Cotton Breeding in Ghana - September 2012


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Presentation by Dr Emmanuel Chamba, CSIR Savannah Agricultural Research Institute, Tamale, Ghana
Delivered at the B4FA Media Dialogue Workshop, Accra, Ghana - September 2012

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Cotton Breeding in Ghana - September 2012

  1. 1. EmmanuelEmmanuel ChambaChamba,, CSIRCSIR--SARI, TamaleSARI, Tamale The development of two cotton varieties in Ghana
  2. 2. Presentation Outline Introduction - Cotton and benefits - some major production constraints • Research focus/objectives Basic plant breeding principles Research methods used Results Seed multiplication plan The way forward – Bt cotton introduction
  3. 3. Cotton and Benefits Major cash crop in Northern Ghana Plays a key role in the economy of households in the region by providing - additional income to households - benefits from residual fertilizer for production of maize in rotation Cotton reduces striga seeds in the soil when rotated with striga susceptible crops Fertilizer and insecticide diversion
  4. 4. Cotton and Benefits cont’d Potential of cotton to the economy of Ghana is 500,000 ha capable of producing 200,000 metric tons of lint. with a market value of US$ 350,000,000
  5. 5. Cotton Growing BeltCotton Growing Belt -- GhanaGhana Long 1Long 1ooEE -- Long 3Long 3ooWW Lat 8.5Lat 8.5ooNN -- Lat 11Lat 11ooNN
  6. 6. Some major constraints of cotton production in Ghana Lack of improved seeds to sufficiently renew the seed stock resulting in low seed cotton yields and poor lint quality (exhibits) The average seed cotton yield in Ghana 775 kg/ha as against a West African average of about 1100-1200 kg/ha. Ghana highest total production is less than 40,000 MT . In Burkina Faso it is 300,000 MT
  7. 7. Seed source of cotton production in Ghana Cotton companies depend on imported seed from neighbouring countries such as Burkina Faso, Togo, Mali and Senegal Most of the imported seed are third or fourth generation seed with very low genetic potential and low viability.
  8. 8. Research focus To introduce, develop, test and recommend improved varieties for the cotton growing areas To develop appropriate cultural control practices for cotton production
  9. 9. Specific objectives of Cotton Improvement programme Develop improved varieties with o High and stable yields across the cotton belt of Ghana o High lint-seed ratio (ginning outturn-GOT) o High quality lint- staple length, strength etc o Tolerance to insect pest/diseases and drought
  10. 10. Principles of plant breeding- The four stages of the plant breeding process Breeding – creation of variability Selection to fix desired genes Evaluation of the selected lines Cultivar release
  11. 11. Principles of plant breeding-sources of genetic variation o Plant introduction – collections of plant genotypes o Hybridisation – crosses within species o Interspecific crossses/intergeneric – between two deferent genera o Mutation o Other sources- breeding lines o Trans genic plants
  12. 12. Germplasm collection, Observation Nursery (Mass selection On-Station Evaluation, Multi-location Trials, Participatory Varietal Selection, Advanced Yield Trials, On-farm Adaptive Trials, BREEDING PROCEDURE USED TO DEVELOP SARCOTS SARCOT 1 SARCOT 5 SARCOT 9
  13. 13. Breeding Procedure Germplasm collection from Togo, Burkina, Cote d’Ivoire, Syria, China, USA, Benin, Zimbabwe (1988- ongoing) 60 Crosses Observation Nursery – 1996 On station-replicated evaluation of 19 selected genotypes -1997-1999
  14. 14. Breeding Procedure Researcher managed multilocational testing of 8 selected genotypes- 1999 – 200 Locations: Nyankpala,Yendi,Walewale (NR), Wa(UWR), Bawku and Pusu- Namgo(UER)
  15. 15. Breeding procedure continues Conducted Farmer Participatory Varietal Selection (PVS) trial of 8 cotton genotyes at Nyankpala from 2001-2002 3 lines of cotton with broad adaptation were identified after years of evaluation
  16. 16. Breeding procedure continues Farmer managed researcher supervised on-farm evaluation of 3 genotypes of cotton from 2003- 2004 Locations: same as before
  17. 17. HVI in CSIR-SARI
  18. 18. Yield and quality parameters Potential yield (kg/ha) FK 290 Commercial variety SARCOT 1 SARCOT 5 SARCOT 9 STANDARD VALUES 1900 2100 2100 200 2000 Yield across regions (kg/ha) 1239 1443 1471 1425 1000 Lint index (GOT) % 44.5 46.5 44.4 44.2 40-48 HVI Readings length (mm) 29.00 29.05 30.7 26. 75 25 - 333 Short fibre index 5.1 5.5 3.95 8.5 The smaller the better Micro 3.10 3.28 4.12 4.25 3.7 – 4.2
  19. 19. 0.00 500.00 1000.00 1500.00 2000.00 2500.00 3000.00 3500.00 1500.00 1700.00 1900.00 2100.00 2300.00 2500.00 2700.00 2900.00 ENVIRONMENT MEAN SCWT GENOTYPICMEANSCWT sarcot11 mean sarcot1 sarcot4 sarcot9 sarcot17(FK290) sarcot5
  20. 20. Varietal release Two of the cotton lines evaluated were released as varieties to farmers in 2005. These varieties are SARCOT 1 and SARCOT 5
  21. 21. Seed Multiplication Scheme YEAR SEED GENERATION & AREA PROJECTED QUANTITY OF SEED IN METRIC TONNES (MT) YEAR I BASE (Foundation Seed) 12 ha ↓ 4.5 YEAR 2 First reproduction (certified seed) 400 ha ↓ 220 YEAR 3 Second reproduction ( Certified seed) 11,00 ha ↓ 6,000 -11,000 YEAR 4 Farmers seed 242, 00 – 440,000
  22. 22. Cotton seed multiplication field at Nyankpala
  23. 23. The way Forward Introduction of Bt Cotton, Ghana Government initiative and SARI is a core institution in the process Bt Workshop in June, 2012 and Burkina preparations Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis), NOT Biotech cotton Bt – soil microrganism in soils worldwide Why Bt cotton
  24. 24. Major Cotton Insect Pests Bollworms are key pests of cotton The larvae damage plant terminals and also chew into squares and developing bolls, resulting in abscission of these floral parts and loss in seed cotton yieldCotton bollworm
  25. 25. Control relies on insecticides eg Polytrin C, Tiham, Thunder, Karate and Dunsbarn An average of six sprays are applied in a season Chemicals are expensive and detrimental to the farmer and the environment Current control methods
  26. 26. Merits of Bt Cotton Reduction of pesticide application from 6 to 2 times (resistance to Bollw) Reduction in walking distance (Burkina Faso farmer experience Reduction in risk from insecticide exposure(social implications)and poisoning Reduction in labour cost Reduction in chemical cost
  27. 27. Merits of Bt cotton continues------ Increase in cotton production Increase in seed cotton yield of 30% BF Increase farmer income Improve farmer livelihood Demerits of Bt cotton: NONE
  28. 28. Bt cotton breeding procedure - Confined field Trials (CFTs) - Introgression of A x B A = Donor variety B = Farmer preferred variety (SARCOTS) Breeding (fore and background) using backcrossing procedure
  29. 29. Conclusion Increase in cotton production Increase farmer income Improve farmer livelihood
  30. 30. THANK YOU