowledge Persuasion Decision Implementation Confirmation
  • Adobe Systems Incorporated is an American computer software company founded in 1982 and headquartered in San Jose, California. The company has historically focused upon the creation of multimedia and creativity software products, with a more-recent foray towards rich Internet application software development. It can also convert Adobe Captivate generated .swf to .avi which can be uploaded to video hosting websites. For software simulations, Captivate can use left or right mouse clicks, key presses and rollover images.
  • You can now create software simulations 39% faster with the new optimized interface of Adobe Captivate 5, the time required to create software simulations is significantly reduced compared to earlier versions, according to findings by an independent research firm. Add software demonstrations, interactive simulations, branching scenarios, and quizzes to your courseware without programming using Adobe® Captivate® 5 software. Goes beyond screen capture and achieve superior results in fewer steps thanks to an intuitive user interface, collaboration workflows, and a multitude of timesaving features. eLearning applications and leading SCORM- and AICC-compliant Learning Management Systems deliver content virtually anywhere.
  • In this time of economic uncertainty, employees must have immediate access to quality eLearning to enable them to keep their skills up-to-date and razor-sharp as they work to drive the business forward. To evaluate current use and trends involving ReL, a quantitative survey of large, medium-size, and small companies was conducted and as well as in-depth interviews with learning and/or HR professionals at organizations currently using Rapid eLearning tools. For the purposes of this study, ReL was defined as a process for rapid learning content creation in a template-based environment that requires no author programming skills. Specifically, the study examined the perceptions, adoption, impact, and long-term benefits of using ReL as an authoring tool to develop eLearning content.
  • Identify your users before getting started. Is the audience students, faculty or staff? Design with users in mind Establish the goal. What is/are the most important information to be conveyed? Articulate what you want users to learn. Be realistic about your learning goals Writing a clear and concise script is key to the success of your project. Using Captivate. The script articulates the goals and acts as a guide for the entire production. Without a well defined script, the job to create a meaningful presentation will become unmanageable. 4) The Guides Group recommends that Captivate tutorials be produced for no more than 3.5 minutes in length 5) Create a clear visual navigation. Logically navigate the user through the desired features on a screen, web pages or steps. Avoid jumping around a page and going too quickly or slowly. 6) The narrator needs to speak clearly. Avoid speaking too slowly or quickly. Solicit feedback from colleagues on the pace of your narration. The Captivate tutorial author does not necessarily need to be the narrator. Include layperson's definitions for technical or librarian terminology. Avoid using acronyms. Tighten the language to be as clear and concise as possible, using clear and simple language. 7) To maintain a consistent look and feel with all Captivate presentations, the developer needs to include: audio introduction, design elements: links, naming files, proofread and spell check
  • Tight training budgets coupled with the need to keep employees’ skills razor-sharp, will continue to drive use of ReL via Adobe Captivate. Even with economic recovery, ReL use will grow because it meets content and learner needs and speeds up the overall trend of taking learning online. ReL will not replace all traditional online approaches to training. Rather, it is a method of addressing a unique need in the continuum of online learning content creation. For short and speedy projects, and where adaptability/change is a requirement, ReL use will likely continue to grow, saving heavier creation processes for more in-depth content. The tool offers greater levels of independence to SMEs, trainers, corporate communications, public relations, and lines of business in the content creation process, with the option to ask for assistance as needed from content development staff. Instructional designers understand components of good learning and spend weeks designing excellent custom courses. In the future, they will work closely with SMEs or corporate communications directors to give advice and suggestions and even help them design on the fly. Instructional designers will also create design templates that new content developers need for specific projects. Many developers are using little more than presentation files converted to multimedia for their content creation process. This will change as developers learn more about the capabilities of ReL tools and use their creativity to extend the tools further.
  • On an entrepreneurship field, usually the S curve is used as a model for the adoption of a new product, a service or a technology: it plots the adoption rate against time.
  • Rogers (2003) describes two of the most prominent features of his diffusion theory: the adopter categories (which demonstrate the reasons why individuals choose to adopt innovations at different rates) and the S-Curve (which shows the rate of adoption of an innovation in society).
