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Earth quake


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Earth quake

  1. 1. 31/07/55D3 What is Earthquake? An earthquake is the sudden, rapid shaking or rolling of the Earth. Group 8 Earthquakes happen when rocks break or slip along fault lines in the Earth’s crust, releasing energy that causes the ground to move. Department of water resource engineering Faculty of engineering Kasetsart university Earth Large plates include. • The Africa: the continent of Africa as a continent. • Antarctic Plate, covering Antarctica is a continent. • Australian Plate, covering Australia (To pages linked to India, about 50-55 million years ago) was the continents. • Eurasian plate, covering Asia and Europe as a continent. • North American plate, covering North America and northeastern Siberia, is inserted continent. • South American plate, a sheet covering North America. • The Pacific: the Pacific Ocean. As the ocean. • There are also smaller than the plate, including the Indian, the S series, the Caribbean, in the Juan de Fu, in a nice car, the Philippines and the Scotia. platesWU1 Thailand 1
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  3. 3. 31/07/55 แผ่นดินไหวในภูมิภาคเอเซียตะวันออกเฉียงใต้ What Causes Earthquake WHAT IS A FAULT? Earthquakes occur on faults. A fault is a thin zone of crushed rock between two blocks of rock , and can be any length, from centimeters to thousands of kilometers. When an earthquake occurs on one of these faults, the rock on one side of science/chapter1_3.html the fault slips with respect to the The sudden slip at the fault causes other. The fault surface can be the earthquake a violent shaking of the vertical, horizontal, or at some angle to the surface of the earth. Earth when large elastic strain energy The slip direction can also be at any released spreads out through seismic angle. We classify these into two waves that travel through the body and basic cases: strike slip and dip-slip along the surface of the Earth. motion. 2
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  5. 5. 31/07/55 TSUNAMIS GENERATED BY EARTHQUAKES Large EQ (>7.5) Shallow EQ – at or near the seafloor (< 50 km) Subduction zones Sudden displacement moves overlying column of water generating waveWU4 Measuring the shaking Magnitude is a measurement of the energy produced by the earthquake and is not what you feel during the event. What you feel is very complex-- hard or gentle, long or short, jerky or rolling--and not describable with one number. ht t p: / / geophys i s . s c. m ahi ol ac. t h/ w dpr es s / w c d . or p- cont ent / upl ads / % B8% B% E0 % % % 0% B8 % % % % 3% E0% B9 % % % 8% AB % % % 9% 0% B9 % % % 8% 7% E0% B8 % % % 8% B8 % % % 9% 0% B8 % % % 9% 8C % % % % 0% B8% A5 % % % B2% E0 % % % % 9% 81 % % % C% 0% B9 % % % % 9% 0% B8 % % % % B4% E0 % % % % 9% 84 % % % B% E0% B8 % pdf o E0% A B8 B2 E 95 E0 B8 B 81 E0 B E0 B8 9 E 88 E0 B 8 A8 E0 B E0 B8 9 E A2 E0 B E0 B8 81 E E0 B8 B8 87 E0 B E0 B8 9 E 88 E0 B8 9 E 94 E0 B8 B8 99 E0 B E0 B8 A A7. 3
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  7. 7. 31/07/55 WU3The worlds first earthquake detector ;science museum รายชื่ อสถานี ตรวจแผ่ นดินไหว Network Code Station Code LON LAT ELEV velocity sensor เขื่อนคีรีธาร จ.จันทบุรี TM CHBT 102.3297 12.7526 4 Trillium120 sec ดอยสุเทพ จ.เชียงใหม่ TM CMMT 98.9476 18.8128 399.7 Trillium120 sec เขื่อนวชิราลงกรณ์ จ.กาญจนบุรี TM KHLT 98.5893 14.797 164 Trillium 40 sec เขื่อนลาพระเพลิง จ.นครราชสีมา TM KRDT 104.8442 14.5905 266 Trillium 40 sec IP ADDRESS ด่านตรวจคนเข้ าเมื อง จ.แม่ ฮ่องสอน TM MHIT 97.9632 19.3148 270 Trillium120 sec สถานีอุตุนิยมวิ ทยาแม่ สะเรี ยง จ. แม่ ฮ่องสอน TM MHMT 97.931 18.1764 164 Trillium 40 sec เขาค้ อ จ.เพชรบูรณ์ TM PBKT 100.9687 16.5733 8 Trillium120 sec สถานี ตรวจแผ่นดินไหวต่างจังหวัด เขื่อนบางวาด จ.ภู เก็ต TM PKDT 98.335 7.892 53 Trillium 40 sec ระนอง TM RNTT 98.4778 9.3904 38 Trillium 40 sec INTERNET สงขลา TM SKLT 100.6188 7.1735 14.5 Trillium120 sec เขื่อนศรี นคริ นทร์ จ.กาญจนบุรี TM SRDT 99.1212 14.3945 122 Trillium 40 sec เขื่อนรัชประภา จ.สุราษฏร์ ธานี TM SURT 98.795 8.9577 26 Trillium 40 sec กรมอุตนิ ยมวิทยา เขื่อนปากมู ล จ.อุบลราชธานี 105.4695 15.2773 120 TM UBPT Trillium120 sec USER เขื่อนน ้าพุง จ.สกลนคร TM SKNT 103.9815 16.9742 254 Trillium 40 sec เขื่อนท่างิ ้วจ.ตรัง TM TRTT 99.6912 7.8362 71 Trillium 40 sec 4
