Biotechnology for Agriculture in Nigeria - September 2012

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Presentation by Prof Christian Fatokun, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria
Delivered at the B4FA Media Dialogue Workshop, Ibadan, Nigeria - September 2012
www.b4fa.org

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Biotechnology for Agriculture in Nigeria - September 2012

  1. 1. www.iita.org Biotechnology for Agriculture in Nigeria
  2. 2. www.iita.org Fermentation: Production of alcohol from sorghum or sugar cane, akanmu from corn etc. Tissue Culture: Small plant parts placed on nutrient media containing hormones. Biotechnology:- Manipulation of biological elements (plant or animal) to develop new products
  3. 3. www.iita.org Modern Biotechnology; Genetic engineering; R-DNA technology; Transformation:- A gene is taken from one organism and inserted in another to give the latter the desired trait. Transgenic is produced. :- Genomics: Sequences of nucleotides that make up DNA.
  4. 4. www.iita.org
  5. 5. www.iita.org According to International Service for the Acquisition of Agric- biotech Applications – ISAAA in 2011 GM adoption was by 16.7 million farmers On 160 million hectares In 29 countries: 10 developed : 19 developing In Africa on 2.5 million hectares Crops: Corn Soybean Cotton Canola
  6. 6. www.iita.org In Nigeria Agriculture is characterized by: Low Productivity – Small Holdings, subsistence – Poor soils – Mercy of the rains – Limited access to irrigation facilities – Unimproved planting materials – Diseases, Pests, Drought, Heat, Weeds – Storage and Transportation – Inadequate funds – Limited mechanisation (Inadequate tools) – Ageing farming population
  7. 7. www.iita.org Major Food Crops Tubers: • Cassava, Yams, Potatoes, Cocoyam Grains: Maize, Rice, Sorghum, Millet, Cowpea, Soybean, Bambara, Pigeonpea, Phaseolus beans Plantains/Bananas Fruits and vegetables Oil Palm/ Coconut/ Groundnut
  8. 8. www.iita.org Planting yam in mounds Yam production and marketing
  9. 9. www.iita.org At IITA tissue culture is being applied to facilitate crop improvement In plantain/banana:- Black sigatoka disease
  10. 10. www.iita.org Plantain/Banana Constraints:- Black sigatoka - 40% yld loss; - Banana streak virus – 60% yld loss; - Weevils - Nematodes - Fusarium wilt/ Bacterial wilt - Banana die back virus B l a c k S i g a t o k a B a c t e r i a l w i l t F u s a r i u m w i l t D i s e a s e s o f b a n a n a a n d p l a n t a i n
  11. 11. www.iita.org Embryo rescue of hybrid seeds Embryo rescue for hybrid seed
  12. 12. www.iita.org - Mostly grown and consumed in SSA - High protein content in grains up to 25%; - Hence cheap source of protein; - Approx 3.3 m tonnes on 9.8 m ha; - Average grain yield is 600 kg/ha; - Potential grain yield is upto 2.0 t/ha. Cowpea – called beans in Nigeria
  13. 13. www.iita.org Biotic contsraints:– Aphids; Flower bud thrips; Legume pod borer; Pod sucking bugs; Grain Weevil; Bacterial blight; Fusarium wilt; Striga gesnerioides. Cowpea
  14. 14. www.iita.org An intractable pest is Maruca vitrata
  15. 15. www.iita.org Maruca larva Screened over 10,000 accessions for resistance; Led to efforts at developing GM cowpea with Bt gene; Cowpea with Bt gene now available.
  16. 16. www.iita.org Bt cowpea has been evaluated under confined field trials Bt gene efficacious against Maruca vitrata Further evaluations in B. Faso and Ghana Plans to transfer Bt gene to good genetic background Marker assisted selection to facilitate
  17. 17. www.iita.org Anoplocnemis curvipes Damaged pods Pod sucking bugs
  18. 18. www.iita.org Benefits of Biotechnology • Rapid multiplication of new clones/varieties • Prolonging Shelf Life of Fruits, Vegetables and Flowers • Extend Crop Area and Season – Stress Tolerance - Drought, Acidity, Salinity, Heat, Water logging • More Nutritious Food • Healthy Produce, Low Toxins • Pharmaceutical Proteins • Clean Up of Environment • Industrial Products • Value-Added Products
  19. 19. www.iita.org Improved food safety Improving Cassava for Nutrition, Health and Sustainable Development - BioCassava Plus, a multi-disciplinary team of scientist- Ohio State University, USA and DDPSC - Acyanogenic cassava
  20. 20. www.iita.org Food fortification • Rice for High Beta Carotene, Vitamin E and Enhanced Iron and Zinc bioavailability - ProVitaMinRice Consortium, Albert-Ludwigs- Universität Freiburg, Germany
  21. 21. www.iita.org Both are derived from same ancestor, Brassica oleracea. They were devoped over several years and generations through breeding and selection. With bioengineering can be made more precisely over a short period of time. (Bradford et al. 2004) Cauliflower Broccoli
  22. 22. www.iita.org Recombinant technology Conventional technology Gene source Unlimited Usually limited to relatives within species; could also between genera Usually one or a few known genes Usually many blocks of genes of unknown identity Gene flow can be monitored during subsequent generations Individual gene flow can be monitored Location of genes Random into recipient genome Normally – but not always – genes remain in sites in which they evolved - Source: Boulter, 1995
  23. 23. www.iita.org Marker assisted breeding using DNA in cassava and cowpea Cowpea: Aphid resistance Bacterial blight resistance Striga resistance Drought tolerance
  24. 24. www.iita.org Is Nigeria prepared for GMOs? Some challenges Research infrastructure:- Few trained scientists in molecular biology Only few laboratories exist with facilities for biotech research – SHESTCO was to be a flagship Virtually all needed reagents have to be imported Good news is possibility for outsourcing some services
  25. 25. www.iita.org Is Nigeria prepared for GMOs? Some challenges Complex crop combinations in farmers’ fields make certain GMO crops unattractive Only a few GM crops are available for planting Likely increase in cost of procuring seeds for planting Limited access to inputs for more productive farming Insufficient information on GMOs Fear of consumers attitude to produce IPR issues Biosafety regulations
  26. 26. www.iita.org Thank You for Listening

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