  • RoboDemo 2 (May 2002 by eHelp Corporation) RoboDemo 3 (Fall 2002 by eHelp Corporation) RoboDemo 4 and eLearning Edition (Spring 2003 by eHelp Corporation) RoboDemo 5 and eLearning Edition (Fall 2003 by eHelp Corporation) Macromedia Captivate (October 2004) Adobe Captivate 2 (October 2006) Adobe Adobe Captivate 3 (July 2007) Captivate 4 (Jan 2009) Adobe Captivate 5 (July 2010) Adobe Captivate 5.5 (May 2011)
  • What is the rate of adoption over time? The rate of adoption is the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system. It is generally measured as the number of individuals who adopt a new idea in a specified period, such as each year. So the rate of adoption is a numerical indicator of the steepness of the adoption curve for an innovation. According to Forrester Consulting (2010), the Adobe Corporation has issued over 2.5 million licensed copies of Adobe Captivate since its creation in 2002. This innovation has to date failed to peak in production and lease agreements, reflecting a high percentage of market penetration from introduction to the present day.
  • 1) Relative advantage Compatibility Complexity Trialability Observability 2) Optional Collective Authority 3) Mass media Interpersonal 4) Norms Degree of network interconnectedness 5) Greatest response to change agent effort occurs when opinion leaders adopt, which usually occurs somewhere between 3 & 16 percent adoption in most systems.
  • The relative advantage of an innovation reflects the degree to which it is perceived as better than the idea it supercedes. The degree of relative advantage may be measured in economic terms, but social prestige, convenience, and satisfaction are also important factors. It does not matter so much if an innovation has a great deal of objective advantage. What does matter is whether individuals perceive the innovation as advantageous. The greater the perceived relative advantage of an innovation, the more rapid its rate of adoption will be. Compatibility is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential uses. An idea that is incompatible with the values and norms of a social system will not be adopted as rapidly as an innovation that is compatible. The adoption of an incompatible innovation often requires the prior adoption of a new value system, which is a relatively slow process. Technological compatibility may be involved in cases where a particular software program cannot be used because it will not work with a computer's operation system. Observability is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible. The easier it is for individuals to see the results of an innovation, the more likely they are to adopt it. Such visibility stimulates peer discussion of a new idea, as friends and neighbors of a user of a product often request information about it. Trialability is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis. New ideas that can be tried on an installment plan will generally be adopted more quickly than innovations that are not divisible. An innovation that is trialable represents less uncertainty to the individual considering using it and who can learn by doing.
  • This adopter category, more than any other, has the greatest degree of opinion leadership in most systems. Potential adopters look to early adopters for advice and information about an innovation. Early adopters are the embodiment of the successful use of new ideas, and they know that to continue to earn the esteem of colleagues and to maintain a central position as an opinion leader they must make judicious innovation decisions.
  • The adoption of Adobe Captivate refers to new technology when considered for use in company mandated initial and recurring training. The table below highlights the percentages of early adopters by job position and responsibilities. These categories would apply to the aerospace companies typical management and staff personnel:
  • As cited by Rogers (1995), “laggards are the last 16 percent of the individuals in a system to adopt an innovation. They possess almost no opinion leadership. Laggards are the most localized in their outlook of all adopter categories; many are near isolates in the social networks of their system”. In respect to the aerospace/aviation operation, laggards, in addition to local demographical status, they may fall into the category of remote- based aviation technicians, pilots, and support personnel that had no knowledge of this innovation until it was delivered to them with expected deadlines for completion. The point of reference for the laggard is the past. Decisions are often made in terms of what has been done previously. Laggards tend to be suspicious of innovations and change agents. Resistance to innovations on the part of laggards may be entirely rational from the laggard's viewpoint, as their resources are limited and they must be certain that a new idea will not fail before they can adopt.
  • Laggards may be assuming that the technology (Adobe Captivate LMS) will fail to either company or regulatory acceptance or will not provide the benefits that are expected. Laggards may be more inclined to accept this innovation and diffusion in learning environments where the technology is changing rapidly and is adopted quickly by most other companies. The Internet boom of the 1990’s is one example where the laggard’s strategy may have been effective. The company releasing this LMS must recognize that the use of this type of learning media can become either a strategic advantage, a business necessity, or as a burden to their business. This type of learning resource will become a burden to the company and learners when it works poorly, is difficult to support, or actually increases the manual labor necessary to do a job. Laggards typically experience these issues when their primary LMS reaches the life expectancy. The rest of their industry may move on to a new technology, and the employees may find it difficult to work with the existing technology.