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  9. 9. 31/07/55WU5 Wave Equation M = earthquake magnitude (Richter). A = the height of seismic waves as high as possible. A0 = height of seismic waves at the center. ตัวอย่างที่ 1 ตัวอย่างที่ 2 จงหาขนาดของแผ่นดินไหวที่มีความสูงของคลื่นที่สูงทีสุด 10 มิลลิเมตรระยะทาง ่ จงหาขนาดของแผ่นดินไหวที่มีความสูงของคลื่นทีสูงที่สุด 20 มิลลิเมตรที่ระยะทาง ่ 100 กิโลเมตรจากจุดศูนย์กลาง 100 กิโลเมตรจากจุดศูนย์กลาง วิธีทา M = log - logA0 วิธีทา M = log20 - log0.001 = log10 - log0.001 = 1.3 - (-3) = 1 - (-3) = 4.3 หน่วยริคเตอร์ = 4 หน่วย ริคเตอร์ 5
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  11. 11. 31/07/55 Aspects of the motion are described by thepeak velocity (how fast the ground is moving),peak acceleration (how quickly the speed of theground is changing), the frequency (energy isreleased in waves and these waves vibrate atdifferent frequencies just like sound waves), andthe duration (how long the strong shaking lasts).Three factors primarily determine what you feel inan earthquake. These are: 1) magnitude 2) distance from the fault 3) local soil conditions MAGNITUDE When scientists refer to a “Great“ earthquake, they do not mean the earthquake was fabulous, they mean it was huge. Informally, earthquakes are classified according to their magnitude size: under 5 small 5 - 6 moderate 6 - 7 large 7 - 7.8 major 7.8 or above great Intensity How the Ground Shakes? Intensity is a qualitative measure of the actualshaking at a location during an earthquake, and is Seismic Wavesassigned as Roman Capital Numerals. There are Large strain energy released during anmany intensity scales. Two commonly used ones are earthquake travels as seismic waves in allthe Modified Marcella Intensity (MMI) Scale and theMSK directions through the Earth’s layers, reflecting Scale. Both scales are quite similar and range and refracting at each interface. These wavesfrom I- (least perceptive) to XII- (most severe). The are of two types -body waves and surfaceintensity scales are waves; the latter are restricted to near the based on three features of shaking. Earth’s surface Body waves consist of Primary • perception by people and animals, Waves (P-waves) • performance of buildings, and • changes to natural surroundings. and Secondary Waves (S-waves), and surface waves consist of Love waves and Rayleigh waves. 6
  12. 12. 31/07/55WU6 WU7 Seismic Waves Equation Primary wave equation Primary wave equation Secondary wave equation Primary wave equation Secondary wave equation Secondary wave equation Focal Pont The point on the fault where slip starts is the Focus or Hypocenter, and the point vertically above this on the surface of the Earth is the Epicenter. The depth of focus from the epicenter, called as Focal Depth, is an important parameter in determining the damaging 7
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  14. 14. 31/07/55 What are the Seismic effects on structures? How Building Twist during the Earthquake?D2 Hazard Vulnerability in Gujarat 100% of land vulnerable to Earthquakes 11 % of Land liable to severe earthquake( Intensity MSK VIIXmore)-Kachchh Area 9 % of Land liable to severe earthquake(Intensity MSK V-VIII)Banaskantha, jam nagar,Surendranagar 79.2 % of Land liable to severe earthquake( Intensity MSK III-VI) 8
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  16. 16. 31/07/55 WU8 The formula to calculate earthquakes. Design Code Standards used to design buildings to resist V = Z I K C S Wd V = a Wtearthquakes (Design Code) is an American UBC Code(Uniform Building Code), which are many ways tocalculate earthquakes. But how convenient and V= Total base shear Z = Seismic zoning factorwidely used in building work is to Lateral Load I = Occupancy important factor (1.0 - 1.5)Analysis or Base Shear Analysis by converting seismic K = Frame factor C = Coefficient that depends on the period(Dynamic Load) in the form of shear forces acting at (Period), the swing of the building.the base of the building Static Load, which can be S = Soil factor (1.0 - 1.5)obtained from formula Wd = Total dead loads of structure WT = Total dead loads and live loads of structure a = Base shear coefficient เหตุการณ์แผ่นดินไหวที่มีผลกระทบต่อประเทศไทย The earthquake วัน เดื อน ปี ศูนย์กลาง/ ขนาด/ ตาแหน่งที่ รู้สึก บันทึ กเหตุ การณ์ ความรุ นแรง 624 ปี กอน ค.