PSCI 211 – Comparative Government – David TakitakiGOVERNMENT AND ECONOMY
Why Do We Have Government?A Simple History
Why Government? In the absence of government (called the    “State of Nature”) everyone must defend    themselves from th...
Why Government? Early cooperatives were based on family. As  families grew, they became tribes. The eldest male was usua...
5 Types of GovernmentUnderstanding the basics
Type 1: Anarchy Anarchy is commonly defined as the absence  of a governing power. Individuals living in the State of Nat...
Type 2: Despotism A Despotism is a government with only one  ruler. A Monarchy is a despotic system of  government with ...
Type 3: Oligarchy An Oligarchy is a system in which the power  exists in the hands of a few elite people. The elite few ...
Type 4: Representative           Democracy In a Representative Democracy, the people  select individuals who in turn make...
Type 5: Direct Democracy In a Direct Democracy, the voters do not elect  representatives to make decisions.  Instead, iss...
Economic SystemsManaging the money
Economic Systems Some terms used today to describe  governmental structures are actually  describing economic systems. T...
Capitalism Capitalist systems stress private ownership  and management of resources. “Pure” capitalism would call for no...
Anti-Capitalism
Socialism Socialism calls for state control of resources  and the provision of services. Socialism has many varieties, i...
Anti-Socialism
Other Key TypesTypes that blur the lines.
Communism In its pure form, Communism is both a  governmental system and an economic  system. Communism calls for the ab...
Totalitarianism Totalitarianism is the belief that the  government (regardless of the system, but  usually a Despotism) s...
Fascism While some argue that Fascism is either the  extreme right or the extreme left, Fascism  cannot be accurately mea...
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Government and economy types

  1. 1. PSCI 211 – Comparative Government – David TakitakiGOVERNMENT AND ECONOMY
  2. 2. Why Do We Have Government?A Simple History
  3. 3. Why Government? In the absence of government (called the “State of Nature”) everyone must defend themselves from threats and other people. With no laws, moral standards or enforcement mechanisms, living in the state of nature is dangerous. People begin cooperating for protection. Those cooperatives require resources. The cooperatives claim territory.
  4. 4. Why Government? Early cooperatives were based on family. As families grew, they became tribes. The eldest male was usually the strongest, and therefore was “Chief” and in control. He made the rules. The rules the Chief created for his tribe were laws, the territory they claimed for resources was the border of their “state”, and the authority he possessed made him a despotic ruler. It was the first form of Government.
  5. 5. 5 Types of GovernmentUnderstanding the basics
  6. 6. Type 1: Anarchy Anarchy is commonly defined as the absence of a governing power. Individuals living in the State of Nature were living in an anarchy. Some (including John Locke) thought anarchy would be desirable if people would restrain themselves.
  7. 7. Type 2: Despotism A Despotism is a government with only one ruler. A Monarchy is a despotic system of government with a King or Queen as a ruler. An Empire is a despotic system that places an Emperor or Empress in charge of a diverse group of states. An empire can also be ruled by a group, making it an…
  8. 8. Type 3: Oligarchy An Oligarchy is a system in which the power exists in the hands of a few elite people. The elite few who rule in an Oligarchy can be determined by class, conquest, wealth and a variety of other factors. It is generally considered that the common people have little influence over who rules in an oligarchy. If the people have a voice, than the system of government is more of a…
  9. 9. Type 4: Representative Democracy In a Representative Democracy, the people select individuals who in turn make decisions and wield the power of the government. The United States is officially considered a republic, and makes use of Representative Democracy on the state and federal level. The state of California has a unique ballot- proposal system that allows citizens to vote on policy issues. This is a form of…
  10. 10. Type 5: Direct Democracy In a Direct Democracy, the voters do not elect representatives to make decisions. Instead, issues are brought directly to the people for a popular vote. Despite being the most “democratic” form of government, the logistics and complexity of the issues faced by our government makes the utilization of direct democracy very difficult.
  11. 11. Economic SystemsManaging the money
  12. 12. Economic Systems Some terms used today to describe governmental structures are actually describing economic systems. The various types of government can adopt a variety of economic policies. These are rough categories, most economies are not “pure” versions of any of these types.
  13. 13. Capitalism Capitalist systems stress private ownership and management of resources. “Pure” capitalism would call for no government involvement or regulation of products or services. The term caveat emptor or “buyer beware” is a rule of thumb in a pure capitalism. Upton Sinclar’s novel “The Jungle” exposed food sanitation issues and resulted in expanded government regulation.
  14. 14. Anti-Capitalism
  15. 15. Socialism Socialism calls for state control of resources and the provision of services. Socialism has many varieties, including social democracy (which stresses values and not state control) and Marxist Socialism (which sees socialism as a stepping stone to Communism.)
  16. 16. Anti-Socialism
  17. 17. Other Key TypesTypes that blur the lines.
  18. 18. Communism In its pure form, Communism is both a governmental system and an economic system. Communism calls for the absence of government, with collective ownership of all resources and collective decision-making. Most “Communist” countries have not been Communist at all, instead combining Fascism with either Oligarchy or Despotism.
  19. 19. Totalitarianism Totalitarianism is the belief that the government (regardless of the system, but usually a Despotism) should have unlimited authority. Encourages government involvement in all aspects of personal life.
  20. 20. Fascism While some argue that Fascism is either the extreme right or the extreme left, Fascism cannot be accurately measured on the typical liberal/conservative spectrum. Fascist regimes are usually Oligarchies, with the controlling party being the elite group. Fascist regimes use radical nationalism, calls for racial and ethnic purity, propaganda, and suggestions of mysticism to gain power.

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