  • Recall that the degree of innovativeness of a product is a question of perception. And it is obviously important that your perception is the same as the perception of the potential customers. If you think that the use of Adobe Captivate is a radical innovation – and if you market it this way – and if the customers think that it is "only" an incremental innovation, then they will be disappointed by its performance. On the contrary, if you think the use of Adobe Captivate is an incremental innovation and if the customers perceive it as being radical, they will certainly not understand it correctly, not understand your communication and not adopt it.
  • Decentralization is the policy of delegating decision-making authority down to the lower levels in an organization, relatively away from and lower in a central authority. A decentralized organization shows fewer tiers in the organizational structure, wider span of control, and a bottom-to-top flow of decision-making and flow of ideas. Adoption of Adobe Captivate for development and Adobe Connect for viewing, testing and assessment affords an organization’s IT and Curriculum Developers the opportunity to analyze, design, develop, implement, and and evauate multimedia instructional programs and processes utilizing a bottom-to-top method. The value and efficency of the Instructional Systems Design (ISD) methodologies recommend a consistent evaluation and on-going approval from upper management as these dellivery programs proceed through all phases of the ISD cycle. In a more decentralized organization, the top executives delegate much of their decision-making authority to lower tiers of the organizational structure. As a correlation, the organization is likely to run on less rigid policies and wider spans of control among each officer of the organization. The wider spans of control also reduces the number of tiers within the organization, giving its structure a flat appearance. One advantage of this structure, if the correct controls are in place, will be the bottom-to-top flow of information, allowing decisions by officials of the organization to be well informed about lower tier operations. For example, if an experienced curriculum developer at the lowest tier of an organization knows how to increase the efficiency of the learning environment and curriculum, the bottom-to-top flow of information can allow this knowledge to pass up to the executive officers..
  • Rogers (1995) provides the guidelines for the change agents about what attributes that they can build into the innovation to facilitate its acceptance by the intended adopter. Middle managers play several key roles that contribute to an organization’s success and may act as a communicator, advocate, coach, liaison and change manager. The innovator must be aware that these same managers may also be the most resistant group to change, thus strategies for change are critical. If middle management resists a change, their direct reports will follow, causing resistance to take on a viral quality as it spreads throughout the company. A common-sense approach is recommended for transforming middle managers into change agents. Successful change occurs when you have buy-in, marketing support, and you define and address any resistance to the change in a positive and proactive manner. This can be accomplished by short and timely presentations to upper management in the form of brief, yet poignant objectives and value-laden introductions of Adobe Captivate potentials and benefits. Tips to influence the adoption of this innovation and diffusion include bringing middle management into the conversation by enlisting their vast operational knowledge of the organization, conveying your value and trust in them, and setting expectations and keep them well informed about the change. Middle managers may then serve as your messengers and ambassadors and influence other viewpoints within the organization. Marketing also plays an important role as new initiatives are deployed throughout the company. .Employing a marketing approach to change programs forces the change team to think about how impacted groups view the change effort, similar to using a focus group to test reception of a new product. Concentrating on marketing to an uninformed audience such as new employees helps avoid becoming complacent and internally focused. Because fear of change is contagious, a positive participation from middle management helps employees see the broader picture and the impact of change beyond their own individual interests. By transforming middle management into your change agents you can smooth out potential bumps in the road.
  • A critical mass of supporters and users is necessary to sustain broad deployment. Without reaching critical mass, the implementation efforts will struggle and only partially realize the benefits envisioned. The key is to use the implementation infrastructure to assure that critical mass is achieved. Once senior managers, early adopters, opinion leaders and champions have endorsed or used the Adobe Captivate learning resource, incorporating influential staff open to change begins the stage at which critical mass can occur. When these influential users apply the innovation, the remaining user community will follow. Understanding the process of critical mass will strengthen the approach and results of creating an effective learning culture. These challenges and barriers presented are not insurmountable. If they are identified in the process of implementation planning, much can be done to mitigate their effect, and solutions to them can be developed.
