Computer Ethics in Digital Resources


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Computer Ethics in Digital Resources

  1. 1. Computer Ethics for Educators Laura Kolar Bryce Walker Jonathan White EM590 April 11, 2007
  2. 2. Do We Know What is Ethical? From “The Copyright Quiz” on (10/15/02) <ul><li>True or False: </li></ul><ul><li>A teacher gets clip art and music from popular file-sharing sites, then creates a lesson plan and posts it on the school Web site to share with other teachers. This is permissible. </li></ul>False. Legitimately acquired material can be used in classrooms. However, under the current law, no teacher can redistribute such material over the Net or any other medium. You can use it, but you can't spread it around.
  3. 3. <ul><li>True or False: </li></ul><ul><li>A middle school science class studying ocean ecosystems must gather material for multimedia projects. The teacher downloads pictures and information on marine life from various commercial and noncommercial sites to store in a folder for students to access. This is fair use. </li></ul>True . The Web may be mined for resources. Download away (of course, don't hack into subscription sites)! But remember: you can't put these projects back up on the Web without permission from the copyright holders.
  4. 4. <ul><li>True or False: </li></ul><ul><li>An elementary school designs a password-protected Web site for families and faculty only. It's OK for teachers to post student work there, even when it uses copyright material without permission. </li></ul>True . If the site really is protected, then this is considered OK. The school should monitor its Web hits, though, and make sure the outside world isn't sneaking in.
  5. 5. <ul><li>True or False: </li></ul><ul><li>On Back-to-School night, an elementary school offers child care for students' younger siblings. They put the kids in the library and show them Disney VHS tapes bought by the PTA. This is permissible. </li></ul>False . Video (like everything else) is not covered under fair use for entertainment or reward. The use described is entertainment, pure and simple. However, Disney will sell you a one-time license for $25 that makes this legal use. Call Disney at (818) 560-1000, ask for &quot;Rights,&quot; and prepare to trade faxes.
  6. 6. Copyright Law <ul><li>Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>1976 Copyright Act </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Millennium Copyright Act (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>TEACH Act of 2002 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Copyright Law <ul><li>Constitutional Basis: Article I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect the rights of authors, artists, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage intellectual property creation by ensuring a mechanism for profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Limited” term, extendable by Congress </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Copyright Law <ul><li>Copyright Act of 1976 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superceded all previous copyright laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literary, musical, choreographic, dramatic, graphic, sculptural, audio, audiovisual, and architectural works are protected, whether published or not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Term: life + 50 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codified “Fair Use” for criticism, news, scholarship and teaching </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Copyright Law <ul><li>Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminalizes any attempt to circumvent copy-protection technologies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No broad exception made for fair use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Librarian of Congress must issue exemptions for specific works/uses, good for three years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Copyright Law <ul><li>Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization Act of 2002 (TEACH Act) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates specific exceptions for educational purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be accredited NON-PROFIT educational institution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be limited to students enrolled in the particular course for which it is needed </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. “Fair Use” for Educators <ul><li>Fair Use is a special copyright category that educators fall under. </li></ul><ul><li>The concept was first addressed in the 1976 Copyright Act. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows certain groups to use intellectual property to benefit society as a whole, such as for instruction in a school. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Exceptions” to copyright law. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Section 107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair Use <ul><li>“ The fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies … or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as…teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.” </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers need to consider the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. The nature of the copyrighted work; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. What Can Teachers Do? <ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can install the program on multiple computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of simultaneous users depends on number of licenses bought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot copy software </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. What Can Teachers Do? <ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Images, videos, and sound files may be downloaded for use in lessons and student projects (10% of music and video files). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot repost images from web (without permission), but can create links to resources. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Computer Ethics <ul><li>What are some of the most common misconceptions, honest mistakes, inconsistencies, and cultural or age factors affecting computer ethics? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Common Misconceptions <ul><li>Software programs are too expensive to buy and companies are making too much money on each program they sell. </li></ul><ul><li>I have purchased a software program, so I may use it on as many computers as I have. </li></ul><ul><li>I don't have to pay for shareware and freeware. They are public domain software and I may freely copy them and distribute them </li></ul>
  17. 17. Honest Mistakes <ul><li>“ A major element of human uniqueness is the fact that many humans act with respect and concern toward other humans, other living species, and even the environment…in many cases people who act morally are following principles that govern their actions.” (Edgar, 1999) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal File Exchanges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal Installations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright Violations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In most cases, violators who can consider these computer crimes as ‘honest mistakes’ will claim that they we not aware of such specific laws in cyber ethics. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Inconsistencies <ul><li>As the computer age continues, computer ethics guidelines continue to change and refine in definition. Most websites do not have the same copyright and privacy, so it is very difficult for the user to understand and follow a universal code of computer ethics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Login Information or Paid Subscription </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Downloads and Trials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software and File Duplication Software on Computers </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Cultural Factors <ul><li>Computers are bridging the gap between different cultures. However, there is still no common “Computer Ethics Guidelines” for all cultural groups to follow. The rules depend on multiple factors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From where is the website hosted or the software distributed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the copyright rules based on cultural morals? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do other cultures define piracy? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Guidelines <ul><li>Several helpful guides available: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> overview. htm l </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. bu . edu /media/ krasker .html </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. What can software and web designers do to help teachers use digital resources in ethical manner? <ul><li>Copyright Laws that are clear and concise. </li></ul><ul><li>Mailings to schools when Computer Ethics laws are updated. </li></ul><ul><li>Make embedded restrictions to licensed users. </li></ul><ul><li>What else? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Where can educators find information on computer ethics? <ul><li>Computer Ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Code of Computer Ethics for Educators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// lrs .ed. uiuc . edu /students/ mickley / ethicsnew . htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer Ethics for Parents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. cybercrime . gov / cyberethics . htm # doca </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer Ethics for Kids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. cybercrime . gov /rules/ kidinternet . htm </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Student Ethics <ul><li>Teachers have the responsibility of setting the example and informing students of what is right and wrong when using computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Students should be taught responsible computer use </li></ul><ul><li>Copying and stealing are the same online as they are from books and stores; plagiarism is plagiarism. </li></ul>