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B4FA 2012 Uganda: Seedbanks and world food security in Uganda - John Wasswa Mulumba


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Presentation by John Wasswa Mulumba, Plant Genetic Resources Centre NARO, Entebbe
Delivered at the B4FA Media Dialogue Workshop, Kampala, Uganda - November 2012

Published in: Science
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B4FA 2012 Uganda: Seedbanks and world food security in Uganda - John Wasswa Mulumba

  1. 1. Seed banks and world food security John Wasswa Mulumba Plant Genetic Resources Centre NARO
  2. 2. How to meet present and future food demands? • Population est. to increase to > 9 b. by 2050 • World’s agricultural production must increase by at least 70% • Limited availability of new land for agriculture • 70% of the increase in cereal production alone will need to come from increased yields • Largely achievable by exploring genetic variability in seed (germplasm)
  3. 3. What are the three categories of plants important for food and agriculture?
  4. 4. Modern varieties •Developed by breeders •Uniform •High yielding •Pest and disease resistance •Marketable •Narrow genetic base
  5. 5. Farmer varieties •Developed by farmers •Variable and diverse •Wide genetic base •Low input •Adapted to microenvironments •Special to small-scale farmers •Source of breeding material for breeders •Continue evolving onfarm
  6. 6. Wild relatives of crops •In the wilderness •Source of genes for crop improvement •Continue adapting to change •Link to ancestral homes of crops
  7. 7. Wild food plants •Over 10,000 spp edible •Only a handful developed to commercial scale •Five crops provide over 80 % of calories •Could be future crops •Domestication process
  8. 8. Challenges to the three categories
  9. 9. Challenges to modern varieties • Development process discards a lot of genes • Uniformity increases vulnerability to new enemies • Wide scale cultivation corresponds to wide scale potential for damage
  10. 10. Challenges to farmer varieties • Less productive • Face continuous displacement by modern varieties
  11. 11. • Challenges to wild relatives •Natural Ecosystem destruction •Little recognition •Climate change effects
  12. 12. • Challenges to wild food plants Ecosystem destruction Climate change Lack of R&D efforts
  13. 13. Opportunities • • • • Increasing biological constraints Increasing population Increasing demands for food diversification Increasing poor nutrition (urban poor and ‘rich’) due to poor eating habits • Increasing/changing market opportunities • Call for diverse base of crop diversity to fall back to
  14. 14. Role of a Genebank • To ensure the safety and security of crop diversity for present and future generations.
  15. 15. Functions of Genebanks • • • • • • • • • Exploration & status assesment Collection of germplasm Conservation Safety duplication Describe the germplasm (characterization) Test germplasm (preliminary evaluation) Generate knowledge about germplasm Document all info Avail germplasm and info to users
  16. 16. Exploration & status assessment
  17. 17. Germplasm collection
  18. 18. Processing
  19. 19. Conservation
  20. 20. Safety duplication
  21. 21. Germplasm description phenotypic and molecular
  22. 22. Germplasm evaluation
  23. 23. Knowledge generation
  24. 24. Relationship between richness and Weighted Damage Index (WDI = 0-100) – Common bean in Uganda (Mulumba et al., 2012) Higher variety richness/evenness – less variance in damage: a risk minimizing ALS Anthracnose argument for crop variety diversity in the production system Richness Richness In times of higher disease incidence (Anthracnose) higher relationship of varietal diversity with reduced damage Simpson (evenness) Black sigatoka Simpson (evenness) Weevils
  25. 25. ALS severity scores for the ten least and 10 most infected varieties (Field)
  26. 26. Documentation Kampala Key: O. eichingeri O. longistaminata O.punctata
  27. 27. Seed flow in Nyamirima village, Kabwohe site J. Tobi Handagana HH4 Jane Kiiza HH15 Brenda R. Kyambeishikyi Kadiya K. HH3 Miliam Muheirwe HH1 -Juliet Katunda HH14 Kerodonia R. Mrs. Baker Katungia Kisoso Silvia M HH2 E. HH6 Sarah Bebwa HH13 Mary M. Muhumuza HH5 Sanyu Elinah HH11 Enid B. Beyanga Byarugaba HH12Jane siriri HH8 Jowelia Mulezi Jovia N HH7 Peruth Rutundu HH10 Dina Mugarasi HH9 Lydia Bantu Donozio K John Night Nathan B Zebia M. Jane M
  28. 28. Awareness & Knowledge sharing
  29. 29. Availing germplasm to users
  30. 30. Types of Genebanks • Community-based • Institutional • National
  31. 31. • Community Genebank characteristics •Based in a community •Managed by community •Directly serves community •Based on simple seed preservation approaches •Monitors variety dynamics in a community •Small range of crops •Short-term seed
  32. 32. • National Genebank Characteristics •National mandate •Wide range of crops •Applies high management standards •Seed viability up to 50 years •Has both active and base collection •Distributes seed to all users
  33. 33. National Genebank Moisture content Reception Genebank Cleaning Registration Documentation unit Germination testing Storage for Distribution Packaging
  34. 34. Conclusion • Genebanks are central in the transformation of agriculture and ensuring world food security for today and the future