  • Recent business and economic theory would suggest a number of reasons to expect some form of association between the variables of innovation, employment policies and inter-firm networking. For example, the resource-based model of the firm propounds the view that organizations must build and maintain the resources and capabilities to compete. Innovative products and processes are the ‘outgrowths’ of underlying capabilities and resources .This position is consistent also with the view that the capability to innovate is acquired cumulatively and is path-dependent. It would seem to follow therefore that firms will find it difficult to innovate in arenas where they have not grown the capability to do so. From this kind of theoretical stance it might be expected that ‘looser’ employment contracts such as short-term contracting and outsourcing would be damaging to innovative performance when compared to situations where secure, long-term and high-commitment based employment policies are pursued.
  • Via the internet, go to this site to view short videos on Adobe Captivate
  • Thank you for your time and attention to this presentation on the diffusion and integration of electronic course materials for employee training. In order for this innovation to further gain your attention, there will be a time allotted for questions that you may have stemming from this presentation. Adobe Captivate 5.5 is ideal for trainers, educators, technical support managers, and sales and marketing professionals who need to rapidly create and conveniently maintain interactive simulations, training materials, software demonstrations, quizzes, self-service demos, and scenario-based training materials without learning programming or outsourcing the task to professional developers. This brief demonstration has shown the intrinsic value and innovative edge for this company to both evolve and deliver more cost-effective and logistical avenues for our employee and industry mandated initial and recurrent training. Thank you for considering this innovation and method of diffusion for success.
  • Djm storyboard innovation for multimedia presentation

    1. 1. Storyboard for Multimedia Presentation Student: David J. Miller Program: Ph.D. in Education Specialization: Educational Technology Instructor: Amar Almasude, Ph.D. Walden University August 15, 2011
    2. 2. INNOVATIONS FOR MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATIONS <ul><li>Adobe Captivate </li></ul><ul><li>Managing electronic course materials </li></ul><ul><li>Effective strategies to develop teaching-learning communities </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate forms of assessment </li></ul>
    3. 3. Four Stages of Innovation Development <ul><li>Need: What problem or need existed that gave rise to your innovation? </li></ul><ul><li>Research: What research organization or people developed a solution to this problem or need? What were their findings? Who were the “lead thinkers” for this innovation, and how did they convince a manufacturer to produce it? </li></ul><ul><li>Development: What problems did your innovation encounter in the development process? Who was the intended audience for your innovation? </li></ul><ul><li>Commercialization: Describe the production, manufacturing, packaging, marketing, and distribution of your innovation. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Four Stages of Innovation Development <ul><li>Need: What problem or need existed that gave rise to your innovation? </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need to move beyond traditional instructional design while considering varied inputs into supporting and developing our learners. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Four Stages of Innovation Development <ul><li>Research : What research organization or people developed a solution to this problem or need? </li></ul><ul><li>Adobe Captivate and Adobe Connect: Launched in 2003 by Macromedia </li></ul>
    6. 6. Four Stages of Innovation Development <ul><li>Research : What were their findings? </li></ul><ul><li>Created solutions for customers to create, deliver, and optimize compelling content and applications — improving the impact of their communications, enhancing their brands and productivity, and ultimately bringing them greater business success. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Four Stages of Innovation Development <ul><li>Research: Who were the “lead thinkers” for this innovation, and how did they convince a manufacturer to produce it? </li></ul><ul><li>Adobe was founded in 1982 by Charles Geschke and John Warnock </li></ul><ul><li>While the product started out as a pure screen recording utility known as Flashcam (Nexus Concepts 2002), it evolved into an E-learning authoring tool after San Diego-based e-Help Corporation acquired Flashcam and released it as RoboDemo. Eventually, software firm Macromedia acquired e-Help to gain RoboDemo. Shortly before Adobe Systems acquired Macromedia, they changed the name of the product to Captivate. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Four Stages of Innovation Development <ul><li>Development: What problems did your innovation encounter in the development process? </li></ul><ul><li>1) Project cache </li></ul><ul><li>2) Recording </li></ul><ul><li>3) Issues when Adobe Captivate 4 projects are upgraded to Adobe Captivate 5 </li></ul><ul><li>4) Aggregator </li></ul><ul><li>5) Reporting to </li></ul>