ศ. ่ โยนก VI MM ยามรุ งแจ้ง แผ่นดิ นไหว ฟ้ าร้อง ่ วันพฤหัสฯ เดื อน 10 623 ปี กอน ค.ศ. ่ โยนก VI MM แผ่นดิ นไหว ฟ้ าร้อง ฝนตก วันศุกร์ เดื อน 8 594 ปี กอน ค.ศ. ่ โยนก VI MM ยามค่อนรุ ง แผ่นดิ นไหว ฟ้ าร้อง ่ วันจันทร์ เดื อน 10 589 ปี กอน ค.ศ. ่ โยนก VI MM ยามเช้า แผ่นดิ นไหว ฟ้ าร้อง ขึ้ น 14 ค่ า เดื อน 8 พ.ศ. 1003 โยนก XII MM แผ่นดิ นไหวสนั่นหวันไหว ครั้งหนึ่ งก็หายไป ่ วันเสาร์ เดื อน 7 ถึ งสามหน ทาให้โยนกนครยุบจมลงเกิดเป็ น แรม 7 ค่ า กลางคื น หนองน้ าใหญ่ พ.ศ. 1077 โยนก VIII MM ยามเช้า แผ่นดิ นไหว ยอดเจดี ยหัก 4 แห่ง ์ ขึ้ น 8 ค่ า เดื อน 7 พ.ศ. 1905 สุโขทัย VI MM แผ่นดิ นไหว มีเสียงดัง แรม 8 ค่ า เดื อน 12 พ.ศ. 1909 สุโขทัย V MM แผ่นดิ นไหวทั่วทุ กทิ ศ แรม 8 ค่ า เดื อน 11 fault or Active Fault current is as follows. power fault or Active Fault current is as follows. Chang san fault. The length of the Mae Tha fault. Is curved along the Mae Wangchannel, about 130 kilometers from Mae River. And the river in Mae Tha, Chiang Mai andChan to the east. The Mae Chan. It cuts Lamphun. The total length is about 55 kilometers ofacross the south of the district County to the intensive studies in the year 2521, there were severaleast along the north side of Chiang Khong small earthquakes.Navy ships. Mae Chan fault length of about 130 kmfrom the years 2521 and> 3 on the Richterscale occurred along the fault is 10 times / 3times the size of> 4.5 on the Richter scale wasonly on September 1, 2521 are> 4.9 on theRichter scale. 9
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  20. 20. 31/07/55 Statistics of earthquakes felt in the country since 2550 - present.( in Thailand ) 12 Sep 2550 in South Sumatra and 8.4 on the Richter scale was felt on the high-rise building in Bangkok. 13 Sep 2550 the area south of the Sumatra quake of 7.1 on the Richter scale was felt in some of the buildings. 12 May 2551 in Sichuan province of China, and 7.8 on the Richter scale shaking the feel of the tallest building in Bangkok. And China has killed about 20,000 people. 30 Sep 2552 in the middle of the island of Sumatra was 7.9 on the Richter scale was the tallest building in Bangkok. Indonesia has killed about 1,000 people. Statistics of earthquakes Statistics of earthquakes (world Record) (world Record) 9.5 Richter scale earthquake on 5 May 1960 9.1 Richter scale earthquake that we all on the southern coast of Chile. As a result, remember well. I was born on 26 Dec 2004 at more than 1,600 people have died and 2 sea in Indonesia. As a result, the tsunami is million homeless. widespread in many coastal countries in the Indian Ocean. More than 220,000 people lost 9.2 Richter scale earthquake on 27 Mar their lives. 1964 Alaska to the United States, the tsunami 9.0 Richter scale earthquake on 4 Nov 1952 claimed 128 lives and destroyed "in the neck, at the Russian coast of the peninsula to the Anchorage" (Anchorage), the largest city in Income Support values ​(Kamchatka) Russias Far the state. East. As a result, a large tsunami in the Pacific Rim. However, no reports of damage. Statistics of earthquakes Statistics of earthquakes (world Record) (world Record) 9.0 Richter scale earthquake on 13 Aug 1868 8.9 Richter scale earthquake that occurredin North America, the port area. We are part of just recently on 11 Mar 2011 earthquake underPeru. But as of Chillicothe. When an earthquake the sea to the southeast coast of Japan. Result inoccurs. Feel the vibration as far as 1,400 miles. a 10-meter high tsunami swept into the flood. The 9.0 Richter scale earthquake on 26 Jan 1700 damage is being reported to the periodicin North America. Along the west coast. Tsunami 8.8 Richter scale earthquake on 27 Feb 2010across the Pacific. Destruction of villages along at the coast of Chile. Earthquakes along thethe coast of Japan. beach to play in the U (Maule) away from the capital Santiago, only 500 km in the tsunami that has killed about 500. 11
  21. 21. 31/07/55WU11 Statistics of earthquakes (world Record) 8.8 Richter scale earthquake on 31 Jan 1906 in Ecuador, shaking the central coast of South America to Ecuador and Colombia. I feel almost as far as the North American continent at San Francisco. 8.7 Richter scale earthquake on 4 Feb 1965 at Ballarat Island (Rat Islands) miles away from Alaska. The tsunami wave height of 10 meters. 12
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