    9. 9. Four Stages of Innovation Development <ul><li>Development: Who is the intended audience for your innovation? </li></ul><ul><li>The audience for this innovation is beginning and intermediate users who want to create software demonstrations and interactive simulations. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Four Stages of Innovation Development <ul><li>Commercialization: Describe the production, manufacturing, packaging, marketing, and distribution of your innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>Captivate was originally called RoboDemo when the program was bought from a small company called E-Help </li></ul><ul><li>Adobe is committed to proactively managing the manufacturing and shipping of packaged products. This includes the sourcing of printed components and media replication, as well as the selection and management of suppliers that assemble and ship software </li></ul><ul><li>Online marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver and measure marketing effectiveness across a wide spectrum of screens and devices. </li></ul>
    11. 11. The Five Stages of the Innovation-Decision Process <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Decision </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul>
    12. 12. The Five Stages of the Innovation-Decision Process <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Adobe Captivate (formerly RoboDemo ) is an electronic learning tool for Microsoft Windows, and from v.5 Mac OS X. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to author software demonstrations, software simulations, branched scenarios, and randomized quizzes in .swf format. </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Five Stages of the Innovation-Decision Process <ul><li>Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>The software enables you to “rapidly create, smoothly deliver, and easily maintain rich eLearning content. </li></ul><ul><li>Easily integrates your content </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Five Stages of the Innovation-Decision Process <ul><li>Decision </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid eLearning (ReL) via Adobe Captivate impacts the eLearning creation process and ultimately the ability of workers to meet company goals. </li></ul>
    15. 15. The Five Stages of the Innovation-Decision Process <ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>KNOW YOUR USER </li></ul><ul><li>ARTICULATE the LEARNING GOALS </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOP A SCRIPT or STORYBOARD </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCTION LENGTH </li></ul><ul><li>NAVIGATION </li></ul><ul><li>NARRATION </li></ul><ul><li>STANDARD ELEMENTS </li></ul>
    16. 16. The Five Stages of the Innovation-Decision Process <ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eLearning is continuing to grow, even in economic recovery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W ill continue to fill an important gap in learning content creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The content development process is spreading outside of the learning realm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional designers’ roles is changing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content developers are becoming more sophisticated with Adobe Captivate </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. S-Curve for Adobe Captivate <ul><li>The S curve is used to study a lot of natural processes and complex systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The logistic equation was published for the first time in 1838 by P. F. Verhulst, a Belgian mathematician, than it was rediscovered in 1920 by Raymond Pearl and Lowell Reed. </li></ul>
    18. 18. S-Curve for Adobe Captivate Innovativeness and Adopter Categories
    19. 19. Adobe Captivate Innovation S-Curve Performance Time 100% May 2002 Fall 2002 Spring 2003 Fall 2003 2004 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011
    20. 20. Adobe Captivate Innovation S-Curve Performance Time 100%
    21. 21. S-Curve for Adobe Captivate <ul><li>Variables Determining the Rate of Adoption </li></ul><ul><li>1) Perceived Attributes of innovations – accounts for 49% to 87% of variance in the rate of adoption </li></ul><ul><li> 2) Type of Innovation-Decision </li></ul><ul><li> 3) Communication Channel diffusing the innovation at various states in the innovation-decision process </li></ul><ul><li> 4) Nature of the Social System </li></ul><ul><li> 5) Extent of Change agent’s promotion efforts </li></ul>
    22. 22. Attributes of Innovations and How These Perceptions Relate to the Rate of Innovation Adoption <ul><li>The Innovators using Adobe Captivate are the Organization’s Instructional Systems Designers and Curriculum Specialists. </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes of Innovators include: </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Observability </li></ul><ul><li>Trialability </li></ul>
    23. 23. Attributes of Innovations and How These Perceptions Relate to the Rate of Innovation Adoption <ul><li>Early Adopters of Adobe Connect Instructional Courses </li></ul><ul><li>Early Adopters typically display characteristics that include: </li></ul><ul><li>Experience with computers and Learning Management Systems (LMS) such as Developers, Instructors, and Managers of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals that display opinion leadership qualities (management) </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals that are more likely to investigate new developments; more effective and efficient ways to accomplish the mandated training for their employees such as: Information Technology personnel or Marketing and Sales personnel. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Attributes of Innovations and How These Perceptions Relate to the Rate of Innovation Adoption <ul><li>The most convincing strategies that are the most persuasive in convincing Early Adopters to adopt the innovation are: </li></ul><ul><li>Availability and use of existing directories of staff interests and expertise. </li></ul><ul><li>The degree of mutual acquaintance among a project's members. </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of experience within the project team. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Attributes of Innovations and How These Perceptions Relate to the Rate of Innovation Adoption <ul><li>The laggards in terms of rejecting the innovation of Adobe Captivate as an LMS towards required company training are: </li></ul><ul><li>Employees participating in and subjected to the training on a non-voluntary basis. </li></ul><ul><li>This group includes middle management and supervisors required to schedule their staff for training via this LMS. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Attributes of Innovations and How These Perceptions Relate to the Rate of Innovation Adoption <ul><li>Strategies to help laggards move towards adoption of an Adobe Captivate LMS for required training and education are: </li></ul><ul><li>Providing additional information about the significance and benefits of an innovative LMS </li></ul><ul><li>Provide workshops on the LMS prior to release </li></ul><ul><li>Provide workshops and training on ways to implement and utilize this new technology </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for evaluations and feedback from laggards to facilitate on-going courseware and delivery methodologies </li></ul>
    27. 27. Attributes of Innovations and How These Perceptions Relate to the Rate of Innovation Adoption <ul><li>Critical attributes that will help Adobe Captivate LMS training meet critical mass in mandated aviation regulatory training are trialability, observability and relative advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>If company management and trainees are given an opportunity to test the product, realize the applied benefits of economics and efficiency, then the innovation will have a better chance of success. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Adobe Captivate A Decentralized Approach <ul><li>Curriculum Developers and Managers of IT are motivated to seek innovations that drive a decentralized diffusion process </li></ul><ul><li>A more cost-efficient system is proliferated compared to a system of professional change agents managing the diffusion process </li></ul><ul><li>User self-reliance is encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>A decentralized approach is more publicly popular </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage to a decentralized approach is that technical expertise may be difficult to bring to bear and that a high level of expertise may be required to participate in the processes </li></ul><ul><li>This is not the case in this innovation with Adobe Captivate due to its user-friendly and low-tech expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation may consist of virtual or actual visits to the user sites for feedback and real time feedback or IT issues. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Change Agents <ul><li>Middle Managers of Production, Inspection and Quality Control best fit the role as change agents </li></ul><ul><li>1. Develop needs for change based upon time constraints that precludes employees participating in initial and recurrent training </li></ul><ul><li>2. Establishes an information-exchange relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Diagnosis existing problems and suggests solutions to increase production while enabling participation in training. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Creates an intent in the clients (employees, customers) to change. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Translates an intent into action. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Assists in the stabilization of adoption and prevents discontinuance via support of innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Strives to achieve a terminal relationship as the innovation diffuses into a beneficial and effective means to conduct instruction and learning events. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Critical Mass <ul><li>4 Strategies for Meeting Critical Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Upper management of company and customers are targeted of initial adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Adobe Captivate (or similar curriculum delivery products) are an inevitable innovation and will be adopted towards more efficient, flexible, and affordable means of instruction </li></ul><ul><li>This innovation will be introduced to customers and mid-level management groups who are more innovative </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives for early adoption include less non-billable time to customers aircraft and services; more profitability for company </li></ul>
    31. 31. Specific variables that make organizational adoption different from individual adoption <ul><li>Processes of downsizing </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible employment practices </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical disintegration </li></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing </li></ul><ul><li>An increasing dependence on external complementary assets </li></ul><ul><li>All reduce the direct control and ownership which organizations have over these resources </li></ul>
    32. 32. Adobe Captivate 5.5 video links <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    33. 33. INNOVATIONS FOR MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATIONS <ul><li>Adobe Captivate </li></ul><ul><li>Managing electronic course materials </li></ul><ul><li>Effective strategies to develop teaching-learning communities </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate forms of assessment </li></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> elearning-suite-2-5/ </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Forrester Consulting (2010). Rapid eLearning: Claiming A Spot In Your Content Developers’ Toolkit. A commissioned study conducted by Forrester Consulting on behalf of Adobe, January 29, 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>;. Retrieved 2011-07-04 </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations, 4th edition. New York: Free Press. </li></ul>